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Full-Text Articles in Education

Crime And Victimisation In People With Intellectual Disability: A Case Linkage Study, Billy C. Fogden, Stuart Dm Thomas, Michael D. Daffern, James R. P Ogloff Jan 2016

Crime And Victimisation In People With Intellectual Disability: A Case Linkage Study, Billy C. Fogden, Stuart Dm Thomas, Michael D. Daffern, James R. P Ogloff

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background Studies have suggested that people with intellectual disability are disproportionately involved in crime both as perpetrators and victims. Method A case linkage design used three Australian contact-level databases, from disability services, public mental health services and police records. Rates of contact, and official records of victimisation and criminal charges were compared to those in a community sample without intellectual disability. Results Although people with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have an official record of victimisation and offending overall, their rates of violent and sexual victimisation and offending were significantly higher. The presence of comorbid mental illness considerably …


Sexual Harassment And Gender Discrimination In Wildland Fire Management Must Be Addressed, Christine Eriksen Jan 2016

Sexual Harassment And Gender Discrimination In Wildland Fire Management Must Be Addressed, Christine Eriksen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Sexual harassment and gender discrimination are behavioral patterns not uncommon in the many varied settings of wildland fire. Whether in the classroom, on the fireline, in a government or non-governmental organization office, women and men are subjected to and are targets of sexual harassment and gender discrimination on a daily basis. The prevalence of this issue, its causes, its impacts, and potential solutions are the foci of this Associa- tion for Fire Ecology (AFE) position paper.


The Effect Of Sailuotong (Slt) On Neurocognitive And Cardiovascular Function In Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Alan Yeung, Jian Liu, David A. Camfield, Frances M. De Blasio, Andrew Pipingas, Andrew Scholey, Con Stough, Dennis Chang Jan 2016

The Effect Of Sailuotong (Slt) On Neurocognitive And Cardiovascular Function In Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Alan Yeung, Jian Liu, David A. Camfield, Frances M. De Blasio, Andrew Pipingas, Andrew Scholey, Con Stough, Dennis Chang

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised herbal medicine formula consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus, and has been designed to enhance cognitive and cardiovascular function. Methods: Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design, this pilot study assessed the effect of treatment for 1 week with SLT and placebo (1 week washout period) on neurocognitive and cardiovascular function in healthy adults. Sixteen adults completed a computerised neuropsychological test battery (Compass), and had their electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and cardiovascular system function assessed. Primary outcome measures were cognitive test scores and oddball task event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes. Secondary …


Meeting Country And Self To Initiate An Embodiment Of Knowledge: Embedding A Process For Aboriginal Perspectives, Anthony D. Mcknight Jan 2016

Meeting Country And Self To Initiate An Embodiment Of Knowledge: Embedding A Process For Aboriginal Perspectives, Anthony D. Mcknight

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Social justice is often the primary framework that directs academics to embed Aboriginal perspectives into teacher education programmes. The effectiveness and limitations of social justice as a catalyst and change agent was examined when six school of education academics from an Australian regional university were introduced to Yuin Country as knowledge holder. This paper argues that social justice in Australian education systems can contribute to the colonial control of knowledge production. At the same time, however, social justice may provide a means for non-Aboriginal people to experience Aboriginal ways of knowing and thereby to diversify their thinking. A cultural experience …


A Passion For Geography Flourishes At The University Of Wollongong, Gordon R. Waitt Jan 2016

A Passion For Geography Flourishes At The University Of Wollongong, Gordon R. Waitt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

University of Wollongong acknowledges that never has there been a more exciting or important time to do Geography. There are new global challenges, problems and anomalies emerging that need creative solutions. University of Wollongong recognised that a Geography degree provides graduates with an eclectic and interdisciplinary skill-set necessary to address these challenges. Graduates will be trained in both the skill sets of a scientist and a social scientist, alongside communication, writing, and analytical skills. UOW Geography graduates will be analytical and critical thinkers toward social, cultural and physical problems and issues. The UOW Bachelor of Geography provides graduates with a …


