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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Education

Offender Risk And Needs Assessment: Some Current Issues And Suggestions, Mitchell K. Byrne, Stuart Byrne, Katherine Hillman, Emma Stanley Jan 2001

Offender Risk And Needs Assessment: Some Current Issues And Suggestions, Mitchell K. Byrne, Stuart Byrne, Katherine Hillman, Emma Stanley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Crime impacts upon the community at multiple levels, causing distress and loss for the victims, and feelings of insecurity for the public, as well as adding to the drain on financial resources for governments. This makes the accurate identification of risk of reoffending and the determination of efficacious rehabilitation strategies imperative. Key principles in cognitive and behavioural psychology can contribute to this task. This paper will review the issue of risk assessment and describe the applicability of functional analysis to forensic psychology. Two studies by the authors will be used to illustrate concepts raised in this review. The paper will ...


Lessons From The Front: Ngos And The Fight Against Hiv/Aids In South Africa, Brian G. Williams, Eleanor Gouws, Janet Frohlich, Catherine Campbell, Catherine L. Mac Phail Jan 2001

Lessons From The Front: Ngos And The Fight Against Hiv/Aids In South Africa, Brian G. Williams, Eleanor Gouws, Janet Frohlich, Catherine Campbell, Catherine L. Mac Phail

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

More than a decade after HIV became established in South Africa's general population, the unity of purpose and commitment needed to limit and reverse the spread of infection is still lacking. Social leaders and "celebrities" are, with some notable exceptions such as Judge Edwin Cameron, unwilling to admit they are infected with HIV. The government argues for the importance of taking a broad view of the social contexts of the epidemic by embracing poverty, inequality and the legacy of Apartheid. Some large corporations are considering the consequences of the epidemic, but their attitude to it remains ambivalent. Echoing the ...


The Natural History Of Hiv/Aids In A Major Goldmining Centre In South Africa: Results Of A Biomedical And Social Survey, D Gilgen, Brian G. Williams, Catherine L. Mac Phail, C J. Van Dam, Catherine Campbell, R C. Ballard, D Taljaard Jan 2001

The Natural History Of Hiv/Aids In A Major Goldmining Centre In South Africa: Results Of A Biomedical And Social Survey, D Gilgen, Brian G. Williams, Catherine L. Mac Phail, C J. Van Dam, Catherine Campbell, R C. Ballard, D Taljaard

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional biomedical and social survey, conducted in a major goldmining centre with a high prevalence of HIV infection. It also provides the baseline data for a comprehensive intervention programme. Our sample comprised a stratified random group of migrant mineworkers and of the resident adult population living in the community close to the mines and a small convenience sample of sex workers. In total, 2231 people between 13 and 59 years of age were interviewed using a structured questionnaire covering a wide range of psychological, behavioural and social issues. Blood and urine samples were ...


Kidsmart: The Phase 1 Uk Evaluation 2000-2001, John Siraj-Blatchford, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 2001

Kidsmart: The Phase 1 Uk Evaluation 2000-2001, John Siraj-Blatchford, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

As the first phase of their Kidsmart programme in the UK, IBM donated a total of 27 of their Young Explorer Early Learning Centres, complete with Edmark educational software to 14 nurseries in 1999. These Early Learning Centres were initially developed by Little Tykes to serve the needs of 3 to 7 year olds and the Kidsmart aim has been to support early childhood educators in their efforts to apply this new technology to stimulate the development of children's social and cognitive skills. The UK initiative has also involved the British Association for Early Childhood Education (Early Education), who ...


Cognitive And Social/Behavioural Development At 3-4 Years In Relation To Family Background, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Kathleen Mcsherry, Mark Mccrory Jan 2001

Cognitive And Social/Behavioural Development At 3-4 Years In Relation To Family Background, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Kathleen Mcsherry, Mark Mccrory

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This longitudinal study assesses the attainment and development of children followed between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Over 700 children were recruited to the study during 1998 and 1999 from 80 pre-school centres. Both qualitative and quantitative methods (including multilevel modelling) are used to explore the effects of pre-school experience on children's cognitive attainment and social/behavioural development at entry to school and any continuing effects on such outcomes up to 7 years of age. In addition to the effects of preschool experience, the study investigates the contribution to children's development of individual and family characteristics ...


John's $12 Tonic: Press Coverage Of The Government's Selling Of A Private Health Insurance Rebate, Stacy M. Carter, Simon Chapman Jan 2001

John's $12 Tonic: Press Coverage Of The Government's Selling Of A Private Health Insurance Rebate, Stacy M. Carter, Simon Chapman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To document representations of the 1998 introduction of a 30% rebate on private health insurance in the three most-read daily Sydney newspapers. Methods: Thematic frame analysis of 131 newspaper articles. Results: The rebate was opposed through two frames: that it was ineffective and unfair, and that it was politically motivated. Four supportive frames were more complex: the rebate was justified by claims that public health care was collapsing, that responsible citizens should pay for their own health care, and that individuals would benefit financially. There was also a focus on the political battle in the Senate. The newspaper with ...


Worshipping At The Alpine Altar: Promoting Tobacco In A World Without Advertising, Stacy M. Carter Jan 2001

Worshipping At The Alpine Altar: Promoting Tobacco In A World Without Advertising, Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

"Glisten. The party to go with your glamourpuss dress." "Glisten. Music to go with your rock star hair." "Glisten. Cocktails to go with your spanking ring." ("Minimum age 18. Photo ID required. Tobacco & alcohol products for sale.") Three highly stylised advertisements, one for each by-line, and each featuring a young woman on the dancefloor flaunting dress, hair and ring respectively, had been splashed in expensive full colour across the street music press and on the Wavesnet website (www.wavesnet.net) for weeks. On the night of Thursday 6 September at least some glamourpusses believed the hype at the high profile ...


