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Tcap Assessment In Correlation With And As Compared By Star Assessment, Brooke Sampson May 2018

Tcap Assessment In Correlation With And As Compared By Star Assessment, Brooke Sampson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was twofold. The first purpose of the study was to determine if a correlation existed between the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR), created and distributed by Renaissance, and the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Achievement Test in Math and Reading for grade 3, grade 4, and grade 5. The second purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the percentile category of the STAR test and the TCAP test. The factor variable, identified as the percentile category, included three levels: Urgent Intervention, Intervention, and At/Beyond Benchmark. The dependent variable ...


Exploring The Ways In Which Highly Efficacious Intermediate Teachers Employ Best Practices In Reading Instruction For Struggling Readers, Terrence P. Young Aug 2017

Exploring The Ways In Which Highly Efficacious Intermediate Teachers Employ Best Practices In Reading Instruction For Struggling Readers, Terrence P. Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed method study was to build on the earlier efficacy work of Tschannen, Moran, and Hoy (2001) and the reading teacher efficacy work of Szabo and Mokhtari (2004) to add to educational research related to teacher efficacy and reading. This study is specifically focused on the teaching of reading to struggling readers at the intermediate levels. The study was guided by four research questions that focused on the teaching of struggling readers at the intermediate level. Reading teacher self-efficacy levels were established through a survey instrument. In addition, data from two interviews, structured and semi-structured, about ...


Reading As A Resource: Exploring Reading Habits And Multicultural Awareness And Acceptance In Undergraduate Students, Megan E. Owens Aug 2016

Reading As A Resource: Exploring Reading Habits And Multicultural Awareness And Acceptance In Undergraduate Students, Megan E. Owens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Considerable research has been conducted examining the benefits of diversity on campus and diversity programming for undergraduate students. However, minimal research has been focused on connecting reading fiction as a potential resource for diversity programming. Diversity courses, racial awareness workshops, and service learning opportunities are all supported by research for their transformational influence on students’ attitudes and perceptions towards minority and underrepresented groups on campus. Emerging studies have established that reading narrative fiction can enhance readers’ empathic and multicultural attitudes, shift perspectives and outlooks, and enhance moral reasoning. Benefits such as these could be harnessed to cultivate a campus culture ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Research-Based Reading Interventions With English Language Learners, Maritza Torres Jan 2016

A Meta-Analysis Of Research-Based Reading Interventions With English Language Learners, Maritza Torres

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Response to Intervention (RTI) model, introduced as part of the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 2004, is a proactive process of early interventions and evidence-based instruction for all students. RTI has additional intensive and individualized interventions to prevent student underachievement, including students at risk for academic failure and culturally and linguistically diverse students (Vellutino et al., 1996; Donovan & Cross, 2002; Francis, Rivera, Lesaux, Kieffer, & Rivera, 2006; Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006; Vellutino, Scanlon, Small, & Fanuele, 2006; Al Otaiba et al., 2009). Klingner and Edwards (2006) suggest that the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students differ from the general population of students. Research indicates challenges ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Leadership And Student Growth In Reading And Mathematics In Northeast Tennessee, Kyle Anderson Loudermilk May 2015

Teacher Perceptions Of Leadership And Student Growth In Reading And Mathematics In Northeast Tennessee, Kyle Anderson Loudermilk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine whether there is a significant relationship between teacher perceptions of administrator leadership focus and student growth in reading and mathematics for elementary and middle schools in nine school systems located in northeast Tennessee during the 2012-2013 academic year. Specifically, this study was an analysis of the leadership focuses of trust and respect, collaboration, shared leadership, data use and analysis. All data were collected through public online databases. Teacher perceptions of administrator leadership focus were gathered from the Tennessee Teaching, Empowering, Leading, and Learning (TELL) Survey and data on student growth ...


The Role Of Passage Topic Knowledge In Typical And Poor Comprehenders' Recall, Chelsea E. Meenan Jan 2015

The Role Of Passage Topic Knowledge In Typical And Poor Comprehenders' Recall, Chelsea E. Meenan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of topic knowledge (TK) in comprehension among typical readers and those with Specifically Poor Comprehension (SPC), i.e., those who demonstrate deficits in understanding what they read despite adequate decoding. Previous studies of poor comprehension have focused on weaknesses in specific skills, such as word decoding and inferencing ability, but this dissertation examined a different factor: whether deficits in availability and use of TK underlie poor comprehension. It is well known that TK tends to facilitate comprehension among typical readers, but its interaction with working memory and word decoding is unclear, particularly among participants with ...


