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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

2013

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Identifying Productive Resources In Secondary School Students' Discourse About Energy, Benedikt Walter Harrer Dec 2013

Identifying Productive Resources In Secondary School Students' Discourse About Energy, Benedikt Walter Harrer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students’ ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school students’ ideas about energy for progenitors of disciplinary knowledge and practice. Previously, researchers argued that students’ ideas about energy were constrained by stable and coherent conceptual structures that conflicted with an assumed unified scientific conception and therefore needed to be replaced. These researchers did not attend to the productive elements in students’ ideas about energy ...


Supportive Measures: An Analysis Of The Trio Program - Student Support Services At East Tennessee State University From 2001 – 2004, Christopher N. Strode Dec 2013

Supportive Measures: An Analysis Of The Trio Program - Student Support Services At East Tennessee State University From 2001 – 2004, Christopher N. Strode

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the academic performance of the first-time, full-time, traditional-aged students in the Student Support Services program at East Tennessee State University. This was accomplished by comparing their academic performance with the academic performance of first-time, full-time, traditional-aged non-SSS participants, including students in both the SSS eligible and SSS ineligible study groups. Incoming freshman cohorts from 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 were used to create the 3 distinct study groups. Demographic and performance outcome variables were used for comparison among the 3 groups. The cumulative college GPA, fall-to-fall retention, and 6-year graduation status of ...


How Social Emotional Development Skills Gained In High Quality Public School Prekindergarten Impact Kindergarten Academic Readiness, Gale A. Collett Dec 2013

How Social Emotional Development Skills Gained In High Quality Public School Prekindergarten Impact Kindergarten Academic Readiness, Gale A. Collett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that children’s emotional and social skills are linked to their early academic achievement (Wentzel & Asher, 1995). Children who have difficulty paying attention, following directions, getting along with others, and controlling negative emotions like anger and distress do not do as well in school (Arnokl et al., 1999; McClelland et al., 2000). Academic achievement in the early years of schooling appears to be built on a firm foundation of children’s social emotional skills (Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman, 1997; O’Neil et al., 1997). Higher quality prekindergarten programs are associated with the early years of schooling and more positive academic outcomes in children (Burchinal et al., 2000).

Investments in early childhood programs by state and federal governments have been made with a goal of improving school readiness for low income children. These ...


Educational Leadership Program Emergent Design As Experienced By The Greene-King Cohort At East Tennessee State University, Brian S. Cinnamon Dec 2013

Educational Leadership Program Emergent Design As Experienced By The Greene-King Cohort At East Tennessee State University, Brian S. Cinnamon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine perceptions of East Tennessee State University (ETSU) cohort members on the experience of redesigning the leadership preparation program requirements. Particularly, cohort participants in the Greene-King cohort were chosen by an admission process to participate in a grant program as governed by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) in partnership with ETSU and local school agencies in Greeneville and Kingsport. The ETSU Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis (ELPA) in the Claudius G. Clemmer College of Education collaborated with Kingsport City and Greeneville City school districts to redesign educational leadership ...


A Comparison Of Perceptions And Implementation Of Shared Governance Between American And Chinese Higher-Education Institutions, Dianyu Zhang Dec 2013

A Comparison Of Perceptions And Implementation Of Shared Governance Between American And Chinese Higher-Education Institutions, Dianyu Zhang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the status of institutional stakeholders’ perceptions and application of shared governance on an American higher education campus and a counterpart in China and determine if there were differences among the groups of stakeholders both within and between the institutions. A 2-inventory researcher-developed survey of shared governance was used to measure each factor.

The data analysis found significant differences among the 4 categories of participants at the Chinese institution. For the General Acceptance dimension of the Perceptions of Shared Governance Inventory (PSGI) the Chinese staff members reported significantly higher scores than all ...


Students With Disabilities: Perspectives Of Regular Education Teachers Of Increased Inclusion, Mindy D. Myers Mrs. Dec 2013

Students With Disabilities: Perspectives Of Regular Education Teachers Of Increased Inclusion, Mindy D. Myers Mrs.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore regular education teachers’ perceptions of inclusion. The participants of this study were K-12 regular education teachers located in Tennessee’s First region. Specifically, this research explored (1) perceptions of the impact of inclusion on instructional strategies, (2) perceived level of preparedness to effectively teach students with disabilities (3) professional development needs of regular education teachers instructing students with disabilities, and (4) collaborative relationships between regular and special educators. The data sources analyzed consisted of a survey design using a 4-point Likert scale. Each research question had a corresponding null hypothesis. Each research ...


