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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stephen F. Austin State University

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Examining Information Considered In Texas School Board Superintendent Evaluations: A Modified Replication Study, Audrey Young Aug 2019

Examining Information Considered In Texas School Board Superintendent Evaluations: A Modified Replication Study, Audrey Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify the information, through a modified replicated study, that Texas public school board trustees utilize as part of their evaluation of the district superintendent. This modified replicated study used a survey with ranking and multiple choice. The survey in this study was developed by Dr. Phil Gore for Washington school board members and modified by the researcher for Texas. A convenience sample of 168 school board trustees across the state of Texas was invited to participate in the study

The findings in this study identified the various elements from which schoolboards derive information ...


Ensuring A Holistic And Quality Education For Every Child: A Phenomenological Inquiry Of Principals’ Transformational Leadership, Elijah Granger Aug 2019

Ensuring A Holistic And Quality Education For Every Child: A Phenomenological Inquiry Of Principals’ Transformational Leadership, Elijah Granger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have not fully examined how school leaders impact the teaching and learning environment when working toward generating students’ academic success. Balyer (2012) called for more work on understanding the transformational leadership behaviors that create conditions conducive to generating student achievement within educational accountability. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological inquiry is to explore the lived experiences of principals and their perceptions concerning the state accountability system and how it may impact their transformational efforts in ensuring a holistic and quality education for every child. The phenomenological inquiry will yield the opportunity to compare administrators’ in-depth perceptions of the accountability ...


A Multi-Case Study Of Electronic Communication Policy In Rural East Texas School Districts, Laura Lynn Dacus Oct 2018

A Multi-Case Study Of Electronic Communication Policy In Rural East Texas School Districts, Laura Lynn Dacus

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this descriptive case study was to conduct a policy analysis regarding electronic communication between educators and students in three rural East Texas school districts. The policy analysis for each district began with the initial implementation of teacher communication via electronic sources provided by the districts. The focus of the study was limited specifically to the policy regulating nonschool related, electronic communication by educators with students. The challenge faced by school districts to embrace technology with one-to-one classrooms, virtual classrooms, constant connectivity, school texting applications, and open availability to teachers via email, complicates restrictions placed on non-school related ...


I Cut Off My... Voice: An Autoethnography Of An Artist And Art Educator With A Brca Genetic Mutation, Nicki Lynn Hornbaker Aug 2018

I Cut Off My... Voice: An Autoethnography Of An Artist And Art Educator With A Brca Genetic Mutation, Nicki Lynn Hornbaker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effects of BRCA genetic mutations on artists and art educators had not been known. Autoethnography is a qualitative method for writing about personal experiences through a cultural lens. I used my personal experiences within a BRCA positive community to understand shared experiences among artists and art educators with this genetic mutation. This study aimed to explore the commonalities that are occurring within this subgroup. Anxiety and emotional stress played a role in most of the respondents‟ lives, affecting them in numerous ways. Most of the respondents underwent salpingectomy, oophorectomy, and mastectomy surgeries which led to further emotional and physical ...


Examining The Meaning Of Course Evaluation, Tyesha Stewart Aug 2018

Examining The Meaning Of Course Evaluation, Tyesha Stewart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teaching evaluations significantly influence faculty members’ annual evaluations and progress toward tenure and promotion within academic programs in higher education. Those with consistently strong, positive, teaching evaluations have been deemed effective instructors and often validated with increases in salary, teaching awards, and promotion and tenure. This is especially the case when strong course evaluations are received in addition to documented scholarship and research activities and positively evaluated professional service. However, questions are being raised about the meaningfulness of students' ratings of course instruction. Do these measures effectively assess competence as instructors or do they measure other unknown processes in the ...