Phenomenological Study Of Urban Elementary Principals: Reading-Proficient Students With Learning Disabilities, Elizabeth Theis Jan 2015

Phenomenological Study Of Urban Elementary Principals: Reading-Proficient Students With Learning Disabilities, Elizabeth Theis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Changes in the demands on educational leaders have necessitated shifts in the roles and responsibilities of school principals. Meeting the needs of students with disabilities is among the critical challenges that administrators face today. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of elementary school principals where students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) demonstrate reading proficiency. Phenomenological research was conducted to identify the themes associated with effective school leadership, related to this specific population, students with SLD. Informal, non evaluative observations were conducted in conjunction with analysis of leadership summaries that were submitted by teachers who were ...


Meeting The Needs Of Students Through A Targeted Professional Development, Anthony Copelin Jan 2014

Meeting The Needs Of Students Through A Targeted Professional Development, Anthony Copelin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study presents a complex problem of practice occurring at Primrose Elementary school [pseudonym]. A large portion of Primrose Elementary School's population has been unable to meet Florida's state reading proficiency standards over the last twelve years. Students of Primrose Elementary have a poor foundation in language on which to build vital reading skills. Consequently, students cannot overcome this deficiency because teachers lack the content knowledge to meet the students' language and subsequent reading deficiencies, in spite of 12 years of reading professional development. This dissertation in practice will propose the use of targeted professional development to address ...


An Investigation Of The Use Of Disciplinary Texts And Achievement On End-Of-Course Examinations In High School U.S. History Courses, Jocelyn Baldridge Jan 2014

An Investigation Of The Use Of Disciplinary Texts And Achievement On End-Of-Course Examinations In High School U.S. History Courses, Jocelyn Baldridge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to examine whether a disparity exists between teacher expectations of honors and non-honors U. S. History students and if students who read more for U. S. History perform better on the U. S. History End-of-Course (EOC) examination. To generate answers to the research questions, both teachers and students in U. S. History courses were surveyed as to how much time was spent reading for U. S. History content both during class and for homework. The student surveys were matched to the U. S. History EOC Developmental Scale Scores to determine if students who responded as reading ...


An Examination Of The Correlation Between The Seven Critical Leadership Functions And Middle School African-American And Hispanic Student Achievement, Shannon A. Flounnory Jan 2014

An Examination Of The Correlation Between The Seven Critical Leadership Functions And Middle School African-American And Hispanic Student Achievement, Shannon A. Flounnory

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study examined possible correlations between each of the seven critical leadership functions and achievement in the areas of mathematics for eighth grade African-American and Hispanic students. The 117 participants included school leaders and students from 12 of the 19 middle schools in a metropolitan school district in the southeastern region of the United States. Principals from the middle schools in the district distributed the Critical Leadership Functions Questionnaire to members of their leadership team (e.g., assistant principals, school counselors, department chairs, etc.). CRCT scores measured student achievement. The researcher conducted a correlation study, using Pearson’s multivariable ...


Predicting Performance On The Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment For Reading For Third Graders Using Reading Curriculum Based Measures, Robert S. Kirkham Aug 2013

Predicting Performance On The Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment For Reading For Third Graders Using Reading Curriculum Based Measures, Robert S. Kirkham

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite flexibility waivers granted to states by the United States Department of Education from some provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, our nation’s public schools continue to struggle to improve reading proficiency as measured by high stakes assessments. To reach state targets for reading proficiency schools must use data at the earliest point possible to inform instructional strategies and identify students at risk of failure. The response to intervention model holds promise for improving reading outcomes particularly for early elementary students.

The effective use of reading curriculum based measures (R-CBM) to determine if instruction is adequate to ...


Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of The Third Grade Summer Reading Camp Intervention Program In A Larger Urban School District, Danielle Alchin Jan 2013

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of The Third Grade Summer Reading Camp Intervention Program In A Larger Urban School District, Danielle Alchin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the third grade Summer Reading Camp (SRC) in a large urban school district. The SRC curriculum was assessed to determine if it aligned with effective remediation and filled the third grade students’ knowledge voids in reading. The study further analyzed how the school district officials selected the curriculum content utilized in the SRC. This study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews of school district personnel on the SRC committee regarding the implementation of the 2012 lesson plan, and from students’ Winter Benchmark Assessment scores ...


