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Full-Text Articles in Education

Quality In All Levels: A Model Defining And Measuring Quality In Bioethics Education, Ercan Avci May 2020

Quality In All Levels: A Model Defining And Measuring Quality In Bioethics Education, Ercan Avci

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to the lack of academic studies in the quality assessment of bioethics education, this dissertation aimed to propose a normative model, Quality in All Levels (QAL), to define and measure quality in bioethics education. The QAL model described quality in bioethics education as conformance to the goals and determined these goals as (1) increasing ethical knowledge, (2) improving ethical skills to strengthen ethical sensitivity, awareness, and judgment, (3) developing ethicalbehavior, and (4) promoting cultural competence. The dissertation utilized Avedis Donabedian’s three approaches: structure, process, and outcome to formulate quality standards and indicators in bioethics education. In respect ...


Teacher Expectations, Self-Efficacy, And Collective Efficacy In Three Tennessee Literacy Networks, Amanda Tinker May 2020

Teacher Expectations, Self-Efficacy, And Collective Efficacy In Three Tennessee Literacy Networks, Amanda Tinker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a significant difference in the dependent variables- teacher expectations, self-efficacy, and collective efficacy among the three levels of the independent variable- membership in one three literacy networks in Tennessee- Leading Innovation for Tennessee (LIFT), Read to Be Ready Coaching Network (RTBR), and Tennessee Early Literacy Network (TELN)- and if significant correlations existed between the dependent variables for each network. The population consisted of 161 K-3 Tennessee teachers who had been involved in the work of one of the three networks. Participants responded to an online survey via Google ...


An Instrumental Case Study: Growth Mindset Instructional Best Practices For Learning Disabled Students, Brenda L. Cornell May 2020

An Instrumental Case Study: Growth Mindset Instructional Best Practices For Learning Disabled Students, Brenda L. Cornell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The problem that drove this study was that students who struggle in school, especially those with a non-intelligence-based learning disability, suffer from a fixed mindset after years of feelings of failure in school. This mindset causes them to develop maladaptive approaches to learning that inhibit success. The purpose of this study was to describe the best practices of reading teachers who have a reputation for high student achievement and who adhere to a growth mindset in an effort to build a growth mindset culture with their students. This qualitative instrumental case study was conducted through interviews of eleven reading teachers ...


Teachers' Perceptions Of The Role Of Teacher-Parent Partnerships That Best Benefit Students In A Parochial College Preparatory High School, Sarah H. Gates Apr 2020

Teachers' Perceptions Of The Role Of Teacher-Parent Partnerships That Best Benefit Students In A Parochial College Preparatory High School, Sarah H. Gates

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Current research on teacher–parent partnerships has increasingly focused on early childhood education. This transcendental phenomenological study expanded and extended the understanding of effective teacher–parent partnerships in secondary education at a parochial college preparatory high school. According to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory (BST), academic growth and development in late adolescents are impacted by the overlapping systems of influence: the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify secondary educators’ perceptions of teacher–parent partnerships that best benefit students. Faculty at a parochial college preparatory high school were asked about their ...


Experiences And Perceptions Of Rural Junior High Teachers Participating In A Professional Learning Community, Pamela Ann Mills Gambrel Apr 2020

Experiences And Perceptions Of Rural Junior High Teachers Participating In A Professional Learning Community, Pamela Ann Mills Gambrel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this qualitative descriptive case study, the researcher investigated how junior high school teachers’ perceptions of the role of how professional learning communities (PLCs) shaped their instructional practices in a rural Title I school in Texas. Exploring and understanding the experiences and perceptions of the teachers and administrators that participated in an English, language arts, and reading PLC provided valuable data that helped the administration determine professional development opportunities that could improve the instructional strategies of the teachers. By collaborating, analyzing student data, and sharing teaching strategies, the teachers were empowered to take ownership and improve their instructional practices. Examining ...


Dare We Speak Of It: The Teaching Of Evolution In Private Schools Of An Urban Middle Georgia Setting, Eric J. Thompson Jan 2020

Dare We Speak Of It: The Teaching Of Evolution In Private Schools Of An Urban Middle Georgia Setting, Eric J. Thompson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, experience, and thinking of teachers at three private schools in Middle Georgia to determine how different private schools approach the teaching of evolution. For this project three private schools were included representing a secular, non-religiously affiliated private school, a Catholic affiliated private school, and an independent, Christian private school. The research was designed to answer one research question and three sub-questions. The primary research question was: How do private schools of the Middle Georgia area teach the theory of evolution? The three sub-questions were (2) Does the type of ...