Walking The Tightrope: Communicating Overdiagnosis In Modern Healthcare, Kirsten Mccaffery, Jesse Jansen, Laura D. Scherer, Hazel Thornton, Jolyn Hersch, Stacy M. Carter, Alexandra Barratt, Stacey Sheridan, Ray Moynihan, Jo Waller, John Brodersen, Kristen Pickles, Adrian Edwards Jan 2016

Walking The Tightrope: Communicating Overdiagnosis In Modern Healthcare, Kirsten Mccaffery, Jesse Jansen, Laura D. Scherer, Hazel Thornton, Jolyn Hersch, Stacy M. Carter, Alexandra Barratt, Stacey Sheridan, Ray Moynihan, Jo Waller, John Brodersen, Kristen Pickles, Adrian Edwards

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Overdiagnosis and overtreatment have serious implications for individuals, healthcare systems, and society, and effective strategies are urgently needed to help the public, clinicians, and policy makers address this problem. Communication about overdiagnosis has been highlighted as essential for moving forward but presents several challenges, such as the potential to confuse the public, undermine trust, and adversely affect people who already have a diagnosis. Various communication based strategies offer real promise; we describe what is known and what we need to know to communicate effectively and safely about overdiagnosis and overtreatment.


Targeting Population Nutrition Through Municipal Health And Food Policy: Implications Of New York City's Experiences In Regulatory Obesity Prevention, Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M. Street, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2016

Targeting Population Nutrition Through Municipal Health And Food Policy: Implications Of New York City's Experiences In Regulatory Obesity Prevention, Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M. Street, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Obesity remains a major public health challenge across OECD countries and policy-makers globally require successful policy precedents. This paper analyzes New York City’s innovative experiences in regulatory approaches to nutrition. We combined a systematic documentary review and key informant interviews (n = 9) with individuals directly involved in nutrition policy development and decision-making. Thematic analysis was guided by Kingdon’s three-streams-model and the International Obesity Task Force’s evidence-based decision-making framework. Our findings indicate that decisive mayoral leadership spearheaded initial agenda-change and built executive capacity to support evidence-driven policy. Policy-makers in the executive branch recognized the dearth of evidence for concrete …


Australia And Other Nations Are Failing To Meet Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines For Children: Implications And A Way Forward, Leon Straker, Erin Kaye Howie, Dylan Paul Cliff, Melanie T. Davern, Lina Engelen, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Jenny Ziviani, Natasha K. Schranz, Tim Olds, Grant Ryan Tomkinson Jan 2016

Australia And Other Nations Are Failing To Meet Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines For Children: Implications And A Way Forward, Leon Straker, Erin Kaye Howie, Dylan Paul Cliff, Melanie T. Davern, Lina Engelen, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Jenny Ziviani, Natasha K. Schranz, Tim Olds, Grant Ryan Tomkinson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Australia has joined a growing number of nations that have evaluated the physical activity and sedentary behavior status of their children. Australia received a "D minus" in the first Active Healthy Kids Australia Physical Activity Report Card. Methods: An expert subgroup of the Australian Report Card Research Working Group iteratively reviewed available evidence to answer 3 questions: (a) What are the main sedentary behaviors of children? (b) What are the potential mechanisms for sedentary behavior to impact child health and development? and (c) What are the effects of different types of sedentary behaviors on child health and development? Results: …


Shifting The Blame In Higher Education - Social Inclusion And Deficit Discourses, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea, Pauline Lysaght, Jen Roberts, Valerie Harwood Jan 2016

Shifting The Blame In Higher Education - Social Inclusion And Deficit Discourses, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea, Pauline Lysaght, Jen Roberts, Valerie Harwood

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The principles of social inclusion have been embraced by institutions across the higher education sector but their translation into practice through pedagogy is not readily apparent. This paper examines perceptions of social inclusion and inclusive pedagogies held by academic staff at an Australian university. Of specific interest were the perceptions of teaching staff with regard to diverse student populations, particularly students from low socio-economic (LSES) backgrounds, given the institution's reasonably high proportion of LSES student enrolment (14%). A mixed-method approach was utilised: (i) in-depth interviews with a representative sample of academic staff and (ii) an online survey targeting all academic …


Avoiding The Manufacture Of 'Sameness': First-In-Family Students, Cultural Capital And The Higher Education Environment, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea Jan 2016