Are Best Practices In Literacy Culturally Relevant? An Investigation Into What Primary Literacy Teachers Do To Teach Literacy Skills To Minority Students, Tammie Pittsley Jan 2013

Are Best Practices In Literacy Culturally Relevant? An Investigation Into What Primary Literacy Teachers Do To Teach Literacy Skills To Minority Students, Tammie Pittsley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to determine if average primary (K-3) teachers were implementing best practices in literacy with culturally relevant teaching in their classroom practice. The cooperating district is located in southeastern Georgia and is a majority minority district. The school district personnel predominantly consists of White female teachers; however, the student population has become increasingly diverse. As a result, the need to teach literacy skills while incorporating the tenets of culturally relevant teaching is increasingly important. The study consisted of an online survey using the platform Survey Monkey and two focus group interviews. The survey ...


Relationships Between Reading Ability In Third Grade And Phonological Awareness In Kindergarten, Melissa Lynn Pannell May 2012

Relationships Between Reading Ability In Third Grade And Phonological Awareness In Kindergarten, Melissa Lynn Pannell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify relationships that exist between reading ability in 3rd grade and phonological awareness in kindergarten. A second purpose was to identify specific prereading skills that best predict later reading success. This study used a quantitative research design to answer the research questions posed. The population for this research was 244 fourth grade students enrolled in 3 primary schools in a school system in Southwest Virginia. The data used for this research study were obtained from each student's score on the kindergarten Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening and the 3rd grade Virginia Standards ...


An Investigation Of Reading Instruction In Northeast Tennessee., Karen Pierson Reach Dec 2011

An Investigation Of Reading Instruction In Northeast Tennessee., Karen Pierson Reach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine specific prekindergarten- through 8th-grade reading programs, instructional best practices, academic interventions, and educational activities that are perceived as successful practices in four high achieving schools within the parameters of Northeast Tennessee. This study was accomplished through a protocol of open-ended interviews with 15 participants comprised of 4 school principals, 4 primary reading teachers, 4 intermediate reading teachers, 2 Title I reading specialists, and 1 district language arts coordinator. Additionally, school-specific documentation and basal reading programs were reviewed to triangulate the findings of this investigation.

The findings from this study suggested that ...


A Comparison Between Read 180 Students And Non-Read 180 Students Reading And Math Scores By Classroom Structure., Amanda C. Cannon May 2011

A Comparison Between Read 180 Students And Non-Read 180 Students Reading And Math Scores By Classroom Structure., Amanda C. Cannon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of students in reading-language arts and math, who participated in the Scholastic READ 180 program within self-contained classroom organizations with the achievement of READ 180 students within departmentalized classrooms and with students not enrolled in READ 180. Classroom organizational structure at the intermediate grade is a highly debated issue. The READ 180 program is a highly structured model of the reading-language arts block. However, past research has provided few recommendations on how to schedule classes for at-risk students. Teachers and administrators of intermediate school students will benefit from a quantitative ...


Teachers' And Principals' Perspectives Of Literacy Coaching In An Elementary School., Barbara Jane Anderson Hull May 2011

Teachers' And Principals' Perspectives Of Literacy Coaching In An Elementary School., Barbara Jane Anderson Hull

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the literacy coach's tasks and qualities teachers valued the most and which qualities they valued the least. Knowing those precepts might help one to become a more efficient and valuable resource for both classroom teachers and principals. School visits, focus group interviews, individual interviews, interviews with each principal, and documents from the 3 southwest Virginia schools in 2 districts provided the data for analysis. Teachers' and principals' perspectives of literacy coaching explained both the desirable and undesirable practices and techniques.

The 3 schools had been swept into a change process ...


Comparative Study Of Reading First Schools Reading Achievement To Non-Reading First Schools., Wandaleen Adams May 2011

Comparative Study Of Reading First Schools Reading Achievement To Non-Reading First Schools., Wandaleen Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any significant increase in the reading achievement of Reading First third grade students compared to the reading achievement of the third grade reading students in Non-Reading First schools located in southwest Virginia for 2004-2009. The Standards of Learning (SOLs) reading test scores were compiled from the Virginia Standards of Learning test scores that are available to the public from the Virginia Department of Education website. The elementary schools chosen for this study have a similar number of disadvantaged students and similar demographics. The reading achievement was being examined after ...


Distinguishing Effects Of Domain Knowledge And General Knowledge On Passage Fluency, Oral Reading Errors, And Comprehension, Sarah Jane Priebe Jan 2011

Distinguishing Effects Of Domain Knowledge And General Knowledge On Passage Fluency, Oral Reading Errors, And Comprehension, Sarah Jane Priebe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to understand the relationship between prior domain knowledge, general world knowledge, word identification, and comprehension. Previous research (Priebe, Keenan, & Miller, in press) showed that prior knowledge can facilitate both word identification and fluency, and this dissertation asked whether the effects of prior knowledge also extend to general world knowledge. Three studies aimed at clarifying the distinction between prior domain knowledge and general world knowledge were conducted. Study 1 used a within-subjects design to control for differences in general world knowledge by examining the effects of different levels of prior domain knowledge within the same ...


