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An Ethical Analysis Of Reproductive Justice In The Context Of The Egenics Movement In The United States, Bernetta Welch May 2019

An Ethical Analysis Of Reproductive Justice In The Context Of The Egenics Movement In The United States, Bernetta Welch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The history of forced sterilization and the American cultural agreement with this practice robbed women of color of control of their own bodies, destinies, and communities. Negative eugenics as genetic proof of low intelligence, low possibility, and low productivity fed the system of compulsory sterilization even though the science proved faulty and incorrect. As advances in medical technology and genetic science increases, eugenics is making a return into the American psyche. Vulnerable populations which include women of color make reproduction and the subsequent control of their bodies vulnerable once again.

The Reproductive Justice Movement is a collaboration of organized women ...


When Process Becomes Processing: Managing Instructor Response To Student Disclosure Of Trauma In The Composition Classroom, Kelci Barton May 2019

When Process Becomes Processing: Managing Instructor Response To Student Disclosure Of Trauma In The Composition Classroom, Kelci Barton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In first-year composition courses, there are three aspects of teaching that are researched well so far: disclosure of trauma in student writing, instructor feedback, and emotional labor. The disclosure of trauma is almost completely unavoidable in first-year composition. We encounter an issue with instructor feedback; how do we provide feedback to student writing, like grammar and mechanics, when the student has disclosed trauma in the writing? Additionally, we can build off this with emotional labor, which already occurs consistently in teaching but is heightened in this instance. When providing feedback to a student who has disclosed trauma, this can be ...


The Relationship Between Campus Wellness Center Usage And Symptoms Of Depression In College Freshmen, Allison Leonard Jan 2019

The Relationship Between Campus Wellness Center Usage And Symptoms Of Depression In College Freshmen, Allison Leonard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is limited research done on the relationship between the program utilization at a campus wellness facility and the symptoms of depression in college freshmen. College students have been found to have a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than the general population, possibly due to the stressors college life can add. Studies have been done on the effects of physical activity as an intervention for depression as well as on the benefits of campus wellness facilities; however, there have been few studies that look at both campus recreation and depression. The author’s purpose for this study was to see ...


Examining The Relationship Between The Use Of Simulation In Nursing Education Andsafety With Medication Adminstration In The Clinical Setting, Deborah A. Eremita May 2018

Examining The Relationship Between The Use Of Simulation In Nursing Education Andsafety With Medication Adminstration In The Clinical Setting, Deborah A. Eremita

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF SIMULATION IN

NURSING EDUCATION AND SAFETY WITH

MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION

IN THE CLINICAL SETTING

Deborah A. Eremita

Thesis Advisors: Dr. Ann Sossong and Dr. Patricia Poirier

An Abstract of the Dissertation Presented

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree Interdisciplinary Doctor of Philosophy

In Nursing and Education

May 2018

Medication errors represent a significant threat to patient safety. Administration of medications is a primary role of nursing practice and a critical component of nursing education curricula. Safe medication is a challenging process to teach nursing students. Simulation may provide students with a ...


Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And On-Ground Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat May 2018

Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And On-Ground Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators expect the number of institutions offering online courses and the number of students enrolling in these courses to increase as many students, particularly nontraditional students, discover the advantages of online content delivery. Online courses require new methods of communication between students and faculty as well as discovering new ways to build relationships, earn student trust, conduct appropriate assessment, and deliver useful course content. Many institutions—public, private, and for-profit—offer a wide variety of online coursework but faculty, employers, and the public have expressed concerns about the quality of online course content. In particular, online delivery of coursework in ...


An Exploratory Analysis Of A Five Minute Speech Sample Of Mothers Of Children With Selective Mutism, Lisa Kovac Jan 2018

An Exploratory Analysis Of A Five Minute Speech Sample Of Mothers Of Children With Selective Mutism, Lisa Kovac

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Selective mutism (SM), an anxiety disorder wherein children have difficulty speaking or communicating when they are uncomfortable, is relevant for the early childhood population as symptoms often manifest upon school entry (Steinhausen & Juzi, 1996) and early treatment leads to better treatment prognosis (Oerbeck, Stein, Wentzel-Larsen, Langsrud & Kristensen, 2014). Bergman, Gonzalez, Piacentini and Keller, (2013) utilized an integrative behavioral treatment for children (ages 4-8) with SM and reported a 75% treatment responder status after 24 weeks of therapy. Their mothers are the focus of this study. This exploratory study examined the content of Five Minute Speech Samples at baseline and end ...