The Impact Of Retention Efforts On The Collegiate Experience Of Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution (Pwi), Jeffrie Mallory Dec 2019

The Impact Of Retention Efforts On The Collegiate Experience Of Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution (Pwi), Jeffrie Mallory

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explored perceptions of thirteen stakeholders who participated in the Minority Orientation Program, a pre-entry initiative focused on retaining students of color at a private, four-year university located in the northeast region of the United States. Situated in Vincent Tinto’s Theory of Student Integration and Critical Race Theory, the author qualitatively assessed the Minority Orientation Program’s impact on participating students of color and the program’s influence on their enrollment through the completion of their Freshman year. The study’s findings confirmed that the Minority Orientation Program affects the collegiate experience for students of color in several ...


Exploratory Learning Activities In The Physics Classroom: Contrasting Cases Versus A Rich Dataset., Campbell Rightmyer Bego Dec 2019

Exploratory Learning Activities In The Physics Classroom: Contrasting Cases Versus A Rich Dataset., Campbell Rightmyer Bego

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In exploratory learning, students engage in an exploration activity on a new topic prior to instruction. This inversion of the traditional tell-then-practice order has been shown to benefit learning outcomes, especially conceptual knowledge and preparation for future learning, but not always. In three studies, the current work examines whether the type of exploration activity impacts learning mechanisms and outcomes, on the topic of gravitational field in undergraduate physics classrooms. Activities using either contrasting cases (CC) or a rich dataset (RD) are compared in two instructional orders, explore-first (EF) and instruct-first (IF). Learning outcomes measured procedural knowledge, conceptual knowledge, and performance ...


Admission Criteria: A Focus On Using The Interview, Vanessa Jones Dec 2019

Admission Criteria: A Focus On Using The Interview, Vanessa Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The growing number of candidates for allied health programs and the continued quest for identification of ideal candidates increases the pressure for allied health programs to continually improve their selection process. Despite past and recent research and the significant amount of literature on admission criteria for selective allied health programs, there is limited research on faculty perceptions of the interview as part of the admission criteria.

For this study, interviews were conducted with fifteen allied health faculty members who teach in a program with selective admissions. The interviews consisted of seven open-ended questions and were audio-recorded, then transcribed through Temi ...


Using Behavior Economic Nudges To Facilitate Client Follow-Through In Financial Coaching, Charlene Hurst, Charlene Hurst Dec 2019

Using Behavior Economic Nudges To Facilitate Client Follow-Through In Financial Coaching, Charlene Hurst, Charlene Hurst

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While benevolence-based programs have been a large part of meeting immediate financial needs of the poor, they lack the relational aspect needed to facilitate long-term behavior change. Recently many social service organizations have adopted financial coaching as a promising replacement for benevolence programming. The field of coaching has dealt with its own challenges. Most coaching practitioners surveyed in 2016 and 2019 acknowledged lack of client follow-through as their number one challenge. Behavior economics offered nudges as a solution. Nudges are cues placed within the physical environment to prod clients toward behavior change. A quantitative field study was conducted to evaluate ...


Examining Information Considered In Texas School Board Superintendent Evaluations: A Modified Replication Study, Audrey Young Aug 2019

Examining Information Considered In Texas School Board Superintendent Evaluations: A Modified Replication Study, Audrey Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify the information, through a modified replicated study, that Texas public school board trustees utilize as part of their evaluation of the district superintendent. This modified replicated study used a survey with ranking and multiple choice. The survey in this study was developed by Dr. Phil Gore for Washington school board members and modified by the researcher for Texas. A convenience sample of 168 school board trustees across the state of Texas was invited to participate in the study

The findings in this study identified the various elements from which schoolboards derive information ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Supplemental Instruction On Generation Z Students In Agn 331, Shania Simons, Candis L. Carraway, Stephanie Jones, Frantisek Majs May 2019

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Supplemental Instruction On Generation Z Students In Agn 331, Shania Simons, Candis L. Carraway, Stephanie Jones, Frantisek Majs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness, barriers and benefits of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on Generation Z students in AGN 331. The theory used as a model for this research was the Pace’s Model of College Impress. Prior research indicated that SI improves test scores, final grades, and persistence in historically difficult courses. Correlations and ANOVA’s were performed on SAS in order to determine a relationship between the non-SI attendees to those who did attend SI. The final grade reported an average of 0.56 points higher and on the final exam 4.26 points ...