Avoiding The Manufacture Of 'Sameness': First-In-Family Students, Cultural Capital And The Higher Education Environment, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Drawing upon Bourdieu's theories of social and cultural capital, a number of studies of the higher education environment have indicated that students who are first-in-family to come to university may lack the necessary capitals to enact success. To address this issue, university transition strategies often have the primary objective of 'filling students up' with legitimate forms of cultural capital required by the institution. However, this article argues that such an approach is fundamentally flawed, as students can be either framed as deficit or replete in capitals depending on how their particular background and capabilities are perceived. Drawing on interviews conducted …


Powerful And Playful Literacy Learning With Digital Technologies, Lisa K. Kervin Jan 2016

Powerful And Playful Literacy Learning With Digital Technologies, Lisa K. Kervin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The increased availability of tablet technologies in many homes and early childhood educational settings has transformed play-time and the subsequent opportunities that emerge for literacy learning. What children do with the digital applications (apps) on these technologies demands our attention, particularly as we consider the ever-increasing market of apps marketed to enhance the basic literacy skills. While there are varying degrees of quality amongst available apps, some apps have potential to foster children's play and language development in unexpected and interesting ways. As educators, we need to acknowledge the role 'digital play' can play in our pedagogical interactions and the …


Implications Of Proxy Efficacy For Studies Of Team Leadership In Organizational Settings, Seyyed B. Alavi, John Mccormick Jan 2016

Implications Of Proxy Efficacy For Studies Of Team Leadership In Organizational Settings, Seyyed B. Alavi, John Mccormick

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Although there have been numerous studies of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in different contexts, little attention has been paid to proxy efficacy. In this article we propose that a person's self-efficacy may be related to proxy efficacy when achievement of personal goals is related to the performance of the proxy on the person's behalf. We argue this is important in team leadership. We further propose that the extent to which team members believe their leaders efficacious as their proxies may affect team processes and effectiveness. A team level construct, namely team proxy efficacy for the leader, referring to a shared …


Improving Precautionary Communication In The Emf Field? Effects Of Making Messages Consistent And Explaining The Effectiveness Of Precautions, Christoph A. Boehmert, Peter M. Wiedemann, Rodney J. Croft Jan 2016

Improving Precautionary Communication In The Emf Field? Effects Of Making Messages Consistent And Explaining The Effectiveness Of Precautions, Christoph A. Boehmert, Peter M. Wiedemann, Rodney J. Croft

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Many radiation health agencies communicate precautionary measures regarding the use of mobile communication devices, e.g. the use of a headset while talking on the phone. These precautionary messages have, however, been shown to unintentionally increase risk perceptions about radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). The current study tested two potential ways of amending precautionary messages in order to minimise this unintentional effect. Firstly, the messages¿ potential to be perceived as inconsistent and thereby raise suspicions was addressed; secondly, the effectiveness of the precautions was explained. An experimental design was applied in which a quota sample of 1717 Australian residents was randomly assigned …


A Cross-National Study Of Implicit Theories Of A Creative Person, Manuel Hopp, Marion Handel, Heidrun Stoeger, Wilma Vialle, Albert Ziegler Jan 2016

A Cross-National Study Of Implicit Theories Of A Creative Person, Manuel Hopp, Marion Handel, Heidrun Stoeger, Wilma Vialle, Albert Ziegler

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Implicit theories can influence learning behavior, the approaches individuals take to learning and performance situations, and the learning goals individuals set, as well as, indirectly, their accomplishments, intelligence, and creativity. For this cross-cultural study, Kenyan and German students were asked to draw a creative person and rate it on a number of attributes. The data indicated considerable differences among the implicit theories according to students’ gender and nationality. Kenyan girls, in particular, frequently ascribed a gender to their prototypical creative person that differed from their own, whereas the gender of the prototypical creative people drawn by German students was more …


A Licence To Print: How Real Is The Risk Posed By 3d Printed Guns?, Thomas Birtchnell Jan 2016

A Licence To Print: How Real Is The Risk Posed By 3d Printed Guns?, Thomas Birtchnell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

