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Full-Text Articles in Education

Developing The Whole Teacher: A Phenomenological Case Study Of Student Teachers' Emotional Experiences In One Teacher Education Program, Kathleen M. Crawford Jan 2016

Developing The Whole Teacher: A Phenomenological Case Study Of Student Teachers' Emotional Experiences In One Teacher Education Program, Kathleen M. Crawford

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Student teaching serves as the culminating field experience in the majority of teacher education programs, and studies have revealed the need to investigate the connection between pre-service teachers and the emotions they experience, express, and manage. Therefore, the overarching purpose of this phenomenological case study was to examine how one Early Childhood (PreK-5th) Education Program addressed and prepared teachers for the emotional dimensions of teaching, as well as to examine the emotional experiences of the student teachers. The results of this study revealed the need for teacher education programs to amend the ways in which they prepare pre-service teachers ...


The Impact Of An Interactive Technology Application On Elementary Student Achievement In Fractions., Shannon M. Stone Dec 2015

The Impact Of An Interactive Technology Application On Elementary Student Achievement In Fractions., Shannon M. Stone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Data reported locally and nationally show that students struggle to understand fractional concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an interactive tablet application on student achievement in fractions. Students in grades three through five at the treatment school worked with an interactive tablet application designed to facilitate student construction of fractions knowledge. The interactive tablet application is an open-platform that allowed teachers the autonomy to work with the researcher to load their desired content activities on the topic of fractions to develop instructional sessions for students. Students worked independently during the math workshop to complete ...


Staffing Practices Of Elementary School Principals For Teachers In Primary Grades And Implications For The Prek-3rd Continuum, Laura Albers-Biddle Jan 2014

Staffing Practices Of Elementary School Principals For Teachers In Primary Grades And Implications For The Prek-3rd Continuum, Laura Albers-Biddle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Principals are considered the educational leaders of their schools and face pressure to improve the quality of education across all levels and disciplines. Principals were interviewed to understand their beliefs, knowledge, and dispositions on staffing teachers in the primary grades. A purposive sample of elementary school principals was drawn from one mid-size suburban district in Florida. Data were analyzed using Bolman and Deal's four-frame organizational theory framework, Cohen's cognitive frame, and Boote's theory of professional discretion. The data strongly suggest that principals do not understand the foundations of early childhood practice. In addition, they do not understand ...


Science Inquiry Kits And Teacher Preparedness To Teach Science As Inquiry In Elementary Classrooms, Angela Clayton Jan 2009

Science Inquiry Kits And Teacher Preparedness To Teach Science As Inquiry In Elementary Classrooms, Angela Clayton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The National Science Education Standards (1996) indicate that science education should include inquiry instruction. Many teachers still struggle with how to implement inquiry in their classrooms and a lack of high quality inquiry-based instructional materials has been posited as a hindrance. The purpose of this qualitative study was to observe the instructional practices of three elementary teachers when using an inquiry-based science kit program in their fourth grade classrooms. Teacher practices and their attitudes towards their preparedness to teach science with the support of the curricular program were examined. Data were collected through pre/post survey comparisons, observations, and a ...


Linking Place Value Concepts With Computational Practices In Third Grade, Terry Cuffel Jan 2009

Linking Place Value Concepts With Computational Practices In Third Grade, Terry Cuffel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an attempt to examine student understanding of place value with third graders, I conducted action research with a small group of girls to determine if my use of instructional strategies would encourage the development of conceptual understanding of place value. Strategies that have been found to encourage conceptual development of place value, such as use of the candy factory, were incorporated into my instruction. Instructional strategies were adjusted as the study progressed to meet the needs of the students and the development of their understanding of place value. Student explanations of their use of strategies contributed to my interpretation ...


Levels Of Line Graph Question Interpretation With Intermediate Elementary Students Of Varying Scientific And Mathematical Knowle, Stacy Keller Jan 2008

Levels Of Line Graph Question Interpretation With Intermediate Elementary Students Of Varying Scientific And Mathematical Knowle, Stacy Keller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science ...