Student Athlete Retention And Performance In Agriculture: An Analysis Of A Mentorship Program, Nick Cates May 2018

Student Athlete Retention And Performance In Agriculture: An Analysis Of A Mentorship Program, Nick Cates

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative research study focuses on the effectiveness of the athletic academic mentoring and advising program at Stephen F. Austin State University and its potential to replicate a similar program in the agriculture program. With emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of the current mentoring program, increasing student retention in agriculture, and improving the transition for high school students going into college, this study utilizes a questionnaire comprised of seven questions to determine how 14 former and current student-athletes that were enrolled in agriculture felt about the mentoring program and agriculture department. Many of the challenges faced by students, such as ...


Factors Impacting Teacher Turnover In Texas Public School Districts With Fewer Than 500 Students: A Mixed Methods Study, Paige N. Benoy May 2018

Factors Impacting Teacher Turnover In Texas Public School Districts With Fewer Than 500 Students: A Mixed Methods Study, Paige N. Benoy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rural Texas districts experience higher rates in teacher turnover compared to other districts. This explanatory sequential mixed methods study was designed to explore the relationships among district size and the factors that contributed to teacher turnover. Data was collected from Texas public school districts with fewer than 500 students. A simple correlation determined that no relationship existed between district size and teacher turnover rate during the 2016-2017 school year in the 313 districts that had fewer than 500 students. Participating districts came from two different regions. Four superintendents were interviewed about the factors surrounding turnover regarding the teacher turnover in ...


A Quantitative Study Of The Relationship Between Athletic Spending And Institutional Enrollment Measures In Fcs Athletic Institutions, Rob Mcdermand, Robert D. Mcdermand May 2018

A Quantitative Study Of The Relationship Between Athletic Spending And Institutional Enrollment Measures In Fcs Athletic Institutions, Rob Mcdermand, Robert D. Mcdermand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As university budgets face fiscal challenges, it is important that university leaders make smart fiduciary choices. University leaders are quick to argue that athletics act as a front porch for universities, are a fundamental part of collegiate life, and that increased athletic funding will lead to enrollment increases and higher quality applicant pools. Critics of athletic spending, on the other hand, argue that money spent on college sports could be spent in other areas of the university.

Using a regression analysis similar to previous research, the purpose of this panel data regression analysis was to examine the relationship between intercollegiate ...


Developmental Mathematics: A Quantitative Investigation Of Instructor Classification As Related To Student Success, Brittany A. Fish May 2018

Developmental Mathematics: A Quantitative Investigation Of Instructor Classification As Related To Student Success, Brittany A. Fish

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine what type of predictive power exists between an instructor’s employment classification, student gender, student race, and first-generation status on a student’s academic success in developmental mathematics, as measured by final semester grades at a regionally comprehensive state university in Texas between fall 2013 and spring 2017. Data were collected from the institution under study and the sample population included 1932 unique student observations. The data collected in this study were analyzed through a binary logistic regression model to determine whether an instructor’s employment classification, student gender, student race ...


A Biographical Study Of A Female Karen Refugee Who Experienced Academic Success In A Texas High School, Katherine P. Whitbeck May 2018

A Biographical Study Of A Female Karen Refugee Who Experienced Academic Success In A Texas High School, Katherine P. Whitbeck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative biographical study explored the life experiences of a female Karen youth who moved to the United States as a pre-teenager, entering a medium-sized Texas rural public high school as a freshman. Perceptions of English Learners are that they are ill-prepared for achieving success in rigorous academic subjects taught in United States public schools. Refugees are considered to have more difficulties because of the trauma associated with their pre-immigration violent environments, which often involve little or no organized education in the native country or in refugee camps. The biographical design allowed the Karen student who achieved academic success at ...


The Challenges Of Newly Adopted Mathematics Curriculum In Title I Schools: A Mixed Methods Study, Carmen Cruz May 2018

The Challenges Of Newly Adopted Mathematics Curriculum In Title I Schools: A Mixed Methods Study, Carmen Cruz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the early impacts of the newly adopted mathematics TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge Skills) introduced in 2014 by TEA (Texas Education Agency) that detail the curriculum standards for all students across schools in Texas schools, for grades K-12. The study examined the challenges that teachers and administrators have had to overcome to meet federal legislation educational compliance. Additionally the study examined how schools and districts were professionally developing their teachers on new curricular standards. Five Title 1 schools in four school districts were used in the study. Schools were selected from ...