3D printed guns are back in the news after Queensland Police reported last week that they had discovered a 3D printer in a raid on what appeared to be a "large-scale" weapons production facility as a part of Operation Oscar Quantum. According to police, the raid uncovered homemade weapons and ammunition in a workshop manufacturing facility "containing equipment used in the production of fully automatic machine guns, including a 3D printer, lathes, drill presses and other tools". The Gold Coast Bulletin reported that Detective Superintendent Jon Wacker, of the Drug and Serious Crime Group, said the "Uzi"-style guns, thought to …


Fathering In The Context Of Incarceration, Elisabeth Duursma, Natalia K. Hanley, Amy Conley Wright Jan 2016

Fathering In The Context Of Incarceration, Elisabeth Duursma, Natalia K. Hanley, Amy Conley Wright

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Abstract presented at The Future of Fathering conference, 7-8 November 2016, Wollongong, Australia


Do Wi-Fi And Mobile Phones Really Cause Cancer? Experts Respond, Simon Chapman, Darren Saunders, Rodney J. Croft, Sarah P. Loughran Jan 2016

Do Wi-Fi And Mobile Phones Really Cause Cancer? Experts Respond, Simon Chapman, Darren Saunders, Rodney J. Croft, Sarah P. Loughran

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

On 16th February, Catalyst aired an episode on the ABC titled "Wi-Fried", hosted by Dr Maryanne Demasi, claiming that radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi may constitute a brain cancer risk. We invited experts who have conducted research into this area to respond to the claims made in the programme.


Involving Patients In Health Technology Funding Decisions: Stakeholder Perspectives On Processes Used In Australia, Edilene Lopes, Jacqueline M. Street, Drew Carter, Tracy Merlin Jan 2016

Involving Patients In Health Technology Funding Decisions: Stakeholder Perspectives On Processes Used In Australia, Edilene Lopes, Jacqueline M. Street, Drew Carter, Tracy Merlin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Governments use a variety of processes to incorporate public perspectives into policymaking, but few studies have evaluated these processes from participants' point of view. Objective: The objective of this study was twofold: to understand the perspectives of selected stakeholders with regard to involvement processes used by Australian Advisory Committees to engage the public and patients; and to identify barriers and facilitators to participation. Design: Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of different stakeholder groups involved in health technology funding decisions in Australia. Data were collected and analysed using a theoretical framework created by Rowe and Frewer, but adapted …


Use Of Mobile And Cordless Phones And Cognition In Australian Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study, Mary Redmayne, Catherine L. Smith, Geza Benke, Rodney J. Croft, Anna Dalecki, Christina Dimitriadis, Jordy Kaufman, Skye Macleod, Malcolm R. Sim, Rory Wolfe, Michael J. Abramson Jan 2016

Use Of Mobile And Cordless Phones And Cognition In Australian Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study, Mary Redmayne, Catherine L. Smith, Geza Benke, Rodney J. Croft, Anna Dalecki, Christina Dimitriadis, Jordy Kaufman, Skye Macleod, Malcolm R. Sim, Rory Wolfe, Michael J. Abramson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Use of mobile (MP) and cordless phones (CP) is common among young children, but whether the resulting radiofrequency exposure affects development of cognitive skills is not known. Small changes have been found in older children. This study focused on children's exposures to MP and CP and cognitive development. The hypothesis was that children who used these phones would display differences in cognitive function compared to those who did not. Methods: We recruited 619 fourth-grade students (8-11 years) from 37 schools around Melbourne and Wollongong, Australia. Participants completed a short questionnaire, a computerised cognitive test battery, and the Stroop colour-word …


The Struggle For Legitimacy: Language Provision In Two 'Residual' Comprehensive High Schools In Australia, Stephen Black, Jan Wright, Kenneth E. Cruickshank Jan 2016

The Struggle For Legitimacy: Language Provision In Two 'Residual' Comprehensive High Schools In Australia, Stephen Black, Jan Wright, Kenneth E. Cruickshank

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Despite the contemporary policy rhetoric of global citizenry and the importance of languages and intercultural capabilities, language learning in Australian schools struggles for recognition and support. The curriculum marginalisation of languages, however, is uneven, affecting some school sectors more than others. In this article, we examine the provision of languages in two government comprehensive high schools, both low socio-economic status, located in urban areas in New South Wales, Australia's largest state. They are termed 'residual' high schools because they cater for the students remaining in the local schools while others attend either private or selective government high schools. We provide …