A Comparison Of Eighth Grade Athletes And Non-Athletes Academic Achievement, Time Spent On Homework, Future Educational Goals, And Socioeconomic Status, John F. Shelby Jan 2011

A Comparison Of Eighth Grade Athletes And Non-Athletes Academic Achievement, Time Spent On Homework, Future Educational Goals, And Socioeconomic Status, John F. Shelby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the differences between eighth grade athletes and nonathletes in terms of mathematics and reading achievement based on standardized test scores from direct cognitive assessments in mathematics and reading. The data for this study came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 1998- 1999 (ECLS-K). Data were collected from student and parent surveys in conjunction with direct cognitive assessments. The research questions were as follows: 1. To what extent is there a difference in mathematics achievement between eighth grade athletes and non-athletes while controlling for self-reported future educational goals and socioeconomic status? 2. To what extent ...


Supporting Hispanic Mothers With Preschool Children With Speech And/ Or Language Delays Via Dialogic Reading And Coaching Within The Home, Natalie Elizabeth Dopson Jan 2011

Supporting Hispanic Mothers With Preschool Children With Speech And/ Or Language Delays Via Dialogic Reading And Coaching Within The Home, Natalie Elizabeth Dopson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Young children who are Hispanic, from low-income homes and have developmental delays are at a disadvantage for not having the basic early literacy foundation to become successful readers later in school (Ballantyne, Sanderman, D‘Emilio, & McLaughlin, 2008; Hammer, Farkas, & Maczuga, 2010; Ezell & Justice 2005; McCardle, Scarborough, & Catts, 2001). These challenges can be addressed in several ways. Early intervention including parent education and collaboration along with shared book reading are considered best practices and critical to improving child outcomes (NELP, 2008). In addition, children who have a solid foundation in early literacy skills including vocabulary development in their native language will later transfer to the development of ...


Effects Of A Reading Inference Strategy Intervention On The Reading And Social Inference Abilities Of Adults With Asperger Syndrome, Kimberly A. Murza Jan 2011

Effects Of A Reading Inference Strategy Intervention On The Reading And Social Inference Abilities Of Adults With Asperger Syndrome, Kimberly A. Murza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ability to generate inferences is a skill that is necessary to fully comprehend a text and understand the intentions, behaviors, and emotions of a conversational partner. Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) have been shown to demonstrate significant difficulty in inference generation in both social contexts and in reading comprehension. Although, the reciprocity of the four components of literacy (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) has been established in the literature (Bradley & Bryant, 1983; Catts & Kamhi, 2005; Englert & Thomas, 1987; Gillon & Dodd, 1995; Hiebert, 1980; Kroll, 1981; Ruddell & Ruddell, 1994); the relationship between inference generation in reading and social inference generation is not well understood. The present study investigated the efficacy ...


An Analysis Of Preschool Enrollment And Student Progress Measures Among Primary And Elementary Students., Charles David Freeman Dec 2010

An Analysis Of Preschool Enrollment And Student Progress Measures Among Primary And Elementary Students., Charles David Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores exists between students who attended Tennessee's Voluntary Preschool for All program, Head Start, private preschool, or daycare and those who did not attend any type of preschool program for students in grades kindergarten through fifth. The sample consisted of students who attended kindergarten through fifth grade during the 2009-2010 school year in one east Tennessee school system. Data gathered were from Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores obtained during the 2009-2010 school year and a ...


The Relationship Of 10th-Grade District Progress Monitoring Assessment Scores To Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores In Reading And Mathematics For 2008-2009, Marilyn Underwood Jan 2010

The Relationship Of 10th-Grade District Progress Monitoring Assessment Scores To Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores In Reading And Mathematics For 2008-2009, Marilyn Underwood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research was to investigate the use of a district created formative benchmark assessment in reading to predict student achievement for 10th-grade students on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in one county in north central Florida. The purpose of the study was to provide information to high school principals and teachers to better understand how students were performing and learning and to maximize use of the formative district benchmark assessment in order to modify instruction and positively impact student achievement. This study expanded a prior limited study which correlated district benchmark assessment scores to FCAT scores ...