Studying Facial Expression Recognition And Imitation Ability Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Interaction With A Social Robot, Farzaneh Askari Jan 2018

Studying Facial Expression Recognition And Imitation Ability Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Interaction With A Social Robot, Farzaneh Askari

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience limited abilities in recognizing non-verbal elements of social interactions such as facial expressions [1]. They also show deficiencies in imitating facial expressions in social situations. In this Master thesis, we focus on studying the ability of children with ASD in recognizing facial expressions and imitating the expressions using a rear-projected expressive humanoid robot, called Ryan. Recent studies show that social robots such as Ryan have great potential for autism therapy. We designed and developed three studies, first to evaluate the ability of children with ASD in recognizing facial expressions that are presented to ...


Applied Software Tools For Supporting Children With Intellectual Disabilities, Ahmad Abualsamid Jan 2018

Applied Software Tools For Supporting Children With Intellectual Disabilities, Ahmad Abualsamid

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the level of technology utilization in supporting children with cognitive disabilities at schools, speech clinics, and with assistive communication at home. Anecdotal evidence, literature research, and our own survey of special needs educators in Central Florida reveal that use of technology is minimal in classrooms for students with special needs even when scientific research has shown the effectiveness of video modeling in teaching children with special needs new skills and behaviors. Research also shows that speech and language therapists utilize a manual approach to elicit and analyze language samples from children with special needs. While technology is utilized ...


The Impact Of A Neurofeedback Training Intervention On College Students' Levels Of Anxiety, Stress, Depression, And Cortisol, Caitlyn Bennett Jan 2018

The Impact Of A Neurofeedback Training Intervention On College Students' Levels Of Anxiety, Stress, Depression, And Cortisol, Caitlyn Bennett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety, depression, and stress are three of the most common experiences that impact college student functioning and academic achievement. At least one in six college students struggle with anxiety, increasing risk for developing depressive symptoms or disorders that further impact wellness. However, as mental health concerns increase across campuses, universities are not equipped to meet the demand of mental health support for college students. Neurofeedback (NF) training presents as an innovative intervention to treat anxiety, depression, and stress as it is designed to regulate brain processes in an effort to increase more effective brain functioning. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group ...


Academic Advisors' Attitudes Toward Students Experiencing Mental Health Issues, Danielle Aming Jan 2018

Academic Advisors' Attitudes Toward Students Experiencing Mental Health Issues, Danielle Aming

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As students continue to pursue higher education, the potential for them to experience mental health issues will exist (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2011; Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2012; Gruttadaro & Crudo, 2012; Salzer, 2012; Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2013). When entering a new environment, students will look to make connections with the institution; one of these connections can be with an academic advisor (Harper & Peterson, 2005; Harper & Wilson, 2010; Kuh, 2011; Pearson, 2012). It is important for individuals experiencing mental health issues to make connections to the institution so that they are more likely to remain and feel a sense of connection (Kadison & DiGeronimo, 2004). This dissertation outlines a quantitative study to examine the attitudes of academic advisors towards mental health. Using the Relational-Cultural Theory (Miller 1986; Jordan ...


Design And Validation Of A Scale For Preschoolers: Measuring Nutrition Knowledge, Beliefs, And Behaviors, Michelle E. Johnson Dec 2017

Design And Validation Of A Scale For Preschoolers: Measuring Nutrition Knowledge, Beliefs, And Behaviors, Michelle E. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The literature indicates a lack of validated scales to measure nutrition knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in preschool-aged children. Reliable and valid assessment tools are critical in the development of nutritional interventions for young children; careful design, including psychometric evaluation of reliability and validity, is the best approach to scale development. Best practice points to an efficient, yet comprehensive look at the constructs of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. This multi-phase study included 298 preschool children ages 2-6 years (151 girls, 147 boys; mean age 3.936). A 45-item scale was created, with 4 subscales to measure the nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and ...


Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith May 2017

Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More than 40% of nurses reported experiencing significant burnout. Burnout is characterized by disengagement, cynicism, negative views of personal accomplishment and ability, and emotional exhaustion. The healthcare providers that experience burnout can possibly expect a decrease in ability to recognize/report errors, increase of negative feelings toward the patient, and decrease levels of patient satisfaction (Ernest, 2014). One of the ways Schub (2015) suggested to regulate burnout for employees was to provide psychosocial support to colleagues to reduce stress. This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the gap between the unknown correlation between qualitative and quantitative benefits ...