Graduate Student Attitudes Toward Different Instructional Approaches Within Face-To-Face, Online, And Blended Learning Environments In A Public Four-Year Institution Of Higher Learning, Philip Rotich Dec 2013

Graduate Student Attitudes Toward Different Instructional Approaches Within Face-To-Face, Online, And Blended Learning Environments In A Public Four-Year Institution Of Higher Learning, Philip Rotich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive, constructivism, and humanistic (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007) approaches toward teaching and learning. There were 210 total responses from graduate students enrolled during 2013 spring semester. There were more female (71.4%) than male (28.6%) students who responded. Previous studies have compared face-to-face (F2F) and online methods of instructions and have shown mixed results. Whereas some ...


Student Retention And First-Year Programs: A Comparison Of Students In Liberal Arts Colleges In The Mountain South, Jeff S. Howard Dec 2013

Student Retention And First-Year Programs: A Comparison Of Students In Liberal Arts Colleges In The Mountain South, Jeff S. Howard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the retention rate and 9 firstyear student programs at Liberal Arts Colleges in the Mountain South, a region in the southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. Nine first-year programs were studied: Summer Bridge Programs, Preterm Orientation, Outdoor Adventure Orientation, Targeted Seminars, Learning Communities, Early Warning/Early Alert Systems, Service Learning, Undergraduate Research, and Assessment. The data for this study were accessed via the college database of The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 2013). Chi Square tests were used for analysis to identify associations between first-year student retention ...


Broadband Access For Students At East Tennessee State University, Thomas Scott Sawyer Dec 2013

Broadband Access For Students At East Tennessee State University, Thomas Scott Sawyer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of Internet access for students attending East Tennessee State University during the fall semester 2013. It has been unknown to what degree broadband access is available in the East Tennessee State University service area that includes counties in East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, and Western North Carolina.

The research was conducted during the fall semester 2013 including the months of August, September, and October of 2011. Data were gathered by surveying currently enrolled students of the university. Seven hundred eighty-four students responded to the survey. The survey instrument covered areas of ...


Summer Credit Recovery And Middle Grade Students, James C. Sharp Dec 2013

Summer Credit Recovery And Middle Grade Students, James C. Sharp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in student success by retained students who participate in the Hamblen County (Tennessee) Credit Recovery Program [HCCRP] in the year prior and following their participation. HCCRP is an alternative intervention for students who have been retained in the middle grades of Hamblen County School System. Student success was defined and assessed in the areas of academic proficiency, discipline, and student absenteeism. Student information regarding each area was obtained from the Hamblen County School System, coded, and analyzed through quantitative testing.

This study was guided by 8 research questions and 8 ...


Effects Of High Fidelity Simulation On Knowledge Acquisition, Self-Confidence, And Satisfaction With Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using The Solomon-Four Research Design, Rachel M. Hall Dec 2013

Effects Of High Fidelity Simulation On Knowledge Acquisition, Self-Confidence, And Satisfaction With Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using The Solomon-Four Research Design, Rachel M. Hall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

High Fidelity Simulation is a teaching strategy that is becoming well-entrenched in the world of nursing education and is rapidly expanding due to the challenges and demands of the health care environment. The problem addressed in this study is the conflicting research results regarding the effectiveness of HFS for students’ knowledge acquisition after participating in simulation exercises. Specifically this researcher determined the effects of a formatted simulation scenario on knowledge acquisition among nursing students and the students’ satisfaction and selfconfidence with the simulation learning activity. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory (1984) provided the framework for this study.

This study used ...


Tcap Scores And Per Pupil Expenditures: Statewide Changes Before And After Tennessee’S First To The Top Act, Martha Ely Cantrell Dec 2013

Tcap Scores And Per Pupil Expenditures: Statewide Changes Before And After Tennessee’S First To The Top Act, Martha Ely Cantrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the changes in Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) scores and the changes in Per Pupil Expenditures (PPE) after the enactment of First to the Top Act of 2010 and the receipt of $501,000,000 in federal Race to the Top (RTTT) grant monies. Half of that money was retained by Tennessee Department of Education (TDOE) for education reform initiatives. The other half was awarded to each Local Education Agency (LEA) according to the Title I formula after TDOE approval of individual Scopes of Work. Reform initiatives included transition ...


A Qualitative Study Of School Staff Perceptions Of Lasting Effects After Implementation Of Gear Up In Five Rural East Tennessee Counties, Flora R. Craig Mrs Dec 2013

A Qualitative Study Of School Staff Perceptions Of Lasting Effects After Implementation Of Gear Up In Five Rural East Tennessee Counties, Flora R. Craig Mrs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzed the perceptions of 13 school staff and their experiences with the implementation of GEAR UP TN. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how program activities and services are being sustained after funding for GEAR UP TN ceased.