Exploring Scholar--Practitioner Leadership: Superintendents' Application Of Theory To Practice In Texas Public School Districts, Michael D. Jones 6674845 May 2018

Exploring Scholar--Practitioner Leadership: Superintendents' Application Of Theory To Practice In Texas Public School Districts, Michael D. Jones 6674845

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This qualitative study was designed to investigate the methods of practice employed by Texas school superintendents who have completed a doctoral program centered on scholar–practitioner leadership. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how serving superintendents apply their prior learning and knowledge to the articulation and translation of their district’s mission/vision. The study described how six serving superintendents translate theory to practice by inquiring how each participant articulates the district’s mission/vision. Through the analysis of face-to-face interviews, phone conversations, emails, and informal observations recorded in a researcher’s journal, four common ...


Gated Fences, Shaina Hawkins Apr 2018

Gated Fences, Shaina Hawkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gated Fences is set in 1941 America and revolves around the lives of two families: The Hendersons and the Rivers. This novel addresses discrimination that existed among acquaintances, neighbors, friends, and even family members due to the lingering effects of slavery. It tackles issues such as forbidden love, life, and death obstacles, and the harsh realities faced by those who lived in a “separate but equal” society. Readers will learn about the value of family, the importance of friendship, reasoning behind why the characters place their faith in God, and the hope that conquers even in the darkest hour.


Best Practices Used By Assistant Superintendents Of Curriculum And Instruction: Improving Teacher Instruction In A High Accountability Environment, Julie Madden Dec 2017

Best Practices Used By Assistant Superintendents Of Curriculum And Instruction: Improving Teacher Instruction In A High Accountability Environment, Julie Madden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative multi-case study investigated not only the role of assistant superintendents of curriculum and instruction, but the strategies and best practices used by four assistant superintendents of curriculum and instruction and a deputy superintendent of teaching and learning from East Texas in order to improve classroom instruction and support teachers in the high-stakes testing environment. The study sheds light on the role of central office leaders, their views related to the high-stakes testing environment and the impact they have on instruction for teachers and students. The responses given in this qualitative case study were carefully analyzed in order to ...


The Moderating Effects Of Positive Religious/Spiritual Coping On Teachers’ Pain And Stress, Dawn Green Aug 2017

The Moderating Effects Of Positive Religious/Spiritual Coping On Teachers’ Pain And Stress, Dawn Green

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this internet-based survey was to investigate the effects of positive religious or spiritual coping strategies on teachers’ chronic pain reports. Teachers in the United States may represent a vulnerable group due to a high prevalence of risk factors for chronic pain conditions. Teachers have been identified to experience high stress (Johnson, et al., 2005; Kyriacou, 2001) and report poor job satisfaction (Wang, Hall, & Rahimi, 2015), which are associated with development of chronic pain conditions (Kopec & Sayre, 2004). Religious coping strategies have been associated with beneficial associations with stress and health (Reutter & Bigatti, 2014). The internet-based survey of U.S. public school teachers (N = 377) was distributed primarily through social media. Included were items related to demographic information, religious/spiritual and other coping strategies, work-related stressors and physical demands, health history, and job satisfaction. Results indicate positive religious/spiritual coping strategies moderated pain reports for teachers reporting high levels of stress; however, at lower levels of stress, positive religious/spiritual coping was associated with increased pain reports. Chronic pain was associated with higher stress, older age, lower job satisfaction, and increased physical demands for the ...