The Effect Of Anxiety And Depression On College Students’ Academic Performance: Exploring Social Support As A Moderator, Katherine H. Bisson May 2017

The Effect Of Anxiety And Depression On College Students’ Academic Performance: Exploring Social Support As A Moderator, Katherine H. Bisson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore how social support is related to the overall well-being of college students. Literature suggests social support buffers a negative effect of distress on academic performance. This study attempts to provide practical information for a program called Student Opportunities, Advocacy, and Resources (SOAR) at Abilene Christian University (ACU), which assists students and connects them to resources available to support their path to success. A multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the association between anxiety, depression, social support, and academic performance using a sample of 93 students enrolled in this program in Fall ...


Coping Strategies Of Prelicensure Registered Nursing Students Experiencing Student-To-Student Incivility, Robin A. Foreman May 2017

Coping Strategies Of Prelicensure Registered Nursing Students Experiencing Student-To-Student Incivility, Robin A. Foreman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Incivility is rude or discourteous behavior that demonstrates a lack of respect for others. Some nurses ignore the dictates of professionalism and exhibit a total disregard for colleagues and peers by purposefully targeting each other with uncivil behaviors. Incivility has invaded the nursing educational environment with deleterious results. Uncivil behaviors perpetrated by nursing students against other nursing students cause psychological and physiological distress for victims and witnesses. The purposes of this quantitative descriptive study were to identify the behaviors that constituted lateral student-to-student incivility, determine the frequency of experienced student-to-student incivility, and describe the coping strategies employed by prelicensure registered ...


Prevalence Of Communication Disorders In Children With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome On School Speech-Language Pathology Caseloads: A National Survey, Brittany V. Ratliff May 2017

Prevalence Of Communication Disorders In Children With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome On School Speech-Language Pathology Caseloads: A National Survey, Brittany V. Ratliff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is concern about the recently increasing number of infants born with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), yet little is known about its long-term neurodevelopmental effects. School-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are in a unique position to comment on potential long-term consequences of NAS because their caseloads include children with a variety of communication disorders and comorbidities. School-based SLPs across the United States (N = 258) responded to a survey about the presence of children with NAS on their caseloads and their perceptions of the children’s communication disorders and comorbidities. Results revealed that children with NAS currently are being treated by SLPs ...


The Perceptions Of Success Of Latino Nursing School Graduates In The Appalachian Region Of The United States, Barbara M. Rauscher May 2017

The Perceptions Of Success Of Latino Nursing School Graduates In The Appalachian Region Of The United States, Barbara M. Rauscher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative narrative descriptive study focused on nine successful Latino nursing school graduates. Five participants were interviewed twice and four participants were interviewed once for a total of fourteen interviews. Participants and their families immigrated from Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Mexico. Participants attended school in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

Interviews revealed themes of Familism, Empowerment, and Perseverance. Familism was an overriding theme throughout each of the interviews. Participants described family as being their greatest support. They discussed sacrifices made by their families which assisted them in being successful. In addition, they also shared their willingness to make ...


The Impact Of Standardized Patients On Physical Assessment Skills, Clinical Judgment, And Self-Efficacy In Undergraduate Nursing Students, Allison Mueller Jan 2017

The Impact Of Standardized Patients On Physical Assessment Skills, Clinical Judgment, And Self-Efficacy In Undergraduate Nursing Students, Allison Mueller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The healthcare industry is seeing constant changes in patient acuity, expanding care environments, new healthcare policies, and continual advancements in research and technology. To overcome these challenges, nurses must receive education that adequately prepares them with confidence, clinical judgment, and the proper skills to provide safe and quality care to patients. More specifically, nurses must have strong physical assessment skills, sound clinical judgment, and high levels of self-efficacy (Chong, Lim, Liu, Lau, & Wu, 2016; Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2010). Peer physical assessments are generally the standard for practicing and validating physical assessment skills (Slater, Bryant, & Ng, 2016). Standardized patients (SPs), however, may be a better method for learning and validating physical assessment skills, enhancing clinical judgment, and improving self-efficacy (Sideras et al., 2013; Slater et al., 2016). The following paper ...


Effects Of Collaboration Between Speech-Language Pathologists And Third-Grade Teachers On Student Vocabulary Outcomes, Mary Mitchell Jan 2017

Effects Of Collaboration Between Speech-Language Pathologists And Third-Grade Teachers On Student Vocabulary Outcomes, Mary Mitchell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A persistent literacy crisis continues to be reflected in international (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2013), national (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2015), and local literacy outcome data. Educators, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs), are called upon to collaborate to support students who struggle with academic language/literacy. However, few studies have operationally defined collaboration and investigated the effects of collaboration on student achievement. As a result, there is insufficient guidance for educators about ways to design, implement, and assess the effectiveness of collaboration models, defined in terms of their effects on student outcomes. There were two main ...