Qualitative methodology guided this study. This approach allowed for the perspectives and lived experiences of the school staff to be voiced and heard. Data collected included their stories based on semistructured interviews and observations.

Findings are presented in 4 themes that pertain directly to the research questions regarding key elements that contributed to program continuation, procedures that ...


Mathematics Curriculum Coaching And Elementary School Students’ Mathematics Achievement In A Northeast Tennessee School System, Evandro R. Valente Dec 2013

Mathematics Curriculum Coaching And Elementary School Students’ Mathematics Achievement In A Northeast Tennessee School System, Evandro R. Valente

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators and policymakers have demonstrated interest in finding ways to better equip mathematics teachers so they can help students achieve at a higher level. Academic coaching has been identified as an effective professional development activity for teachers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between students’ achievement levels before and after a mathematics initiative in a Northeast Tennessee school district. In this study I analyzed grades 3 – 6 students’ Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program or TCAP scores in the year prior to the hiring of a mathematics coach and their respective scores 2 years after the placement of ...


Youth And Family Based In-Home Services Program In Tennessee: Factors For Success, Craig S. Hall Dec 2013

Youth And Family Based In-Home Services Program In Tennessee: Factors For Success, Craig S. Hall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intensive in-home services is a family-centered, strength-based intervention program offering comprehensive treatment that includes family therapy, mental health treatment and parenting skills for caregivers, development of positive social systems, and assistance with accessing community resources for long-term support (Youth Villages, 2013b). Framed on family system theory, Intensive-In Home Services (IIHS) was developed from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Social Development, and Crisis Intervention models as a means to modify behaviors that place youth at risk for out-of-home placement. The socio-historical development of these models is examined in the literature review.

Intensive in-home services is a family-centered, strength-based intervention program ...


Freshman Academy At One School In East Tennessee: A Mixed Method Study, Yvonne L. Robinson Dec 2013

Freshman Academy At One School In East Tennessee: A Mixed Method Study, Yvonne L. Robinson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the student achievement prior to and after the implementation of a freshman academy at one school in East Tennessee. The researcher used student data from the end of course exam scores for Algebra I and English I. The failure rate of freshman prior to and after the implementation of the Freshman Academy was examined. The data were analyzed using a chi square statistical analysis. A significant difference was observed in the end of course exam scores for Algebra I and English I after the implementation of the Freshman Academy. Qualitative data examined ...


School Tvaas Rank And Teacher Perceptions Of Elementary School Culture In East Tennessee, Janice L. Irvin Dec 2013

School Tvaas Rank And Teacher Perceptions Of Elementary School Culture In East Tennessee, Janice L. Irvin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study was a comparison between the perceptions of school culture characteristics as measured by the TELL Tennessee Survey taken by school-based licensed educators in Tennessee and each school’s overall composite TVAAS score. 9 factor variables were discussed in the literature review. This dissertation was a quantitative study of teachers' perceptions of school culture and TVAAS composite scores.

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate the relationships among overall school culture as measured by the TELL Tennessee survey and individual effects on TVAAS composite scores. The dependent variable was the response to the ...


An Evaluation Of The Quality Assurance Plan At East Tennessee State University’S Dental Hygiene Program, Jennifer E. Fielden Dec 2013

An Evaluation Of The Quality Assurance Plan At East Tennessee State University’S Dental Hygiene Program, Jennifer E. Fielden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quality assurance in healthcare is fundamental in ensuring the achievement of desired outcomes for patients. In 2011 a quality assurance plan was created at the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) dental hygiene program in order to meet accreditation standards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this plan in order to determine its effectiveness in improving the quality of patient care indicators. One hundred fifty patient charts were selected and audited. Deficiencies were counted in the categories of assessment, treatment, documentation, referral, caries management, perio management, patient education, and follow-up. Research findings were varied; however, external variables with the ...


The Road From Paraprofessional To Certified Teacher: A State, School District, And University Partnership, Robert A. Winstead Dec 2013

The Road From Paraprofessional To Certified Teacher: A State, School District, And University Partnership, Robert A. Winstead

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the past few decades thousands of special education teachers have been teaching students with disabilities on emergency or temporary certificates (Barnes, Crow, & Schaefer, 2007). The majority of these teachers entered the field of education with little to no preparation. Most of these under qualified teachers were hired in rural areas. Prior to the establishment of the cohort between the Tennessee Department of Education and East Tennessee State University-Sevier County Schools in 2000, there had been little to no planning in addressing the challenge of teacher shortage, specifically teacher attrition, in East Tennessee for special education teachers (East Tennessee State University, 2009; State of Tennessee, Office of Research and Education Accountability, 2006).