The Impact Of Student Abroad On Intercultural Competence As A Professional Disposition: Narrative Stories From Student Affairs Professionals, Dare Chronister Aug 2017

The Impact Of Student Abroad On Intercultural Competence As A Professional Disposition: Narrative Stories From Student Affairs Professionals, Dare Chronister

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Student affairs professionals (SAP) have been tasked to educate students and provide opportunities to develop skills to live in a culturally diverse and global society. The shortage of culturally competent SAP could hinder students’ abilities to gain intercultural competence. The purpose of this narrative non-fiction study was to understand how SAP’ study abroad experiences helped them to grow and develop intercultural competence. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify how intercultural competence shaped their practices and strategies to provide students with safe environments to gain knowledge and understanding about different cultures. Data collection included three levels of semi-structured interviews. Identified themes ...


A Qualitative, Exploratory Case Study Of Self-Reported Influences Affecting The Decision Of Homeless Sexual-Minority Students To Leave Home, Michael P. Hill Aug 2017

A Qualitative, Exploratory Case Study Of Self-Reported Influences Affecting The Decision Of Homeless Sexual-Minority Students To Leave Home, Michael P. Hill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to identify commonalities regarding influences within the decision-making process that attributed to sexual-minority students voluntarily or involuntarily becoming homeless in lieu of remaining in their respective familial home. An exploratory case-study research design was utilized to determine common themes present in the self-described events that led up to the respective decisions of three volunteer participants, who identified themselves as sexual-minority youths at the time of transition, to leave home. Results of this study discerned five commonalities among the participants’ experiences, which influenced their experiencing homelessness. The detection of these commonalities may provide school administrators and other ...


The Efficacy Of An In-Vivo Chaining Procedure Compared To Pov-Vm Chaining Procedure To Teach A Task To Children With Autism, Elaine M. Turner Aug 2017

The Efficacy Of An In-Vivo Chaining Procedure Compared To Pov-Vm Chaining Procedure To Teach A Task To Children With Autism, Elaine M. Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder which includes symptoms such as repetitive or restricted patterns of behavior, and deficits in social communication (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and affects approximately 1 in 68 children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Children with this disorder face unique challenges when it comes to learning academic and social skills (Gardner & Wolfe, 2013). Chaining is an effective intervention for teaching individuals with disabilities a variety of skills (Cuvo, Leaf, & Borakove, 1978; Horner & Keilitz, 1975; Shrestha, Anderson, & Moore, 2013; Tarbox, Madrid, Aguilar, Jacobo, & Schiff, 2009). Video modeling, where a subject performs a behavior they have previously seen modeled on a videotape (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) and more recently point-of-view video modeling (POV-VM) which provides the instruction from the subject’s vantage point may also be effective for teaching children with autism and other disabilities needed skills (Shukla-Mehta, Miller, & Callahan, 2010). There is some empirical evidence that chaining used in conjunction with POV-VM may provide effective intervention (Jowett, Moore, & Anderson, 2012; Moore, et al., 2013; Shrestha, et al., 2013) yet no studies have directly compared a chaining procedure taught by traditional methods to a chaining procedure which is exclusively taught through the use of POV-VM.


Microaggressions Towards Individuals With Learning Disability Within The College Setting, Cordava Valentina Aranda Jun 2017

Microaggressions Towards Individuals With Learning Disability Within The College Setting, Cordava Valentina Aranda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Learning disability mircroaggressions refer to the everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights and mistreatment which convey a derogatory feeling or message to individuals with a learning disability across various settings. Learning disability microaggressions may contribute significantly to the negative aspects of mental health issues often perceived in individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to develop a microaggression scale designed to assess microaggressions displayed towards individuals with learning disabilities (LD) within the academic setting. A scale designed to assess LD microaggressions was constructed and modeled after the Racial Microaggression Scale (RMAS). A confirmatory factor analysis was ...