Exploring Job Satisfaction And Preceptorship Capacity Among Applied Epidemiologists, Jessica C. Arrazola Jan 2017

Exploring Job Satisfaction And Preceptorship Capacity Among Applied Epidemiologists, Jessica C. Arrazola

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Job satisfaction is important to consider when developing strategies for recruitment and retention. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) conducted in 2014 was the first nationally representative assessment of the state public health workforce. Prior to this assessment, the job satisfaction of state agency public health workers and preceptor capacity had not been measured. This study fills the current research gaps by studying the job satisfaction among the applied epidemiology workforce, identifying factors influencing job satisfaction, and the describing the preceptorship capacity among epidemiologists. This research is based on the 2014 PH WINS data. The analysis ...


Self-Perceived Coordinated School Health Coordinator Leadership Styles And Practices, Heather R. Ledbetter Dec 2016

Self-Perceived Coordinated School Health Coordinator Leadership Styles And Practices, Heather R. Ledbetter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School-aged children’s health needs have changed over the last several decades to the present day population of many overweight and obese children with health complications (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2015). Tennessee has implemented the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) model for Coordinated School Health (CSH) in all public schools. Leading each school district’s program is a CSH Coordinator. The role of CSH Coordinators is to provide leadership to district and school administrators while effectively and efficiently implementing the CSH program (Wechsler, 2012).

The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the self-perceived leadership ...


To Foster A Culture Of Curiosity: A Hermeneutic Study Of The Experienced Nurse Educator And Student Intellectual Curiosity In The Online Learning Environment, Bedelia H. Russell Aug 2016

To Foster A Culture Of Curiosity: A Hermeneutic Study Of The Experienced Nurse Educator And Student Intellectual Curiosity In The Online Learning Environment, Bedelia H. Russell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Skills of inquiry are essential outcomes from a baccalaureate nursing education. Students who demonstrate intellectual curiosity can develop effective skills of inquiry. Nurse educators must place emphasis on teaching and learning strategies which engage student intellectual curiosity. However, the concept of intellectual curiosity is not well-studied across multiple contexts of teaching and learning environments within nursing education. In addition, there is little known about the experienced nurse educator and the meaning of student intellectual curiosity across multiple teaching and learning environments. With the increased emphasis on online teaching and learning in nursing education as a solution for expanding student access ...


Predicting Nclex-Rn Performance : An Exploration Of Student Demographics, Pre-Program Factors, And Nursing Program Factors., Heather Davis Mitchell May 2016

Predicting Nclex-Rn Performance : An Exploration Of Student Demographics, Pre-Program Factors, And Nursing Program Factors., Heather Davis Mitchell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nursing programs are experiencing a decline in National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) pass rates among graduates. While researchers have attempted to identify predictors of performance on the NCLEX-RN, identification of predictors remains elusive. Although the literature is replete with studies exploring NCLEX-RN predictors, prediction under the new 2013 NCLEX test plan and passing standards is not well established. Considering the ever-evolving diversity in students, combined with recent changes in the NCLEX-RN, further exploration of predictors of performance is warranted. Using a correlational design, the study sought to identify the predictors of NCLEX-RN performance for Bachelors of Science ...


Examining The Motivations And Benefits Of Student-Athletes Performing Community Service., Matthew Ryan Huml May 2016

Examining The Motivations And Benefits Of Student-Athletes Performing Community Service., Matthew Ryan Huml

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With over 460,000 active student-athletes (NCAA, n.d.), the student sub-population is large enough to investigate potential options for institutions to increase their academic achievement. Additionally, participating in academic-related activities is especially important because of concerns about student-athletes spending more than the 20 hours per week the NCAA allows for working on their sport (Wolverton, 2008). Studies frequently highlight a lack of effort by student-athletes to adjust to academic opportunities and expectations within higher education (Adler & Adler, 1991; Lally & Kerr, 2005; Levine, Etchison, & Oppenheimer, 2014; Miller & Kerr, 2003). To combat this adjustment to higher education, community service has shown the ability for students to develop ...


Factors That Influence Classroom Participation Of Junior- And Senior-Level Nursing Students, Mary Tedesco-Schneck May 2016

Factors That Influence Classroom Participation Of Junior- And Senior-Level Nursing Students, Mary Tedesco-Schneck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The healthcare system is dynamic and complex and requires innovative problem-solving to address inherent challenges and incorporate new knowledge and technology that may impact care. Nurses, as healthcare providers, need to be creative problem-solvers; hence nursing faculty must provide students with a foundation for problem-solving skills during their formative academic years. These skills may be enhanced through pedagogies that foster active learning supported by classroom participation. Feminist pedagogy reforms the faculty/student relationship and empowers students to be active participants in learning.