What Makes A Problem An Ethical Problem? An Empirical Perspective On The Nature Of Ethical Problems In General Practice, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2001

What Makes A Problem An Ethical Problem? An Empirical Perspective On The Nature Of Ethical Problems In General Practice, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Whilst there has been considerable debate about the fit between moral theory and moral reasoning in everyday life, the way in which moral problems are defined has rarely been questioned. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with 15 general practitioners (GPs) in South Australia to argue that the way in which the bioethics literature defines an ethical dilemma captures only some of the range of lay views about the nature of ethical problems. The bioethics literature has defined ethical dilemmas in terms of conflict and choice between values, beliefs and options for action. While some of the ...


'I Think Condoms Are Good But, Aai, I Hate Those Things': Condom Use Among Adolescents And Young People In A Southern African Township, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell Jan 2001

'I Think Condoms Are Good But, Aai, I Hate Those Things': Condom Use Among Adolescents And Young People In A Southern African Township, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Levels of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection are high amongst South African youth, with one recent survey reporting levels of 18.9% amongst 17-20 year olds and 43.1% amongst 21-25 year olds. In these groups levels of knowledge about HIV are high, but perceived vulnerability and reported condom use are low. Much existing research into youth HIV in developing countries relies on survey measures which use individual knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviour as variables in seeking to explain HIV transmission amongst this group. This paper reports on a focus group study that seeks to complement existing individual-level quantitative findings with ...


A Test Of The Renewable Resources Model Of Multiple Gains And Multiple Losses, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2001

A Test Of The Renewable Resources Model Of Multiple Gains And Multiple Losses, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Eight choice scenarios were used to test Linville and Fischer's (1991) Renewable Resources Model, which predicts that people will prefer to separate multiple gains over time and also to separate multiple losses over time, the latter prediction being contrary to Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect Theory. The Renewable Resources Model was tested under conditions that, theoretically, should enhance the dual separation outcomes. However, in seven of the eight choice scenarios, complete reversals of these outcomes were observed B that is, the participants in the experiments preferred to combine multiple gains and to combine multiple losses. Explanations of these ...


Screening For Prostate Cancer: A Consideration Of Screening Factors In Comparison To Screening For Breast Cancer, S Jones Jan 2001

Screening For Prostate Cancer: A Consideration Of Screening Factors In Comparison To Screening For Breast Cancer, S Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Cancer is a leading cause of death in developed countries; 27 per cent of all Australian deaths are due to cancer, with 35,000 people dying annually. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer amongst men in most Western countries. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women aged over 30 years, and causes the highest proportion of cancer deaths in women. At present in Australia there is a debate about the public health value of screening for prostate cancer. This paper examines the issues that must be weighed up in reaching a conclusion to this debate ...


International Patterns Of Teacher Discontent, Catherine Scott, Barbara Stone, Stephen Dinham Jan 2001

International Patterns Of Teacher Discontent, Catherine Scott, Barbara Stone, Stephen Dinham

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This article reports the results of research into the career motivation and satisfaction of a sample of over 3,000 teachers and school administrators in four countries: Australia, New Zealand, England, and the USA. Using the participants' own words, we explore the effects on educators of recent international educational change, understood here as a subcategory of more general social trends. Bourdieu's concepts of the Right and Left Hands of the state are used to interpret the experience of teaching in a climate where, while more is expected and demanded of schools, and schools and teachers are scrutinised as never ...


What Do I Do With The Rest Of The Class? The Nature Of Teaching Learning Activities, Brian L. Cambourne Jan 2001

What Do I Do With The Rest Of The Class? The Nature Of Teaching Learning Activities, Brian L. Cambourne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Cambourne discusses using teaching-learning activities that revolve around the use of small groups. He relates how teachers can keep the rest of their class productively engaged in learning as the teacher works with individuals or small groups.


Perceptual Grouping In Two Visually Reliant Species: Humans (Homo Sapiens) And Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca Cinerea), Darren Burke, Paul Everingham, Tracey Rogers, Melinda Hinton, Sophie Hall-Aspland Jan 2001

Perceptual Grouping In Two Visually Reliant Species: Humans (Homo Sapiens) And Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca Cinerea), Darren Burke, Paul Everingham, Tracey Rogers, Melinda Hinton, Sophie Hall-Aspland

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Kurylo, van Nest, and Knepper (1997 Journal of Comparative Psychology 111 126 - 134) have recently shown that hooded rats are able to judge the global orientation of an array of elements if orientation is signalled by the perceptual-grouping principle of proximity, but not if it is signalled by element alignment. Using a procedure designed to overcome some potential problems with the experiment of Kurylo et al, we found the same distinction in the perceptual processing of Australian sea lions. The sea lions were able to judge the orientation of arrays containing strong proximity and similarity information, but performed at chance ...


Generic Versus Content-Driven Assessment, Jim S. Tognolini Jan 2001

Generic Versus Content-Driven Assessment, Jim S. Tognolini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In my Masters class I pose the question "How would you respond to the statement : Schools should teach students skills rather than content"? In replying to the question I expect students to make the point that while skills are important, they have to be applied to something, that something is content. I firmly believe that the dichotomy set up between content and skills is a false one. The relationship is one of emphasis and relativity. This paper considers how some of the states and territories have addressed or are currently addressing the relationship between skills and content in a number ...