Narrative Non-Fiction Stories Of Mexican American Female Principals Of Predominately Hispanic Elementary Public Campuses In Texas, Betsy J. Mijares Dr. May 2017

Narrative Non-Fiction Stories Of Mexican American Female Principals Of Predominately Hispanic Elementary Public Campuses In Texas, Betsy J. Mijares Dr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Texas, there is an increase of the Hispanic population and not a significant increase in Hispanic administrators. Women remain underrepresented in the principalship with even less representation of Hispanics. With an increasing number of Hispanic students, it is vital to ensure there is a representation to be an advocate for these children. Hopefully, this information will provide connection, relativity, and give a sense of hope to aspiring female minority principals and the Hispanic community. The purpose of this narrative non-fiction study was to enable four Mexican-American female principals in predominantly Hispanic elementary campuses to reveal their stories of their ...


Examining Attrition Through The Hierarchal System Of Education For Zero - Fifth Year Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study, Joshua D. Nation May 2017

Examining Attrition Through The Hierarchal System Of Education For Zero - Fifth Year Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study, Joshua D. Nation

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teacher attrition was the focal issue of this mixed-methods study. Teachers, for a wide variety of reasons, have left the profession of education due to issues surrounding school leadership, compensation, and student behavior, just to name a few. This study intended to expand the understanding of zero through fifth year teachers, and if this population of teachers is satisfied, and staying in the field, or if they are dissatisfied. By using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, the factors within in the hierarchal educational system were explored to identify which part of the educational system is connected to teacher attrition: the ...


Perceptions Of Effective Pedagogical Practices And Classroom Management Strategies: A Cross-Case Analysis Of Four Middle School Teachers, Igor Gusyakov May 2017

Perceptions Of Effective Pedagogical Practices And Classroom Management Strategies: A Cross-Case Analysis Of Four Middle School Teachers, Igor Gusyakov

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to identify and describe the pedagogical practices and classroom management strategies of consistently effective and successful teachers as evidenced by teacher perceptions and observations.

Four middle school teachers from two middle schools within the same school district were selected to participate in the study. The teachers were selected based on their effectiveness identified by their supervisor. The teachers were interviewed about their own perceptions as to what effective pedagogical practices are, based on their teaching experience. The teachers were also observed in their classrooms.

The key findings of the study indicated the importance of stablishing classroom procedures ...


A Quantitative Survey Analysis Of Elementary Preservice Teacher Perceptions Of Assessment Tasks In Science Coursework, Allison D. Killingsworth May 2017

A Quantitative Survey Analysis Of Elementary Preservice Teacher Perceptions Of Assessment Tasks In Science Coursework, Allison D. Killingsworth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This replication survey research study sought to further understand preservice elementary teachers’ perceptions of assessment tasks they encountered in secondary science coursework. Students are assessed through informal and formal assessments, including close-ended and open-ended questions, through classroom and high-stakes assessments. With great significance placed on high-stakes state assessments, classroom instruction and assessments oftentimes mirror the format of state assessments. The researcher administered a validated Likert scale inventory, the Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI), to preservice elementary teachers to examine their perceptions of how assessment tasks reflected their knowledge and understanding of science assessment tasks. The researcher found the research ...


Uncovering Meaning In Montessori Teachers’ Lived Experiences Of Cosmic Education As A Tool For Social Justice, John Allen Branch May 2017

Uncovering Meaning In Montessori Teachers’ Lived Experiences Of Cosmic Education As A Tool For Social Justice, John Allen Branch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This inquiry focused on the lived experiences of Montessori teachers in implementing Montessori’s Cosmic Education as a tool for social justice in their classrooms in order to more fully understand Cosmic Education’s meaning, purpose, and practice. The researcher also sought to understand how Cosmic Education could be an effective pedagogy of place, providing historical and social contexts in which students may develop and grow. The study used a post-intentional phenomenological design (Vagle, 2014), and was based on a series of interviews with five Montessori teachers from different classroom age levels. The data were analyzed using poetic inquiry through ...


