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Full-Text Articles in Education

Characteristics Of High Quality Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study, Kelli Barnett May 2019

Characteristics Of High Quality Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study, Kelli Barnett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the characteristics of high quality teachers. This study used a phenomenological methodology, enabling the researcher to gather information from a purposeful selection of people directly identified as high quality teachers by their principals. This study employed processes of data collection commonly used in observational analysis and included the use of interviews found in qualitative design.

The researcher was able to extract meaning using the coding process and the constant comparative method. Information was sorted into themes that supported and aligned with the research questions leading to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. This ...


Moving Towards A Dialogic Pedagogy: Using Video Feedback As A Teaching Tool To Respond To Writing Across Disciplines, Paul Martin May 2019

Moving Towards A Dialogic Pedagogy: Using Video Feedback As A Teaching Tool To Respond To Writing Across Disciplines, Paul Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the impact of video feedback (VF) as a teaching tool for responding to writing activities and assignments across disciplines and whether or not VF can help instructors facilitate dialogic exchanges between students and teachers. I conducted three case studies with three different instructors from three different disciplines: psychology, history, and nanoscience. To determine the potential of video feedback to facilitate dialogic pedagogies, this dissertation examined the presence of transformational leadership theory (Parkin, 2017), the voices of teaching and learning (Collison et al., 2001), and gesture theory (Bavelas et al., 2014; Peräkylä & Ruusuvuori, 2008) for the paralinguistic activity ...


Student Voices: African American High School Seniors' Perception Of Culturally Responsive Teaching., Whitney M. Stewart Dec 2018

Student Voices: African American High School Seniors' Perception Of Culturally Responsive Teaching., Whitney M. Stewart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examined African-American high school seniors’ perceptions of culturally responsive teaching in one public high school within a large urban public-school district in the southeastern region of the United States. It begins with a brief historical overview on the plight of African-Americans in the US public education system and how public school educators have failed to leverage Afrocultural learning orientations as an asset to educate and increase the academic achievement of African-American students in classrooms. The Philosophical Aspects of Cultural Difference Framework (Nichols, 1986, 1995) will guide this dissertation study. The latter part of the dissertation reveals that a ...


A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella Aug 2018

A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers and educational researchers in the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (Maine PSP) at the University of Maine identified making quality scientific arguments as a struggle for students. Not only is argumentation hard, but reasoning is the hardest component of an argument. Many frameworks have been developed to target teaching about argumentation but do not address how to teach one component of an argument in isolation. Educational practitioners encourage using everyday context to learn about arguments in the scientific context, but there is limited support in what is the best method. The first purpose of this research was to understand a ...


Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo Aug 2018

Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators are expected to instill a variety of skills in their students that are necessary to be competent citizens of society. One such set of skills, science literacy skills, broadly encompass the ability of an individual to evaluate reliability of data and information and critically analyze and interpret them (Gormally Brickman, Hallar, & Armstrong, 2009). These skills are utilized in everyday decision-making and given their pertinence, there is a need for citizens to be scientifically literate. Thus, educators need tools and assessments to help students develop these skills and analyze their science literacy. The aim of this study was to develop science literacy interventions that could be easily incorporated into college curricula, providing instructors with exemplars of classroom interventions with the intent to improve students’ science literacy skills. Therefore, the broad research question for this investigation was: How do science literacy interventions impact student proficiency in science literacy skills in college general education courses? I measured effectiveness of the interventions using the Test of Science Literacy Skills (TOSLS, Gormally Brickman, & Lutz, 2012) pre- and post-survey scores, as well as student feedback from pre- and post-survey, follow-up interviews. The TOSLS surveys were given as part of a participation grade to students in a general education undergraduate college course (n = 148). A subset of students volunteered to be interviewed regarding specific questions from the TOSLS survey, after both the pre-survey (n = 12) and the post-survey (n = 5), to further investigate student understanding and interpretation. Interventions were designed by modifying previous assignments from earlier years’ offerings of the class and were conducted both during class and outside of class as homework extensions. These interventions were created by evaluating scores and interviews on the TOSLS survey deployed as a pilot study in a previous semester of the undergraduate course. Based on these pilot data, four survey questions encompassing different science literacy skills of particular difficulty were targeted for intervention. The interventions were: (1) An interactive clicker-based lesson involving graph selection methods; (2) Data summits involving graph interpretation and source evaluation; and (3) A role-play after which students discussed sources of bias.

Although the results indicated no statistically significant changes in the average scores between the pre-survey and post-survey (t test, p = 0.82, α = 0.05), interviewed students recalled ...