A Qualitative Study Of Teacher Perceptions Of Guided Reading As An Instructional Model For Fifth-Grade Students, Codi Freeman May 2019

A Qualitative Study Of Teacher Perceptions Of Guided Reading As An Instructional Model For Fifth-Grade Students, Codi Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the multi-case qualitative study was to examine the perceptions of Grade 5 teachers after professional development using a guided reading training model. The study district, a suburban district in South Texas, serves over 600 Grade 5 students. Four Grade 5 teachers from four elementary schools in the same school district were selected to participate. The teachers were trained in the methodology of guided reading based on the protocols and research recommendations by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell. Prior to training in the methodology of guided reading, Grade 5 teachers were not required to teach guided reading ...


Wounds And Writing : Building Trauma-Informed Approaches To Writing Pedagogy., Michelle L. Day May 2019

Wounds And Writing : Building Trauma-Informed Approaches To Writing Pedagogy., Michelle L. Day

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation builds a trauma-informed approach to writing pedagogy informed by writing studies scholarship about trauma and inclusive pedagogy, clinical social work literature on trauma-informed care, and interviews with nine current University of Louisville writing faculty about their experiences academically supporting distressed students. I identify three central touchstones—“students are coddled,” “teacher’s aren’t therapists,” and “institutions don’t support trauma-informed teaching”—in scholarly and public debates regarding what to do about student trauma/distress in higher education. After exploring the valid concerns and misconceptions underpinning these touchstones, I illustrate how clinical research offers a way forward to help ...


Characteristics Of High Quality Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study, Kelli Barnett May 2019

Characteristics Of High Quality Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study, Kelli Barnett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the characteristics of high quality teachers. This study used a phenomenological methodology, enabling the researcher to gather information from a purposeful selection of people directly identified as high quality teachers by their principals. This study employed processes of data collection commonly used in observational analysis and included the use of interviews found in qualitative design.

The researcher was able to extract meaning using the coding process and the constant comparative method. Information was sorted into themes that supported and aligned with the research questions leading to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. This ...


The Impact Of 1:1 Technology Initiatives On New Literacy In The Secondary Elar Classroom: A Metasynthesis, Abbey Matatall Apr 2019

The Impact Of 1:1 Technology Initiatives On New Literacy In The Secondary Elar Classroom: A Metasynthesis, Abbey Matatall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Guided by socio-cultural learning theories of Vygotsky’s (1979) social-constructivism and cultural-historical activity theory (Engeström, 2014), the researcher of this study formed three research questions regarding the emergent research trends on 1:1 technology initiatives in the secondary ELAR classroom and new literacy. In response, a meta-synthesis of relevant studies was conducted. To provide an initial framework for the synthesis, the researcher provided conceptual definitions and backgrounds of 1:1 technology initiatives, socio-cultural learning theories, and new literacy, supported by the history of literacy movements that led to this new model of literacy. Utilizing narrowed inclusion and exclusion criteria, the ...


Teachers And Creativity In The Classroom, Krystal Dawn Flanders Jan 2019

Teachers And Creativity In The Classroom, Krystal Dawn Flanders

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fostering creativity within the classroom can have numerous positive and lasting effects that support students in becoming adults who are inquisitive, curious, critical thinkers, as well as risk takers (Amabile & Kramer, 2012; Beghetto, 2015; Craft, 2003; Csikszentmihalyi, 2013; Hennessy, 2017; Piirto, 2004; Starko, 2018). Sternberg (2007) argues that, since the world is changing at a faster pace than ever before, students will need to continuously deal with new and unusual tasks and situations. Although the research identifies the importance of creativity in the classroom, the research also finds a trend in teachers' limited understanding of what creativity is and includes (Cho et ...


Speaking From Places: A Phenomenological Deconstructive Study Of Children’S Places, Child-Centric Methods, And Politics., Sugandh Dixit Dec 2018

Speaking From Places: A Phenomenological Deconstructive Study Of Children’S Places, Child-Centric Methods, And Politics., Sugandh Dixit

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation adopts an innovative phenomenological and deconstructive methodology to create a child-centric research process sensitive to facilitating, integrating, and representing children’s voices in designing their school playground. The study developed and employed two novel child-centric methods, an Embedded Walk and a Communal Child-Map Project in order to integrate parents’ and children’s experiences of the school spaces the authorities planned to renovate. Both methods reveal and complicate the socio-political dynamics that structure children’s, parents’, and researchers’ stances towards children’s places and worlds. During the Embedded Walk, children led their parents through their play spaces and they ...