The Relationship Between Thinking Maps And Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Reading And Math Scores In Two Urban Middle Schools, Anna Diaz Jan 2010

The Relationship Between Thinking Maps And Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Reading And Math Scores In Two Urban Middle Schools, Anna Diaz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine what difference, if any, exists between the implementation and use of Thinking Maps® and students' academic achievement in Reading and Mathematics as measured over time by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test® (FCAT). Thinking Maps® is a registered trademark of Thinking Maps, Inc. The data were examined after three years of Thinking Maps® implementation and instruction. The design of this study was quantitative, with a nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest design (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 2002) that examined the effects on student Reading and Mathematics FCAT scores in one middle school that implemented Thinking Maps ...


Examination Of Universal Screening In Response To Intervention At The Secondary Level, Debra Allison Layland Jan 2009

Examination Of Universal Screening In Response To Intervention At The Secondary Level, Debra Allison Layland

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine three means of universal screening to identify students in need of reading interventions at the secondary school level. Specifically the results of the Colorado State Assessment Program (CSAP), the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency (TOSCRF) (Hammill, Wiederholt, & Allen, 2006) and the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF) (Mather, Hammill, Allen, & Roberts, 2004) were used to group students in a Response to Intervention Framework of Tier 1 (needing no intervention), Tier 2 (needing intervention) and Tier 3 (needing intensive intervention). Categorization results were compared to determine the accuracy of identification by these screening tools. Analysis of the results indicated a significant difference between the CSAP and each of the other screening tools. Use of state assessment results alone resulted in under identification of students in need of interventions as compared to use of the TOSCRF or TOSWRF. No significant differences by gender across the three tests were seen. A significant difference was seen between the performance of Hispanic students and White students; this, however, could be attributed to the sample size. In addition, no significant interaction effects of gender by Hispanic/White ethnicity were noted for each of the three tests. Finally, no significance was seen within each screening tool by grade; there was, however, significance across the three screening tools by grade. Implications for practice ...


Case Studies Of Reading Performance Of Male Students And The Single-Sex Classroom, Eric Basilo Jan 2008

Case Studies Of Reading Performance Of Male Students And The Single-Sex Classroom, Eric Basilo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Data from standardized test scores shows boys are falling further behind in literacy each year. Thanks to countless hours of research, we can pinpoint some of the causes for this decline. The major challenge educators face is how to keep boys interested in reading while placed in classrooms not necessarily designed to meet their needs. One option being explored is the use of single-sex classrooms. For over 160 years in the United States, public school single-sex classrooms have existed. The thought is that by separating boys and girls for academic classes, certain distractions will be eliminated, the environment can be ...


Does Success For All Impact Reading Achievement Of Students With Learning Disabilities?, Stacey Smith-Davis Jan 2007

Does Success For All Impact Reading Achievement Of Students With Learning Disabilities?, Stacey Smith-Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation seeks an answer to the question: "Will students with learning disabilities who were provided reading instruction through the Success For All reading program demonstrate higher reading achievement on selected reading assessments (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test and the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3) than the students with learning disabilities who were provided reading instruction through other reading programs?" Determining the impact of the Success For All reading program on reading assessment scores will add to the research about effective reading instruction methods for use with students with learning disabilities. The target population of this study was third grade students with learning ...


A Study Of Southwest Florida High School Reading Teachers And The Implmentation Of Scientifically Based Reading Research Instruction, Virginia Harper Jan 2006

A Study Of Southwest Florida High School Reading Teachers And The Implmentation Of Scientifically Based Reading Research Instruction, Virginia Harper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The literacy mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) swiftly and directly have an impact on reading teachers. The literacy directives of the act constitute a paradigm shift in reading reform, especially at the secondary level. Literacy directives require state and district level administrator's to focus on secondary reading teacher pre and in service training. Effecive secondary reading teachers must be well versed in the foundation sof Scientifically Based Reading Research. Florida is among the first states to implement six comptencies of professional development that leads to endorsement in the teaching of reading. Florida teachers of secondary ...


A Study Of Associations Between Third Grade Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Scores And Subsequent Scores In A Rural Tennessee School District., David Cloud Dec 2005

A Study Of Associations Between Third Grade Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Scores And Subsequent Scores In A Rural Tennessee School District., David Cloud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the associations and differences that exist in the NCE scores of students on the TerraNova portion of the Tennessee Comprehensive Exam, as well as the possible influence of variables such as initial scores, grade level, gender, and free or reduced lunch status. The population consisted of a stable group of 49 students enrolled in a rural Tennessee school district reported to have taken the annual assessment at the same school as they progressed from 3rd to 8th grade during the 1999 to 2004 school years. The study focused on the performance of students over ...