Comparison Of Learning Outcomes From Online And Face-To-Face Accounting Courses, Joel Faidley Aug 2018

Comparison Of Learning Outcomes From Online And Face-To-Face Accounting Courses, Joel Faidley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Online education continues to evolve and grow dramatically at colleges and universities across the globe. Today’s society is comprised of people who are increasingly busy with work and family obligations and who are looking for more flexible and expedited avenues for higher education. Institutions seek to meet these new demands by offering online distance educational opportunities while increasing cash flow for their college. Unfortunately the pitfalls to this rush to meet online demand results in what some researchers assert are inadequate quality content and curriculum. Others indicate there are not significant differences in the outcomes from online learning compared ...


Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions Of The Student Growth Portfolio Model In Tennessee, Amanda Pickens Aug 2018

Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions Of The Student Growth Portfolio Model In Tennessee, Amanda Pickens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this quantitative study was to discover perceptions of pre-K and kindergarten teachers within public schools in Tennessee regarding the appropriateness of the student growth portfolio model. This study explored teachers’ perceptions of the appropriateness of the math standards, English language arts standards, and the scoring guide included within the SGPM. A quantitative survey was used to understand pre-K and kindergarten teachers’ perceptions of the appropriateness of the 2017-2018 student growth portfolio model. There were 16 pre-K teachers and 51 kindergarten teachers who participated in the survey. Single sample t-tests were used to analyze responses. Research indicated that ...


School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs Aug 2018

School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the benefits of positive school climate and to measure the perceptions of school climate for intermediate grades in a Northeast Tennessee School district. An online school climate survey was used to collect responses from participants in intermediate grades and focused on the 3 major components of school climate: school engagement, school environment, and school safety. Data were collected for 2 consecutive years in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Response totals included 1,955 student responses, 116 teacher responses, and 210 parent responses that were analyzed and used for this study. Of the student totals, some students ...


A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller May 2018

A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is now a strong presence of virtual schools in the United States serving K-12 students, along with increased opportunities for brick-and-mortar students to take virtual courses (Ash, 2011; Luo, Hibbard, Franklin, & Moore, 2017). Research into the human impact of virtual education is not keeping pace (Gulosino & Miron, 2017; Rice et al., 2014). This study focused on the experiences and insights of virtual teachers in terms of their relationships with learners as well as on potential changes in their sense of professional identity as they moved from one setting to the other. During a series of three individual, semi-structured interviews, five teachers described their teaching first as brick-and-mortar high school teachers and then as teachers in virtual ...


A Phenomenological Study On Teacher Perception Of Change In School Culture As A Result Of The Implementation Of Mindfulness, Justin Penley May 2018

A Phenomenological Study On Teacher Perception Of Change In School Culture As A Result Of The Implementation Of Mindfulness, Justin Penley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the phenomenon of teacher perception of change in school culture as a result of the implementation of mindfulness. This study used a phenomenological methodology, enabling the researcher to gather information by focusing on and describing the impact of mindfulness on school culture in a deep comprehensive manner.

The investigator was able to extract meaning and code data, leading to the emergence of themes that supported and aligned with the study’s research questions and thus led into a holistic understanding of the phenomenon. This was accomplished through data analysis of rich, in-depth interviews ...


Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And On-Ground Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat May 2018

Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And On-Ground Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators expect the number of institutions offering online courses and the number of students enrolling in these courses to increase as many students, particularly nontraditional students, discover the advantages of online content delivery. Online courses require new methods of communication between students and faculty as well as discovering new ways to build relationships, earn student trust, conduct appropriate assessment, and deliver useful course content. Many institutions—public, private, and for-profit—offer a wide variety of online coursework but faculty, employers, and the public have expressed concerns about the quality of online course content. In particular, online delivery of coursework in ...


A School Of Choice: A Case Study Of An Instructional Learning Model In A Public School System, Samuel Mccord May 2018

A School Of Choice: A Case Study Of An Instructional Learning Model In A Public School System, Samuel Mccord

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This case study focused on the understandings of the administration and teaching staff with regard to the implementation and student academic growth of the B-L Upward program. The understandings were formed from data collected through structured, face-to-face interviews. The questioning of the staff members assisted in determining an understanding of the instructional model of the B-L Upward program. The experimental nature of the B-L Upward program allowed students, primarily those graduating from eighth grade and heading into high school, to choose an alternative to the traditional secondary learning environment. The current case study is an examination of the B-L Upward ...