Student Voices: African American High School Seniors' Perception Of Culturally Responsive Teaching., Whitney M. Stewart Dec 2018

Student Voices: African American High School Seniors' Perception Of Culturally Responsive Teaching., Whitney M. Stewart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examined African-American high school seniors’ perceptions of culturally responsive teaching in one public high school within a large urban public-school district in the southeastern region of the United States. It begins with a brief historical overview on the plight of African-Americans in the US public education system and how public school educators have failed to leverage Afrocultural learning orientations as an asset to educate and increase the academic achievement of African-American students in classrooms. The Philosophical Aspects of Cultural Difference Framework (Nichols, 1986, 1995) will guide this dissertation study. The latter part of the dissertation reveals that a ...


A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella Aug 2018

A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers and educational researchers in the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (Maine PSP) at the University of Maine identified making quality scientific arguments as a struggle for students. Not only is argumentation hard, but reasoning is the hardest component of an argument. Many frameworks have been developed to target teaching about argumentation but do not address how to teach one component of an argument in isolation. Educational practitioners encourage using everyday context to learn about arguments in the scientific context, but there is limited support in what is the best method. The first purpose of this research was to understand a ...


Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo Aug 2018

Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators are expected to instill a variety of skills in their students that are necessary to be competent citizens of society. One such set of skills, science literacy skills, broadly encompass the ability of an individual to evaluate reliability of data and information and critically analyze and interpret them (Gormally Brickman, Hallar, & Armstrong, 2009). These skills are utilized in everyday decision-making and given their pertinence, there is a need for citizens to be scientifically literate. Thus, educators need tools and assessments to help students develop these skills and analyze their science literacy. The aim of this study was to develop science literacy interventions that could be easily incorporated into college curricula, providing instructors with exemplars of classroom interventions with the intent to improve students’ science literacy skills. Therefore, the broad research question for this investigation was: How do science literacy interventions impact student proficiency in science literacy skills in college general education courses? I measured effectiveness of the interventions using the Test of Science Literacy Skills (TOSLS, Gormally Brickman, & Lutz, 2012) pre- and post-survey scores, as well as student feedback from pre- and post-survey, follow-up interviews. The TOSLS surveys were given as part of a participation grade to students in a general education undergraduate college course (n = 148). A subset of students volunteered to be interviewed regarding specific questions from the TOSLS survey, after both the pre-survey (n = 12) and the post-survey (n = 5), to further investigate student understanding and interpretation. Interventions were designed by modifying previous assignments from earlier years’ offerings of the class and were conducted both during class and outside of class as homework extensions. These interventions were created by evaluating scores and interviews on the TOSLS survey deployed as a pilot study in a previous semester of the undergraduate course. Based on these pilot data, four survey questions encompassing different science literacy skills of particular difficulty were targeted for intervention. The interventions were: (1) An interactive clicker-based lesson involving graph selection methods; (2) Data summits involving graph interpretation and source evaluation; and (3) A role-play after which students discussed sources of bias.

Although the results indicated no statistically significant changes in the average scores between the pre-survey and post-survey (t test, p = 0.82, α = 0.05), interviewed students recalled ...


Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions Of The Student Growth Portfolio Model In Tennessee, Amanda Pickens Aug 2018

Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions Of The Student Growth Portfolio Model In Tennessee, Amanda Pickens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this quantitative study was to discover perceptions of pre-K and kindergarten teachers within public schools in Tennessee regarding the appropriateness of the student growth portfolio model. This study explored teachers’ perceptions of the appropriateness of the math standards, English language arts standards, and the scoring guide included within the SGPM. A quantitative survey was used to understand pre-K and kindergarten teachers’ perceptions of the appropriateness of the 2017-2018 student growth portfolio model. There were 16 pre-K teachers and 51 kindergarten teachers who participated in the survey. Single sample t-tests were used to analyze responses. Research indicated that ...


School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs Aug 2018

School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the benefits of positive school climate and to measure the perceptions of school climate for intermediate grades in a Northeast Tennessee School district. An online school climate survey was used to collect responses from participants in intermediate grades and focused on the 3 major components of school climate: school engagement, school environment, and school safety. Data were collected for 2 consecutive years in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Response totals included 1,955 student responses, 116 teacher responses, and 210 parent responses that were analyzed and used for this study. Of the student totals, some students ...