The challenge of teacher shortage is secondary to teacher attrition for many school systems. Reasons teachers leave the profession are family or personal reasons, school staffing issues including layoffs, school closings, reorganizations, and retirement (Shakrani, 2008). The cost of high teacher attrition is felt in many ways. Examples include loss of outlays from states and local school districts, the challenge school districts face searching for replacements; and ...


Instructor And Student Perceptions Of Online Courses: Implications Of Positioning Theory, Miriam S. Phillips Dec 2013

Instructor And Student Perceptions Of Online Courses: Implications Of Positioning Theory, Miriam S. Phillips

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The increase in online course delivery in higher education has implications for students and instructors. In fall 2002, 1.6 million students took at least one online course and this number increased by the fall of 2012 to 6.7 million. The increase in the rate of enrollment in online courses in higher education provides an opportunity to examine the strategies and technologies used in course design and delivery and student engagement in the online culture. Two of the key factors in creating student engagement are the instructor's interaction with students and the course design and delivery itself. An ...


Experiences And Expectations Of An African American Male Veteran Student In Higher Education, Gladys S. Cole-Morton Dec 2013

Experiences And Expectations Of An African American Male Veteran Student In Higher Education, Gladys S. Cole-Morton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the Post-9/11 GI Bill an increasing number of veterans and military students are seeking to complete degrees online and through enrollment at campuses across the nation (Brown 2011). The increased number of military students in postsecondary education settings presents challenges and opportunities for both the veteran student and institution of higher education. Military students also referred to as veteran students are choosing to pursue postsecondary education for occupational and employment opportunities, personal growth and enrichment, and to use their Post-9/11 GI education benefits. It is expected that military personnel with past military service in Afghanistan and Iraq ...


Teaching Experience And Perceived Challenges For School Administrators Regarding Job Stress, Respect, Student Achievement, Assessment & Evaluation, And Professional Development, Erika H. Bradley Dec 2013

Teaching Experience And Perceived Challenges For School Administrators Regarding Job Stress, Respect, Student Achievement, Assessment & Evaluation, And Professional Development, Erika H. Bradley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether an administrators’ professional teaching background and years of administrative experience influence their perceptions of the opportunities and challenges they face guiding the improvement of teaching and learning. Specifically this research analyzed administrators’ perceptions of level of stress, respect among colleagues and school community, professional development, student achievement, and assessment and evaluation. Participants in this study consisted of Tennessee and North Carolina principals, assistant principals, and associate principals within a 60 mile radius of the East Tennessee State University campus. Data were collected through an online survey system, Survey Monkey. The ...


Concurrent Enrollment Programs And Acquired Social Capital For Students From Impoverished Backgrounds: An Examination Of High School And College Outcomes, Dan D. Jorgensen Nov 2013

Concurrent Enrollment Programs And Acquired Social Capital For Students From Impoverished Backgrounds: An Examination Of High School And College Outcomes, Dan D. Jorgensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Poverty has been linked to reduced workforce opportunities, reduced collegegoing rates, increased social-emotional challenges, and even negative health consequences. Postsecondary educational opportunities, offered during high school, that contribute to the acquisition of social capital may improve academic outcomes for students from impoverished backgrounds. The Colorado concurrent enrollment legislation, provides one opportunity for students to enroll in college level coursework and receive college credits with tuition being paid through state funding while in high school. Concurrent enrollment (CE) programs support the college application, financial aid and enrollment processes. Most importantly, they also support the development of social networks that may foster ...


With Green In Mind: Formative Influences On Ecological Mindedness, Shannon Burgert Nov 2013

With Green In Mind: Formative Influences On Ecological Mindedness, Shannon Burgert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the formative experiences that nurture ecological habits of mind in youth. The study builds on the ecological habits of mind defined by Moroye and Ingman: caring, a sense of interconnectedness, and ecological integrity. A combination of methods was used in this study: in-depth phenomenologically based interviewing, and educational criticism and connoisseurship. Data collection included two interviews each with five teenagers, one interview each with the teens' mothers, photographing of artifacts, and a focus group with six additional teenagers. Observations and interpretations were filtered through ecological and aesthetic lenses.

Several key findings emerged. First, it is proposed that ...