Listening To Student Voices: Fifth Graders' Perceptions Of Their Mathematics Learning Within The Context Of A Mathematics Reform, Elizabeth Hoffman Jan 2006

Listening To Student Voices: Fifth Graders' Perceptions Of Their Mathematics Learning Within The Context Of A Mathematics Reform, Elizabeth Hoffman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study explored fifth graders' perceptions of their mathematics learning within the context of a reform effort. Students' voices are the focus of this study due to the paucity of literature on student learning from the students' perspective (Erickson & Shultz, 1992), particularly the elementary student (Gentilucci, 2004). The participants of this study, who in the past have been given a variety of labels including "disadvantaged" or "at-risk," clearly articulated, even in nonstandard English, their perceptions of their mathematics learning. They passionately explained what helped them learn mathematics as well as what impeded their mathematics learning and were often incredibly ...


The Association Between Type Of Preschool Experience And Student Achievement Of Economically Disadvantaged Students In Four Northeast Tennessee Schools., Robin Wade Mcclellan Dec 2005

The Association Between Type Of Preschool Experience And Student Achievement Of Economically Disadvantaged Students In Four Northeast Tennessee Schools., Robin Wade Mcclellan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if an association exists between preschool experience and student achievement in third grade as reported by criterion referenced Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) scores in four schools in northeast Tennessee with at least 80% of its students receiving free or reduced lunch. The variable under study was the presence and type of preschool experience.

Descriptive statistics were employed to present school demographic data. A causal comparative approach utilizing convenience sampling was the foundation for this study. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to investigate differences in achievement as categorized by varying preschool ...


Perceptions Of Teachers And Administrators Of The Organizational Supports For Inclusion Programs In Southwest Florida Elementary Schools, Brian Douglas Moore Jan 2005

Perceptions Of Teachers And Administrators Of The Organizational Supports For Inclusion Programs In Southwest Florida Elementary Schools, Brian Douglas Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The success of exceptional student education, although dependent upon the teachers involved, is largely made possible both by the role the school principal performs and the organizational support provided by the school district. The primary purpose of this study was to identify the sources and components of organizational support required to implement the inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classrooms. The provision of resources by administrators, particularly the building principal, is an example of an organizational support that helps students with disabilities learn successfully in this setting. These resources include funding, special curricula, adaptive technology, organizational resources such ...


A Profile Of The Literacy Practices Of K-5 Central Florida Teachers Of, Stephanie Cowern Jan 2004

A Profile Of The Literacy Practices Of K-5 Central Florida Teachers Of, Stephanie Cowern

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem of this study was to develop a literacy teaching profile of the 2004-2005 Teachers of the Year in Kindergarten through grade 5 in four central Florida school districts. Of primary interest was the extent to which these teachers indicated their use of exemplary literacy practices as defined using the domains and indicators of the National Exemplary Literacy Teacher Assessment (NELTA). The NELTA results were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. The results of the NELTA were also evaluated and discussed when total length of years teaching, and length of years at present grade level were considered. The data were ...


A Qualitative Study Of A Team-Teaching Classroom And A Traditional One-Teacher Classroom In An Elementary School Setting, Johnny D. Thompson Dec 1999

A Qualitative Study Of A Team-Teaching Classroom And A Traditional One-Teacher Classroom In An Elementary School Setting, Johnny D. Thompson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study describes two heterogeneously grouped second-grade classrooms during the 1998-99 school year. One class featured collaborative team teaching, and the second class was taught by a traditional single teacher. There were 33 regular education students and nine at-risk students in the team classroom and 14 regular education students and eight at-risk students in the one-teacher classroom. One hundred three interviews were conducted with 21 students in the team classroom and 18 students in the one-teacher classroom, with 13 parents, with three teachers, and with the school principal. The researcher observed the two classes 61 times from September to May ...


Staff Development Programs In Public Elementary Schools In Northeast Tennessee, Richard A. Mcinturf Aug 1999

Staff Development Programs In Public Elementary Schools In Northeast Tennessee, Richard A. Mcinturf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to collect and report on the perceptions of elementary school teachers as to the quality of staff development programs being offered in schools and school systems throughout Northeast Tennessee. A second purpose was to study the relationship between certain school district characteristics and teacher perception scores related to the staff development programs. The National Staff Development Council's Self-Assessment and Planning Tool was used to collect data related to teacher perceptions. Mean scores were calculated and t-test analysis completed for each variable named in the study. Conclusions of the study are consistent with most ...