Comparison Of Learning Outcomes From Online And Face-To-Face Accounting Courses, Joel Faidley Aug 2018

Comparison Of Learning Outcomes From Online And Face-To-Face Accounting Courses, Joel Faidley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Online education continues to evolve and grow dramatically at colleges and universities across the globe. Today’s society is comprised of people who are increasingly busy with work and family obligations and who are looking for more flexible and expedited avenues for higher education. Institutions seek to meet these new demands by offering online distance educational opportunities while increasing cash flow for their college. Unfortunately the pitfalls to this rush to meet online demand results in what some researchers assert are inadequate quality content and curriculum. Others indicate there are not significant differences in the outcomes from online learning compared ...


The Enhancing Reading Comprehension Performance Using The Strategy Of Highlighting Electronic Text, Christa Ashbaugh Jul 2018

The Enhancing Reading Comprehension Performance Using The Strategy Of Highlighting Electronic Text, Christa Ashbaugh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Reading comprehension is a criterial skill that an individual must utilize to navigate in the twenty-first century. This skill is developed throughout grade school and continues into adulthood. Many successful readers use active highlighting to assist in their reading comprehension. Active Highlighting is one of the most commonly used approaches to increase reading comprehension. Technology is ever growing and slowly replacing its paper-format counterparts. Educational settings are beginning to use this tool as a more efficient way to teach and test student’s abilities. High-stake tests such as the SAT, are wanting to provide an online format for their exams ...


A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller May 2018

A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is now a strong presence of virtual schools in the United States serving K-12 students, along with increased opportunities for brick-and-mortar students to take virtual courses (Ash, 2011; Luo, Hibbard, Franklin, & Moore, 2017). Research into the human impact of virtual education is not keeping pace (Gulosino & Miron, 2017; Rice et al., 2014). This study focused on the experiences and insights of virtual teachers in terms of their relationships with learners as well as on potential changes in their sense of professional identity as they moved from one setting to the other. During a series of three individual, semi-structured interviews, five teachers described their teaching first as brick-and-mortar high school teachers and then as teachers in virtual ...


A Phenomenological Study On Teacher Perception Of Change In School Culture As A Result Of The Implementation Of Mindfulness, Justin Penley May 2018

A Phenomenological Study On Teacher Perception Of Change In School Culture As A Result Of The Implementation Of Mindfulness, Justin Penley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the phenomenon of teacher perception of change in school culture as a result of the implementation of mindfulness. This study used a phenomenological methodology, enabling the researcher to gather information by focusing on and describing the impact of mindfulness on school culture in a deep comprehensive manner.

The investigator was able to extract meaning and code data, leading to the emergence of themes that supported and aligned with the study’s research questions and thus led into a holistic understanding of the phenomenon. This was accomplished through data analysis of rich, in-depth interviews ...


A School Of Choice: A Case Study Of An Instructional Learning Model In A Public School System, Samuel Mccord May 2018

A School Of Choice: A Case Study Of An Instructional Learning Model In A Public School System, Samuel Mccord

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This case study focused on the understandings of the administration and teaching staff with regard to the implementation and student academic growth of the B-L Upward program. The understandings were formed from data collected through structured, face-to-face interviews. The questioning of the staff members assisted in determining an understanding of the instructional model of the B-L Upward program. The experimental nature of the B-L Upward program allowed students, primarily those graduating from eighth grade and heading into high school, to choose an alternative to the traditional secondary learning environment. The current case study is an examination of the B-L Upward ...


Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And On-Ground Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat May 2018

Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And On-Ground Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators expect the number of institutions offering online courses and the number of students enrolling in these courses to increase as many students, particularly nontraditional students, discover the advantages of online content delivery. Online courses require new methods of communication between students and faculty as well as discovering new ways to build relationships, earn student trust, conduct appropriate assessment, and deliver useful course content. Many institutions—public, private, and for-profit—offer a wide variety of online coursework but faculty, employers, and the public have expressed concerns about the quality of online course content. In particular, online delivery of coursework in ...


The Effects Of Preceding Stimuli Formats On Proportional Reasoning Ability In Elementary School Students, Natalie D. Branch Jan 2018

The Effects Of Preceding Stimuli Formats On Proportional Reasoning Ability In Elementary School Students, Natalie D. Branch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) described fraction knowledge as the most important, yet most underdeveloped foundational skill among students. Due to the complex nature of fraction education, this study sought to understand the underlying fraction problem-solving skill of proportional reasoning in the hopes of gaining insight into children’s problem-solving strategies in order to implement more focused educational designs. The current study examined the effects of stimuli formats on children’s proportional reasoning ability by presenting four conditions involving two formats (continuous and discrete). Previous research indicates that students perform better on continuous stimuli and the goal of this ...