The purpose of this study situated in feminist pedagogy was to determine factors that influence classroom participation of ...


Assessment Of The Knowledge And Skills Of School Personnel To Respond To Diabetic Emergencies In Georgia Public Schools, Alesha Wright Jan 2016

Assessment Of The Knowledge And Skills Of School Personnel To Respond To Diabetic Emergencies In Georgia Public Schools, Alesha Wright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes is a common chronic disease that affects children in the United States. As children with diabetes attend school, the ability to appropriately manage their diabetes is essential to preventing life-threatening health complications. The purpose of the study was to assess school personnel’s knowledge of diabetes and perceived self-competence in performing diabetes management skills in response to a diabetic emergency. For the present study, a diabetic emergency was operationalized to include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis. A cross-sectional survey design, utilizing a fifty-two item self-administered questionnaire that accentuated the causes and symptoms of diabetes, definition of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia ...


Radiography Clinical Instructors' Perceptions Of The Transition From Technologist To Educator, Christina G. Lee Dec 2015

Radiography Clinical Instructors' Perceptions Of The Transition From Technologist To Educator, Christina G. Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Radiologic technologists who transition into the role of clinical instructor are usually expert practitioners but may lack knowledge of best practices regarding student instruction and evaluation. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to investigate how CIs experience the transition from practitioner to educator and what knowledge or education of best practices of instruction and evaluation they bring to the position. This study consisted of interviews with radiography CIs from one associate degree radiography program in the southeastern part of the United States. While some CIs felt prepared to transition into the CI role, none of them had previously ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Data Collection Systems Used In Radiography Educational Programs And The Role Mobile Electronic Devices Play, Robin S. Garner Dec 2015

A Comparative Analysis Of Data Collection Systems Used In Radiography Educational Programs And The Role Mobile Electronic Devices Play, Robin S. Garner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Each radiography program has a system to collect important data from didactic and clinical settings in order to accurately assess the progress and success of students, provide the needed student intervention, and provide accreditation agencies with appropriate documentation that demonstrates student success in reaching program learning outcomes. The purpose of this research study was to determine the method of data collection and documentation used by radiography programs to evaluate student progress and to examine if MEDs play a role in evaluating and documenting student skills at the point of care.

The majority of radiography programs in this study were using ...


Nurse Educators' Transition To Flipped Classroom: An Interpretive Description Study, Jean S. Bernard Dec 2015

Nurse Educators' Transition To Flipped Classroom: An Interpretive Description Study, Jean S. Bernard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To meet learning needs of current undergraduate nursing students, and respond to mandates for bettered prepared graduates, nurse educators must restructure curricula and teaching strategies. One strategy garnering increased attention is the flipped classroom model (FCM). This form of instruction requires students to have access to and be accountable for lecture material on their own time, and then use face-to-face classroom time for interactive learning that can include discussion, case study analysis, or application of pre-class lecture content. Although the FCM has gained popularity, few researchers have fully studied this strategy or considered experiences of faculty who implement the model ...


Stability Of Isometric Strength Asymmetry And Its Relationship To Sprint And Change-Of-Direction Performance Asymmetry In Division-I Collegiate Athletes, Benjamin H. Gleason Aug 2015

Stability Of Isometric Strength Asymmetry And Its Relationship To Sprint And Change-Of-Direction Performance Asymmetry In Division-I Collegiate Athletes, Benjamin H. Gleason

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the stability of strength asymmetry over a long-term period (1 year) and investigate the relationship of strength asymmetry to field test performance asymmetry in NCAA division-1 athletes. Isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) peak force asymmetry, ground contact time and finish time asymmetries on 10m sprint and 505 agility test performances were also observed. The impact of strength was also investigated in these studies to determine its effect on the magnitude of asymmetry.

In the second study, peak force asymmetry over a one-year period was observed to be a rather volatile quality, with ranges ...


Radiography Faculty Perceptions Of The Effectiveness Of Asynchronous Online Courses, Shirley J. Cherry May 2015

Radiography Faculty Perceptions Of The Effectiveness Of Asynchronous Online Courses, Shirley J. Cherry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess radiography faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of asynchronous online courses. Learning effectiveness in a web-based virtual learning environment (VLE) was the conceptual framework for this project (Piccoli, Ahmad, & Ives, 2001). For the purposes of this study, learning effectiveness was defined as the quality of learning being comparable between online and traditional courses (Moore, 2011).

Ten research questions were used to guide this study, and statistical tests were conducted to evaluate 17 null hypotheses. The statistical tests included use of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlations, and single-sample t-tests. Ten of the ...