Physical Activity And Fitness Outcomes Of A Lifestyle Intervention For Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Adrienne Forsyth, Frank P. Deane, Peter G. Williams Jan 2016

Physical Activity And Fitness Outcomes Of A Lifestyle Intervention For Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Adrienne Forsyth, Frank P. Deane, Peter G. Williams

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety were referred by their GP and randomised to a 12-week individually tailored diet and exercise lifestyle intervention or an attention control group. Assessments at baseline and 12 weeks included the Active Australia Survey for self-reported physical activity, chair stands, arm curls and a 3-min step test to measure physical fitness. Intent-to-treat analyses using linear mixed modelling showed both groups significantly improved participation in physical activity and muscular endurance. There were no significant differences in improvement between groups. The only group by time interaction was found for body mass index and indicated greater …


Loneliness And Schizotypy Are Distinct Constructs, Separate From General Psychopathology, Johanna C. Badcock, Emma Barkus, Alex S. Cohen, Romola Bucks, David R. Badcock Jan 2016

Loneliness And Schizotypy Are Distinct Constructs, Separate From General Psychopathology, Johanna C. Badcock, Emma Barkus, Alex S. Cohen, Romola Bucks, David R. Badcock

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Loneliness is common in youth and associated with a significantly increased risk of psychological disorders. Although loneliness is strongly associated with psychosis, its relationship with psychosis proneness is unclear. Our aim in this paper was to test the hypothesis that loneliness and schizotypal traits, conveying risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are similar but separate constructs. Pooling data from two non-clinical student samples (N = 551) we modeled the structure of the relationship between loneliness and trait schizotypy. Loneliness was assessed with the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), whilst negative (Social Anhedonia) and positive (Perceptual Aberrations) schizotypal traits …


Opinion: Phones Down, For Literacy's Sake, Lisa K. Kervin, Jessica Mantei, Julie Coiro Jan 2016

Opinion: Phones Down, For Literacy's Sake, Lisa K. Kervin, Jessica Mantei, Julie Coiro

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

As adults, what do we expect from children when we talk with them? Should we expect their close attention and active engagement in return? Do we wish that they'd put down their electronic device so we could talk with them without distractions? And how often do we stop to consider what we are modelling for them ourselves?


Confusions And Conundrums During Final Practicum: A Study Of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge Of Challenging Behaviour, Samantha Mcmahon, Valerie Harwood Jan 2016

Confusions And Conundrums During Final Practicum: A Study Of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge Of Challenging Behaviour, Samantha Mcmahon, Valerie Harwood

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This chapter describes the psy-knowledges central to preservice teachers' understandings of challenging behaviour. Particularly, it pays attention to the unexpectedly dangerous questions generated when working towards a practical and integrated understanding of how biological, psychological, and ecological factors interact. This chapter deploys Foucauldian discourse analysis to problematize the preservice teachers' shifting and changeable awareness of these causal attributions of behaviour and how this impacts their pedagogy.


Genetic Consideration Of Schizotypal Traits: A Review, Emma Walter, Francesca Fernandez-Enright, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus Jan 2016

Genetic Consideration Of Schizotypal Traits: A Review, Emma Walter, Francesca Fernandez-Enright, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Schizotypal traits are of interest and importance in their own right and also have theoretical and clinical associations with schizophrenia. These traits comprise attenuated psychotic symptoms, social withdrawal, reduced cognitive capacity, and affective dysregulation. The link between schizotypal traits and psychotic disorders has long since been debated. The status of knowledge at this point is such schizotypal traits are a risk for psychotic disorders, but in and of themselves only confer liability, with other risk factors needing to be present before a transition to psychosis occurs. Investigation of schizotypal traits also has the possibility to inform clinical and research pursuits …


Fostering Effective Early Learning: A Review Of The Current International Evidence Considering Quality In Early Childhood Education And Care Programmes - In Delivery, Pedagogy And Child Outcomes, Iram Siraj, Denise Kingston, Cathrine Marguerite Neilsen-Hewett, Steven J. Howard, Edward Melhuish, Marc De Rosnay, Elisabeth Duursma, Betty Luu Jan 2016