Does Touch Have A Place In Interpretation? Researching The Role Of Appropriate Interpersonal Touch (Ait) In Interpretive Programs, Mickey Shortt Jr. May 2017

Does Touch Have A Place In Interpretation? Researching The Role Of Appropriate Interpersonal Touch (Ait) In Interpretive Programs, Mickey Shortt Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The role of interpersonal touch has been studied in communication fields, demonstrating a handshake or other form of appropriate interpersonal touch (AIT) has rendered favorable results in rapport building with an audience as well as developing audience comfort and receptivity to messaging. This study aimed to determine if the use of a handshake prior to interpretive programming would increase the positivity of perception of a visitor toward interpreters and/or the message shared by interpreters. Researchers also sought the viewpoints of professionals in the field of interpretation about the current use and perception of touch. Finally, a post-survey interview was ...


Up From Poverty: A Narrative Non-Fiction Study Of Three Female Superintendents From Poverty, Stephanie L. Johnson May 2017

Up From Poverty: A Narrative Non-Fiction Study Of Three Female Superintendents From Poverty, Stephanie L. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This narrative non-fiction study was designed to investigate the lived experiences of three female superintendents in the state of Texas who have lived in poverty during their youth and early life. The participating female superintendents were contacted by this researcher through email. The information used in this study was collected from participating superintendents through interviews and analyzed to find the common themes that exist between the lived experiences of each female superintendent from poverty as she progressed through the stages of development in life. The information was also analyzed to ascertain how she was able to elevate out of poverty ...


Responses Of Education Preparation Program Instructors Toward Mental Health Legislation, Alison Bradford May 2017

Responses Of Education Preparation Program Instructors Toward Mental Health Legislation, Alison Bradford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 2013, Texas State legislature passed Senate Bill 460 which implemented a law that requires the inclusion of knowledge relating to students’ mental health status in teacher preparation curriculum. This requirement is explained in Texas Education Code (TEC) §21.044(b). The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of awareness of the new requirement and the attitudes toward mental health among Education Preparation Program (EPP) instructors. In addition, faculty were asked about their implementation plans for the new requirement.

A survey was developed to address these research questions. Thirty-five public and private universities in Texas were targeted ...


An Examination Of Texas Agricultural Education Regarding Absence Of Diverse Students, John D. Denson May 2017

An Examination Of Texas Agricultural Education Regarding Absence Of Diverse Students, John D. Denson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to investigate reasons for, and issues regarding, the lack of diversity in the department of agriculture and the Future Farmers of America (FFA). Data for this research were collected, studied, and analyzed. Data were examined to identify explanations for the lack of interest in agriculture among diverse students, and the lack of interest among school administrators and teachers to encourage studies in agriculture among the diverse. The analysis of data verified the existence of a real need for more disquiet in the differences of attitudes among diverse students regarding agriculture and agriculture programs, such as FFA ...


A Quantitative Study Of Co-Teaching As An Instructional Model To Serve Elementary Students, Susan M. Gerlach May 2017

A Quantitative Study Of Co-Teaching As An Instructional Model To Serve Elementary Students, Susan M. Gerlach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to address the use of the co-teaching instructional model to serve elementary special education students in general educational classrooms. Recent trends and legislation have increased the use of inclusive education for students with disabilities. At this time, few large-scale studies on co-teaching have been conducted to date, and empirical research in terms of quantified student measured outcomes is limited. As a result, districts face challenges when considering implementation of a co-teaching model. This study used a quasi-experimental design from intact existing groups of fourth grade students on the State STAAR Reading test. Cross ...


Studying The Impact Of First-Year Seminar Completion On First-Generation Academic Success, Amber Middleton Dec 2016

Studying The Impact Of First-Year Seminar Completion On First-Generation Academic Success, Amber Middleton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Of the first-time undergraduate students who enroll full-time at a four-year institution of higher education, only about half will complete a degree within six years (Kena et al., 2016), and this figure is even lower for those students whose parents did not attend college (Choy, 2001; Nuñez & Cuccaro-Alamin, 1998; Warburton, Bugarin, & Nuñez, 2001). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of first-year seminars in increasing the academic success of first-generation college students. The study utilized OLS regressions, logit regressions, and predicted probabilities to examine the effects of first-year seminar completion on four elements of academic success of the firstgeneration ...