Development And Validation Of A Scale To Measure Misconceptions About Educational Psychology Among Pre-Service Teachers, Morgan Mcafee Jan 2018

Development And Validation Of A Scale To Measure Misconceptions About Educational Psychology Among Pre-Service Teachers, Morgan Mcafee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Misconceptions are widespread or commonly held beliefs explicitly contradicted by empirical evidence. When teachers harbor misconceptions or unjustified beliefs about teaching, learning, and human motivation, the potential pedagogical consequences are profound, and these inaccurate beliefs may be instilled into future students through ineffective teaching strategies and gross misinterpretations of learning science. While existing research has examined misconceptions about general psychology and neuroscience among various populations, no prior work has evaluated pre-service teachers' misconceptions about topics of educational psychology, comprising inaccurate beliefs about teaching, learning, and human motivation. The purpose of this research is to describe the development and validation of ...


The Effects Of Preceding Stimuli Formats On Proportional Reasoning Ability In Elementary School Students, Natalie D. Branch Jan 2018

The Effects Of Preceding Stimuli Formats On Proportional Reasoning Ability In Elementary School Students, Natalie D. Branch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) described fraction knowledge as the most important, yet most underdeveloped foundational skill among students. Due to the complex nature of fraction education, this study sought to understand the underlying fraction problem-solving skill of proportional reasoning in the hopes of gaining insight into children’s problem-solving strategies in order to implement more focused educational designs. The current study examined the effects of stimuli formats on children’s proportional reasoning ability by presenting four conditions involving two formats (continuous and discrete). Previous research indicates that students perform better on continuous stimuli and the goal of this ...


Best Practices Used By Assistant Superintendents Of Curriculum And Instruction: Improving Teacher Instruction In A High Accountability Environment, Julie Madden Dec 2017

Best Practices Used By Assistant Superintendents Of Curriculum And Instruction: Improving Teacher Instruction In A High Accountability Environment, Julie Madden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative multi-case study investigated not only the role of assistant superintendents of curriculum and instruction, but the strategies and best practices used by four assistant superintendents of curriculum and instruction and a deputy superintendent of teaching and learning from East Texas in order to improve classroom instruction and support teachers in the high-stakes testing environment. The study sheds light on the role of central office leaders, their views related to the high-stakes testing environment and the impact they have on instruction for teachers and students. The responses given in this qualitative case study were carefully analyzed in order to ...


Young Adult Literature And Empathy In Appalachian Adolescents, Kelsey R. Kiser Dec 2017

Young Adult Literature And Empathy In Appalachian Adolescents, Kelsey R. Kiser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Based on recent research concluding that fiction can increase empathy, this project examines how multicultural young adult literature may encourage empathy in Appalachian adolescents. Empathy encourages prosocial behaviors, but evidence suggests that young adults’ ability to empathize has declined in recent decades. In addition, Appalachia in particular is still a relatively homogenous region as it is majority white, protestant Christian, and heteronormative. Because of this, young adults in Appalachia may encounter few diverse perspectives in real life; multicultural young adult literature can provide diverse perspectives with which teenagers can empathize in a region where they might not have similar opportunities ...


Perceptions Of Effective Pedagogical Practices And Classroom Management Strategies: A Cross-Case Analysis Of Four Middle School Teachers, Igor Gusyakov May 2017

Perceptions Of Effective Pedagogical Practices And Classroom Management Strategies: A Cross-Case Analysis Of Four Middle School Teachers, Igor Gusyakov

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to identify and describe the pedagogical practices and classroom management strategies of consistently effective and successful teachers as evidenced by teacher perceptions and observations.

Four middle school teachers from two middle schools within the same school district were selected to participate in the study. The teachers were selected based on their effectiveness identified by their supervisor. The teachers were interviewed about their own perceptions as to what effective pedagogical practices are, based on their teaching experience. The teachers were also observed in their classrooms.

The key findings of the study indicated the importance of stablishing classroom procedures ...


Pairing Young Adult And Classic Literature In The High School English Curriculum, Anne V. Miller May 2017

Pairing Young Adult And Classic Literature In The High School English Curriculum, Anne V. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Literacy experts recommend young adult literature to engage teens and scaffold their developing reading and literary analysis skills. Yet, the American high school English curriculum is dominated by a narrow list of classics, virtually unchanged since the late 19th century. This static curriculum neither reflects the diversity of American culture nor the lives of students in the 21st century. Adolescent literacy scholarship can support practitioners by expanding the research on effective strategies for using young adult literature. This research study examines the effects of an intentional pairing of a classic work of literature with a work of young ...