Fostering Effective Early Learning: A Review Of The Current International Evidence Considering Quality In Early Childhood Education And Care Programmes - In Delivery, Pedagogy And Child Outcomes, Iram Siraj, Denise Kingston, Cathrine Marguerite Neilsen-Hewett, Steven J. Howard, Edward Melhuish, Marc De Rosnay, Elisabeth Duursma, Betty Luu

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Executive Summary There is a large body of international academic research literature which examines the relationship between (i) early childhood education and care (ECEC) and (ii) children's developmental and learning outcomes. Decades of sustained international research by many different research groups demonstrate that children who attend ECEC are likely to experience better behavioural and learning outcomes than those who do not attend. The research findings are, of course, not always consistent, and are more robust over shorter measurement periods. Nevertheless, major national surveys (e.g. OECD, 2011) and ambitious longitudinal research projects (e.g. the EPPSE study, Sylva et al., 2014) document …


Young Children's Identity Formation In The Context Of Open Adoption In Nsw: An Examination Of Optimal Conditions For Child Wellbeing, Marc De Rosnay, Betty Luu, Amy Conley Wright Jan 2016

Young Children's Identity Formation In The Context Of Open Adoption In Nsw: An Examination Of Optimal Conditions For Child Wellbeing, Marc De Rosnay, Betty Luu, Amy Conley Wright

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This working paper was commissioned by Barnardos Australia, through its Centre for Excellence in Open Adoption, to establish how open adoption can support the best interests of children in optimising developmental outcomes and establishing healthy identity formation. This paper focuses on children who are up to 5 years of age in out-of-home care (OOHC) for whom there is no realistic chance of restoration to their birth family or kinship care. Therefore, the options facing such children, according to recent amendments to the NSW Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998 (hereafter referred to as the Care Act) in …


General Practitioners' Experiences Of, And Responses To, Uncertainty In Prostate Cancer Screening: Insights From A Qualitative Study, Kristen Pickles, Stacy M. Carter, Lucie Rychetnik, Kirsten Mccaffery, Vikki A. Entwistle Jan 2016

General Practitioners' Experiences Of, And Responses To, Uncertainty In Prostate Cancer Screening: Insights From A Qualitative Study, Kristen Pickles, Stacy M. Carter, Lucie Rychetnik, Kirsten Mccaffery, Vikki A. Entwistle

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer is controversial. There are unresolved tensions and disagreements amongst experts, and clinical guidelines conflict. This both reflects and generates significant uncertainty about the appropriateness of screening. Little is known about general practitioners' (GPs') perspectives and experiences in relation to PSA testing of asymptomatic men. In this paper we asked the following questions: (1) What are the primary sources of uncertainty as described by GPs in the context of PSA testing? (2) How do GPs experience and respond to different sources of uncertainty? Methods This was a qualitative study that explored general practitioners' …


A Definition And Ethical Evaluation Of Overdiagnosis: Response To Commentaries, Stacy M. Carter, Jenny Doust, Christopher J. Degeling, Alexandra Barratt Jan 2016

A Definition And Ethical Evaluation Of Overdiagnosis: Response To Commentaries, Stacy M. Carter, Jenny Doust, Christopher J. Degeling, Alexandra Barratt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

It is a privilege to have respected colleagues engage with our definition and ethical evaluation of overdiagnosis. In our response to the commentaries, we first deal with paradigmatic issues: the place of realism, the relationship between diagnostic standards and correctness and the distinction between overdiagnosis and both false-positives and medicalisation. We then discuss issues arising across the commentaries in turn. Our definition captures the range of different types of overdiagnosis, unlike a definition limited to diagnosis of harmless disease. Certain implications do flow from our definition, as noted by commentators, but we do not view them as problematic: overdiagnoses can …


An Empirical Study Of The 'Underscreened' In Organised Cervical Screening: Experts Focus On Increasing Opportunity As A Way Of Reducing Differences In Screening Rates, Jane H. Williams, Stacy M. Carter Jan 2016

An Empirical Study Of The 'Underscreened' In Organised Cervical Screening: Experts Focus On Increasing Opportunity As A Way Of Reducing Differences In Screening Rates, Jane H. Williams, Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'. Methods This paper reports on a grounded theory study of cervical screening experts involved in program organisation. Participants were …