Identifying Catalysts For Sustained Innovation Of Inclusion Teachers, Laura J. Switzer May 1999

Identifying Catalysts For Sustained Innovation Of Inclusion Teachers, Laura J. Switzer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The researcher examined nine areas of support that can be of assistance to sustaining innovative methodology in four school systems in Upper East Tennessee. Five types of innovation were examined. This study looked at nine supports as well as years of involvement by the practicing educator. The research design was a comparative study with forty hypotheses used to test differences in perceived degree of assistance to commitment. Teachers were surveyed and asked to rate supports for sustained innovation. Teachers also rated actual and ideal involvement. The research questions were tested and statistically analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance. Significant ...


Teachers' Perceptions Of The Multiage Program At Kingsley Elementary School In Sullivan County, Tennessee, Sandra G. Ramsey May 1998

Teachers' Perceptions Of The Multiage Program At Kingsley Elementary School In Sullivan County, Tennessee, Sandra G. Ramsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines how teachers at Kingsley Elementary School feel about the multiage program now as compared to when the program was first implemented. There were 28 teachers and two administrators interviewed to determine their perceptions of the positive and negative influences of the multiage program. The purpose of the study is to reveal the success or failure of the multiage program at Kingsley Elementary School and to explore the process used by the school to implement the process. The approach to this study is qualitative and uses interview data from both former and current Kingsley staff. Five research questions ...


Perceptions Of Year-Round Principals: The Effect Of Year-Round Education In Fulfilling The Recommendations Of The National Commission On Excellence In Education And Goals 2000, Sharon C. O'Dell Aug 1997

Perceptions Of Year-Round Principals: The Effect Of Year-Round Education In Fulfilling The Recommendations Of The National Commission On Excellence In Education And Goals 2000, Sharon C. O'Dell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to answer research questions designed to determine principals' perceptions of the effect of year-round education (YRE) on students, teachers, and parents. These perceptions were then used to determine if YRE is fulfilling the recommendations of the National Commission on Excellence in Education and Goals 2000. There were 27 null hypotheses used to answer eight research questions that guided the study. Analysis of the data revealed that year-round principals perceive YRE as having a significantly positive impact on 25 variables in areas relating to educational opportunities/content, standards and expectations, time/flexibility and operational costs, teaching, and school ...


The Relationship Between Personality Traits And Transformational Leadership Among North Carolina Elementary Public School Principals, Robert J. Mcgrattan May 1997

The Relationship Between Personality Traits And Transformational Leadership Among North Carolina Elementary Public School Principals, Robert J. Mcgrattan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the relationship between personality traits as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and transformational leadership as measured by The Nature of School Leadership. The subjects were 74 North Carolina public school elementary principals. The principals completed the MBTI. Principals also provided pertinent demographic information. Selected teachers in each school were asked to give their perception of the principal as a transformational leader by completing The Nature of School Leadership. Data were analyzed to look for significant relationships between personality and demographics as they related to transformational leadership. The analysis of demographic information yielded gender as a significant ...


Assessing Professional Development Needs Of Elementary Teachers Implementing Inclusion Of Children With Disabilities In General Education Classrooms, Patricia D. Burgess May 1997

Assessing Professional Development Needs Of Elementary Teachers Implementing Inclusion Of Children With Disabilities In General Education Classrooms, Patricia D. Burgess

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A descriptive study was conducted to identify authentic professional development needs of elementary teachers preparing, implementing, and maintaining inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education classrooms in Northeast Tennessee. The purpose of this study was to contribute information of identified professional development needs of elementary teachers to current research on responsible inclusive education. Data were collected from 325 elementary teachers randomly assigned to the sample using a 65-item survey designed for this study. Three subsections of the survey, Assessing Professional Development Needs of Teachers Implementing Inclusion in Grades PreK-8, assessed the perceived needs of conditions, areas, and foundations ...


A Case Study Of An Elementary School-Based Health Clinic, Sheila K. Jones May 1996

A Case Study Of An Elementary School-Based Health Clinic, Sheila K. Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to perform a qualitative analysis of an elementary school-based health clinic (SBHC). This situational analysis was performed to further understand the impact of accessible primary health care on an elementary school population. Data were collected through 30 participant interviews of parents, educators and medical personnel. Additional data were collected through the clinic files, and a t-test was used to compare the attendance and achievement data of clinic consumers for the clinic year against records from the previous year. The researcher presented information on the steps of SBHC development to include community campaign procedures. The ...