Assessing Students' Understanding Of Variability And Graph Interpretation Through An Authentic Science Investigation, William M. Schlager May 2017

Assessing Students' Understanding Of Variability And Graph Interpretation Through An Authentic Science Investigation, William M. Schlager

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis research combined efforts of two existing projects at the University of Maine in collaboration with the Schoodic Institute, the Acadia Learning Snowpack Project and the Maine Data Literacy Project. The Snowpack Project provided a context to explore student learning of variability and graphing skills by gathering data on snowfall and accumulation throughout the winter and using the data to ask and answer a scientific question. The Maine Data Literacy Project provided a framework and instruments for assessing students’ understanding of variability and graph interpretation skills.

The first goal of this research was to measure student learning about variability ...


Up From Poverty: A Narrative Non-Fiction Study Of Three Female Superintendents From Poverty, Stephanie L. Johnson May 2017

Up From Poverty: A Narrative Non-Fiction Study Of Three Female Superintendents From Poverty, Stephanie L. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This narrative non-fiction study was designed to investigate the lived experiences of three female superintendents in the state of Texas who have lived in poverty during their youth and early life. The participating female superintendents were contacted by this researcher through email. The information used in this study was collected from participating superintendents through interviews and analyzed to find the common themes that exist between the lived experiences of each female superintendent from poverty as she progressed through the stages of development in life. The information was also analyzed to ascertain how she was able to elevate out of poverty ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Professional Learning Communities On The Instructional Climate At Flintville Elementary School In Lincoln County, Tn, David Golden May 2017

Teacher Perceptions Of Professional Learning Communities On The Instructional Climate At Flintville Elementary School In Lincoln County, Tn, David Golden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore teacher perceptions of Professional Learning Communities on the instructional climate at Flintville Elementary School in Lincoln County, Tennessee. Participants in the study included five teachers, the evaluation supervisor, and one parent from Flintville Elementary School. Through the analysis of interviews and a review of documents collected from Professional Learning Communities (PLC) meetings in grades Pre-K through 8, the investigator was able to extract meaning and code the data into categories that led to an understanding of the perceptions being researched.

Professional Learning Communities at Flintville Elementary School have changed the instructional climate concerning ...


Inclusive Teaching Strategies: An Evaluation Of Course Structure And Summative Assessment In Introductory Biology, Oluwaseun O. Agboola May 2017

Inclusive Teaching Strategies: An Evaluation Of Course Structure And Summative Assessment In Introductory Biology, Oluwaseun O. Agboola

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several active learning strategies have been used when increasing the structure of a course as increasing course structure has been known to improve student learning in introductory STEM courses. Much has been studied on the value of frequent formative assessment; however, few studies have evaluated the effective modes of delivering summative assessment. This study examines the use of summative assessment as an inclusive teaching practice to improve first generation college student success in introductory biology and also uses faculty surveys to find out how instructors structure their introductory biology course and why they are structured that way. Final exams were ...


Relevant Versus Extraneous Music In Multimedia Instruction: A Study Of The Coherence Principle, Jonathan Gunnell Jan 2017

Relevant Versus Extraneous Music In Multimedia Instruction: A Study Of The Coherence Principle, Jonathan Gunnell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the inclusion of nonessential music in an instructional multimedia presentation affected learners’ ability to recall information in retention, cued-retention, and transfer cognitive measures. This study tested the coherence principle of multimedia learning which holds that the addition of nonessential content that is not relevant to the instruction is detrimental to learning. This study tested this principle by analyzing differences across three groups; a control group which included no additional music, a group including bland music selected at random, and a group including music that has been intentionally designed to align with ...


Factor Invariance Of The Standard Achievement Admission Test By Gender And School Types, Mohammed Alqabbaa Jan 2017

Factor Invariance Of The Standard Achievement Admission Test By Gender And School Types, Mohammed Alqabbaa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the factorial structure of the SAAT with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Specifically, a CFA of a four-factor model (the hypothesized model) was tested to see if the model had good fit as well as a model generated from an EFA. The EFA showed that the SAAT test only measured two factors (biology and chemistry), not the four posited by the test developers. The CFA provided good fit to a two-factor model; however, a CFA showed that the hypothesized four-factor model also fit the data well and so the hypothesized model was selected ...