Teachers' Perception Of The English Language Curriculum In Libyan Public Schools: An Investigation And Assessment Of Implementation Process Of English Curriculum In Libyan Public High Schools, Salem Altaieb Nov 2013

Teachers' Perception Of The English Language Curriculum In Libyan Public Schools: An Investigation And Assessment Of Implementation Process Of English Curriculum In Libyan Public High Schools, Salem Altaieb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the advent of globalization and technological development, English has become a necessary tool of international communication in many areas such as education, business, politics, commerce, science, and technology throughout the world. Also, English has become the most widely taught foreign language in the world (Kachru &Nelson, 1996). Moreover, the issue of successful implementation of the English language curriculum has been the focus of a number of studies. In the case of Libya, however, little research has been conducted on teachers' perceptions of the new English language curriculum in Libyan high schools. Thus, teachers' voices have not been examined or ...


Northeast Tennessee Educators’ Perception Of Stem Education Implementation, Kristin Turner Aug 2013

Northeast Tennessee Educators’ Perception Of Stem Education Implementation, Kristin Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quantitative nonexperimental survey study was developed to investigate Northeast Tennessee K-8 educators’ perceptions of STEM education. This study was an examination of current perceptions of STEM education. Perceived need, current implementation practices, access to STEM resources, definition of STEM, and the current condition of STEM in Northeast Tennessee were also examined. The participating school districts are located in the Northeast Region of Tennessee: Bristol City Schools, Hamblen County Schools, Johnson City Schools, Johnson County Schools, Kingsport City Schools, Sullivan County Schools, and Washington County Schools. Educational professionals including both administrators and teachers in the elementary and/or middle school ...


Teacher Evaluation And Classroom Practice: Teacher Perceptions In Northeast Tennessee, Christopher D. Bogart Aug 2013

Teacher Evaluation And Classroom Practice: Teacher Perceptions In Northeast Tennessee, Christopher D. Bogart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the perceptions of K-12 teachers as they relate to the implementation of the Tennessee Educator Acceleration (TEAM) evaluation framework. Survey links were sent to 1,115 K-12 teachers from 4 Northeast Tennessee school districts. The survey achieved a 24% return rate for a total of 270 participants. The research evaluated K-12 teachers’ overall perceptions of the TEAM evaluation framework, their perceptions of changes to their lesson planning processes, their perceptions of changes in the use of instructional strategies in their classrooms, and their perceptions of changes in the amount of time ...


Elementary Teachers’ Perspectives Of Inclusion In The Regular Education Classroom, Becky Lorraine Olinger Aug 2013

Elementary Teachers’ Perspectives Of Inclusion In The Regular Education Classroom, Becky Lorraine Olinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine regular education and special education teacher perceptions of inclusion services in an elementary school setting. In this phenomenological study, purposeful sampling techniques and data were used to conduct a study of inclusion in the elementary schools. In-depth one-to-one interviews with 8 participants were conducted using semistructured format.

The 2 research questions were focused on perceptions regarding the practice of inclusion in an elementary school setting, the effectiveness of inclusion, the supports that facilitate inclusion programs, and barriers to successful incorporation of inclusion services. The findings suggest teacher recognition of barriers that ...


Exercise Participation During Weight Loss On A High Protein – Low Carbohydrate Diet Plan In Females Aged 15-25 Years, Margaret Mobley-Meulman Aug 2013

Exercise Participation During Weight Loss On A High Protein – Low Carbohydrate Diet Plan In Females Aged 15-25 Years, Margaret Mobley-Meulman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Weight gain due to poor diet and lack of exercise is responsible for over 300,000 deaths each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Obese adults have an increased risk for serious health conditions including high blood pressure and cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, and certain cancers (National Cancer Institute, 2012). Participation in exercise can help control weight, strengthen muscles and bones, and reduce the incidence of cardiac events, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancers, osteoporotic fractures, gallbladder disease, obesity, depression, anxiety, and ...


K-12 Virtual Students: Relationships Between Student Demographics, Virtual Learning Experience, And Academic Achievement, Jamie H. Whitinger Aug 2013

K-12 Virtual Students: Relationships Between Student Demographics, Virtual Learning Experience, And Academic Achievement, Jamie H. Whitinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in academic achievement among virtual students of various backgrounds, demographics, and virtual learning environments. The study also sought to identify factors that may predict the academic achievement, as defined by final course grade, of virtual students. This study examined those relationships for the 476 students enrolled in virtual courses between January 2010 and January 2013 in Sullivan County Schools, TN. These students were in grades 7-12 during the time the courses were taken. Independent variables in Phase I of the study included gender, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, prior number of ...