The Adaptation Of Regular Elementary Classrooms For Children With Moderate And Severe Disabilities: Inclusion Practices From The Principal's Perspective, Jerry R. Herman May 1995

The Adaptation Of Regular Elementary Classrooms For Children With Moderate And Severe Disabilities: Inclusion Practices From The Principal's Perspective, Jerry R. Herman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the perceptions of elementary school principals in Tennessee regarding the desirability and feasibility of adapting regular elementary classrooms and programs for the inclusion of children with moderate and severe disabilities. The purpose of the study was to add an administrative dimension to current research on inclusive educational programming for children typically educated in special (CDC) class settings. Data collection for the descriptive design of the study was accomplished by use of a 40 item survey instrument with a 7-point Likert-type scale for each construct (i.e., desirability and feasibility). Four ten item subscales addressed the areas of ...


The Adaptation Of Regular Elementary Classrooms For Children With Moderate And Severe Disabilities: Inclusion Practices From The Principal's Perspective, Jerry R. Herman May 1995

The Adaptation Of Regular Elementary Classrooms For Children With Moderate And Severe Disabilities: Inclusion Practices From The Principal's Perspective, Jerry R. Herman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the perceptions of elementary school principals in Tennessee regarding the desirability and feasibility of adapting regular elementary classrooms and programs for the inclusion of children with moderate and severe disabilities. The purpose of the study was to add an administrative dimension to current research on inclusive educational programming for children typically educated in special (CDC) class settings. Data collection for the descriptive design of the study was accomplished by use of a 40 item survey instrument with a 7-point Likert-type scale for each construct (i.e., desirability and feasibility). Four ten item subscales addressed the areas of ...


Attitudes Of Elementary Principals Toward Parent Involvement In Schools In The Commonwealth Of Virginia, Linda V. Brittle Dec 1994

Attitudes Of Elementary Principals Toward Parent Involvement In Schools In The Commonwealth Of Virginia, Linda V. Brittle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the attitudes of principals toward parent involvement in schools. The population for the study consisted of all public school elementary principals in the Commonwealth of Virginia. A random sample procedure was employed and an instrument was developed specifically for the study. An initial and second mailing resulted in an overall response rate of 53%. Factor analysis identified 5 groupings in parent involvement. Factors were labeled: Decision-Making, Policy-Making, Home Tutor/Co-Learner, Socio-Economic Status, and Parent Desire and Expertise. Seven null hypotheses were formulated and tested for the study. It was found ...


The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction And Social Network Characteristics Of Elementary School Principals, Lisa R. Gentry Dec 1994

The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction And Social Network Characteristics Of Elementary School Principals, Lisa R. Gentry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of social communication networks and to determine the levels of job satisfaction of public elementary school principals in Northeast Tennessee. Relationships between social communication network characteristics and job satisfaction were described. Information from the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was used to identify characteristics of social networks and levels of job satisfaction. Data was used to investigate relationships between social network characteristics and job satisfaction scores. Data gathered included principals' gender, age, school size, years of experience, education level, ethnicity, community setting, marital status, tenure ...


Principal And Teacher Perceptions Of School Climate Related To Value-Added Assessment And Selected School Contextual Effects In The First Tennessee District, Diann B. Casteel Aug 1994

Principal And Teacher Perceptions Of School Climate Related To Value-Added Assessment And Selected School Contextual Effects In The First Tennessee District, Diann B. Casteel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem related to this study was to develop a clearer understanding of organizational climates in K-8 schools in Tennessee and the relationship that climate has to school performance, as measured through value-added assessment. The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between dimensions of school climate and student achievement as measured by mandated value-added assessment at the third grade level in Tennessee. The study attempted to determine if there was a significant difference between principal and teacher perceptions of school climate and if a relationship existed between the school climate and value-added assessment. The study also endeavored to ...


The Perceptions Of Career Ladder I, Career Ladder Ii, And Career Ladder Iii Elementary Principals Regarding Instructional Leadership, Brenda T. Gulledge Aug 1994

The Perceptions Of Career Ladder I, Career Ladder Ii, And Career Ladder Iii Elementary Principals Regarding Instructional Leadership, Brenda T. Gulledge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if Career Ladder I, Career Ladder II, and Career Ladder III Tennessee Elementary Principals perceived differently their role as instructional leaders. The amount of time principals spent in six identified dimensions of instructional leadership was examined. The study examined selected independent variables, such as, grade level configuration of the school, years of experience as a principal, number of years of classroom experience, and gender for any effect on the Career Ladder I, Career Ladder II, and Career Ladder III elementary principals' perceptions of their instructional leadership role. The research design included three ...