A Formative Process Evaluation Study Of Teacher Usage Of A Learning Management System In A K-12 Public School, Victoria Franzese Jan 2017

A Formative Process Evaluation Study Of Teacher Usage Of A Learning Management System In A K-12 Public School, Victoria Franzese

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore teacher perceptions, concerns, and integration of a Learning Management System (LMS) in a K-12 public school. With more educational institutions adopting LMSs, it is imperative to examine teachers' concerns regarding the tool as teachers have an important role in how effectively an innovation—such as an LMS—is implemented (Lochner, Conrad, & Graham, 2015). Ultimately, adoption of an innovation can be successful if teachers have an understanding of the components leading to the innovation's success, such as the innovation's value in enhancing both the curriculum and the students' learning experiences (Lochner et al., 2015). This study used the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a main framework to not only measure implementation of the LMS, but to also increase the likelihood of the LMS effecting positive change in schools (George, Hall, & Stiegelbauer, 2006). The framework's Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) was used with participants to determine teachers' concerns. The sample population for this study consisted of secondary teachers at a public high school in central Florida in 2017. Out of the 125 teachers employed at the school, a total of 36 (n = 36) participated in the online survey. Three of the teachers surveyed then participated in interviews to provide additional insight. Data was analyzed and organized into five main topics: (a) Stages of Concern Profile; (b) teacher concerns; (c) benefits of the LMS; (d) barriers to the LMS; and (e) teacher needs. An analysis of the survey data revealed that the study's survey participants, on average, had the highest concerns at Stage 0 (Unconcerned), Stage ...


“I’M Not Good At Math”: Mathematical Illiteracy And Innummeracy In The United States, G. Wesley Rogers Jan 2017

“I’M Not Good At Math”: Mathematical Illiteracy And Innummeracy In The United States, G. Wesley Rogers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Why do we view mathematics the way we do in the United States and how have these views created an environment where we consider mathematical illiteracy and innumeracy socially and culturally acceptable when a lack of this knowledge and ability can function to enslave, exploit, restrict, and oppress. Throughout this investigation, I have explored some of the possible reasons for why we view education, mathematics, and the learning of mathematics the way we do and the impact of these views on our motivation and desire to learn mathematics. Using my over 20 years of teaching experience and the review of ...


Choice-Based Assessments And Their Use With 1:1 Technology Devices, Joshua Ottow Dec 2016

Choice-Based Assessments And Their Use With 1:1 Technology Devices, Joshua Ottow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Choice-based assessments are classroom activities in which students are given some element of choice in how they meet defined learning objectives. As educators seek to adequately prepare students for the rapidly changing world that they will enter after high school, they have placed a greater focus on the types of assessment practices used in the classroom. Choice-based assessments, particularly when used with a 1:1 technology device, may have the impact of increasing student motivation to learn and enhancing the development of skills that they may need after high school (Schwartz & Arena, 2013; Tapscott, 2008). To date, there has been minimal research ...


Elementary School Tvaas Composites: A Comparison Between Title I Elementary Schools And Non-Title I Elementary Schools In Tennessee, Anthony W. Padelski Dec 2016

Elementary School Tvaas Composites: A Comparison Between Title I Elementary Schools And Non-Title I Elementary Schools In Tennessee, Anthony W. Padelski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of Title I is to provide extra instructional services and activities that support students identified as failing or most at risk of failing the state’s challenging performance standards in mathematics, reading, and writing. Low-income schools or Title I schools are the primary target of Title I funds. A school is eligible for Title I status when 40% of the school’s students are from low income families; these students are identified by their eligibility to receive free and reduced priced meals.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in elementary ...


Elementary Principal Perceptions Of The Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model, Jason W. Vance Dec 2016

Elementary Principal Perceptions Of The Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model, Jason W. Vance

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (TEAM) had been in a state of reform since being awarded the Race to the Top Grant. Few teachers admit that an evaluation influenced them significantly; additionally, few administrators agreed that when they evaluated a teacher, it did not significantly affect the teacher or students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the perceptions of building‑level principals regarding the effectiveness (i.e., increased teacher participation and quality) and efficiency (i.e., produces the required results) of the TEAM in regard to teacher evaluations. Four elementary school principals from East Tennessee participated in ...


Learning From Science Lectures : Students Remember More And Make Better Inferences When They Complete Skeletal Outlines Compared To Other Guided Notes., David Bradley Bellinger Aug 2016

Learning From Science Lectures : Students Remember More And Make Better Inferences When They Complete Skeletal Outlines Compared To Other Guided Notes., David Bradley Bellinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is common for students to take notes during lectures, but the accuracy and completeness of these notes is highly questionable. Therefore, instructors must make an important decision – should they provide their students with lecture notes? If so, how complete should the notes be and in what format? The present experiments examined how note format and degree of support impacted the encoding benefit of note-taking. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students listened to brief audio-recorded science lectures (Human blood, N = 42; Human ear, N = 36) and completed skeletal outlines (requiring students to conceptually organize the information using the structure indicated by ...