Identification Of Tennessee Teacher And Principal Beliefs About National Standards And National Goals In Education, Shirley R. Ellis May 1994

Identification Of Tennessee Teacher And Principal Beliefs About National Standards And National Goals In Education, Shirley R. Ellis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the beliefs of Tennessee principals and teachers in relation to national standards and national goals. This was a descriptive study, which utilized a survey methodology. The population under study was limited to 232 principals and 268 teachers randomly selected from the 1992-1993 membership of the Tennessee Education Association. The instrument, developed by the researcher for this study, was the National Standards/National Goals Questionnaire. The 32 item instrument was designed to determine the level of belief of national goals and national standards. Descriptive statements were used to analyze the data gathered from ...


The Relationship Of Right Brain/Left Brain Hemispheric Dimensions Of Cognitive Style Between Teachers And Principals In Northeast Tennessee, Thomas S. Little Dec 1993

The Relationship Of Right Brain/Left Brain Hemispheric Dimensions Of Cognitive Style Between Teachers And Principals In Northeast Tennessee, Thomas S. Little

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Problem of this study was to determine if the cognitive style of elementary school principals affects the principal's evaluation of a teacher when there is a match or mismatch between the principal's and teacher's cognitive style. Using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, the dimensions of right brain/left brain hemispheric dimensions of cognitive style were measured for the sample population. The sample population included 40 elementary school principals and 120 elementary school teachers. The 120 teachers were made up of teachers selected by each of the 40 principals as the most effective teachers in the school ...


Adapting To Retention: A Naturalistic Study Revealing The Coping Resources Of Nonpromoted Students And Their Parents, Robbie J. Anderson May 1993

Adapting To Retention: A Naturalistic Study Revealing The Coping Resources Of Nonpromoted Students And Their Parents, Robbie J. Anderson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to uncover the feelings and reactions of students and their parents in regard to the nonpromotion experience. Families with children who had been retained at least once in grades one through eight were purposefully selected as units of study from one of four area school systems. A total of 52 family members from 22 family units participated in 46 separate, qualitative interviews. The information collected from the interviews was inductively analyzed. Building upon Schlossberg's theory for human adaptation to transitions, seven factors or coping resources emerged from the data that affected the adaptation ...


The Effects Of Retention In Elementary School On Subsequent Academic Performance And Instructional Practices, Janie H. Snyder Dec 1992

The Effects Of Retention In Elementary School On Subsequent Academic Performance And Instructional Practices, Janie H. Snyder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of retention on the academic performance of students retained in the third and fifth grade during the 1985-86 school year. A follow up study was used to analyze changes in academic test results. Another purpose was to interview teachers who had retained students and teachers who had taught the children the next school year to determine what changes occurred in instructional practices. Forty retained students of Northeast Tennessee were matched according to sex and similar scaled scores on the Stanford Achievement Test. Scores were compared by grade and by year ...


A Comparison Of Career Ladder Iii And Career Ladder I Elementary Principals' Leader Behavior And Organizational Climate, Eugene H. Johnson Jul 1989

A Comparison Of Career Ladder Iii And Career Ladder I Elementary Principals' Leader Behavior And Organizational Climate, Eugene H. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The perceptions of elementary teachers with regard to the leadership behavior exhibited by their principals and to the organizational climate of their schools were examined in this study. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Tennessee elementary principals who achieved Career Ladder III standing exhibited more effective leadership behaviors and maintained a more suitable organizational climates than Career Ladder I principals. This study followed the ex-post facto research approach and utilized data obtained through use of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire Form 12 (LBDQ-12) and the Revised Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ-RE). Responses were obtained from 590 teachers ...


An Analysis Of Problems Identified By Teachers And Selected Social Demographic Variables, Brenda C. Harris Dec 1987

An Analysis Of Problems Identified By Teachers And Selected Social Demographic Variables, Brenda C. Harris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem of this study was to investigate the problems listed as bothersome and their frequency as identified by selected elementary teachers. Another objective was to analyze differences between teacher problems and selected social demographic variables. The background research was limited to a review of the literature related to the subject. It was determined that the relevance of professional problem solving as a competency could provide formative information to guide changes in undergraduate, graduate, preservice, and in-service education. A descriptive research design was followed by surveying a selected sample of teachers of grades 1-7 in the nine counties and two ...