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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Multiple Case Study Exploring The Relationship Between Engagement In Model-Eliciting Activities And Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching Algebra, Aline Abassian Jan 2018

A Multiple Case Study Exploring The Relationship Between Engagement In Model-Eliciting Activities And Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching Algebra, Aline Abassian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research study was to explore the nature of the relationship between engagement in model-eliciting activities (MEAs) and pre-service secondary mathematics teachers' (PSMTs') mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) algebra. The data collection took place in an undergraduate mathematics education content course for secondary mathematics education majors. In this multiple case study, PSMTs were given a Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) pre-assessment designed to measure their MKT algebra, and based on those results, three participants were selected with varying levels of knowledge. This was done to ensure varied cases were represented in order to be able to examine ...


A Single Case Study On The Influence Of Feedback On The Instructional Quality Of A Preservice Elementary Teacher In Mathematics: The Instructional Quality Assessment Toolkit As A Resource, Makini Campbell Sutherland Jan 2018

A Single Case Study On The Influence Of Feedback On The Instructional Quality Of A Preservice Elementary Teacher In Mathematics: The Instructional Quality Assessment Toolkit As A Resource, Makini Campbell Sutherland

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this single case study was to determine if a preservice elementary teacher's instruction would be influenced by feedback on mathematics lessons. The focus of the research was on the use of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA) (Boston 2012) toolkit as an integral part in the feedback process. The IQA toolkit provides number ratings as well as qualitative descriptive ratings of various aspects of the mathematics lesson, defined under two constructs, or groups, labeled Academic Rigor and Accountable Talk. The researcher evaluated a preservice teacher's instruction on three occasions and facilitated feedback sessions following those observation ...


A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Successful Women In Science Fields, Jonathan Hall Jan 2018

A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Successful Women In Science Fields, Jonathan Hall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Girls and women face several forms of gender-based biases and discrimination in the science community. These issues create difficult circumstances for them to develop positive science identities. Since these difficult circumstances exist, science education and sociology researchers have used a deficit model to learn about their experiences, achievements, and attitudes. Understanding the experiences of successful women in science offers insight into how women can navigate the challenges presented by the science community and how science educators can support them. However, research studies that explore the experiences of successful women in science are scant. Therefore, the objective of this study was ...


Middle Grades Science In Florida: A Comparison Of Student Achievement In Comprehensive And Subject-Specific Science Courses 2013-2017, Kenneth Moore Jan 2018

Middle Grades Science In Florida: A Comparison Of Student Achievement In Comprehensive And Subject-Specific Science Courses 2013-2017, Kenneth Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As with U.S. student achievement on national and international science assessments, Florida's 8th grade student achievement on the 2013–2017 8th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) 2.0 Science/Statewide Science Assessment (SSA) was stagnant. To break this stagnation, many Florida school districts have changed middle grades science course offerings from traditional, subject-specific, discipline-based, layered, or field-specific science courses to comprehensive, integrated, spiraled, interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, thematic, or general science courses. There was a lack of research showing if either type of science course improved student achievement on standardized science assessments. Controlling for school district student population, low ...


Analysis Of The Effects Of Formative Assessment In Promoting Transfer Of Learning In An Undergraduate General Microbiology Laboratory Course, Andrea Rediske Jan 2017

Analysis Of The Effects Of Formative Assessment In Promoting Transfer Of Learning In An Undergraduate General Microbiology Laboratory Course, Andrea Rediske

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The undergraduate microbiology lab serves an important role in establishing a foundation of best practices in aseptic technique and infection control for pre-medical, pre-nursing, pre-pharmacy, or pre-allied health students. The high incidence of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in the US and evidence in the literature of less effective implementation of proper aseptic technique among apprentice doctors and nursing students suggests that more effective transfer of learning could improve implementation of these procedures in the clinical setting. The research described in this study aimed to assess learning transfer as it applied to aseptic techniques and infection control skills learned in the undergraduate ...


The Effectiveness Of Project-Based Learning Using Digital Storytelling Technology On Improving Second-Grade Students' Performance Of Science Standards, Mariella Dorr Jan 2017

The Effectiveness Of Project-Based Learning Using Digital Storytelling Technology On Improving Second-Grade Students' Performance Of Science Standards, Mariella Dorr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of digital storytelling technology integration through a project-based learning approach using digital stories combined with hands-on guided inquiry science lessons. As a teacher researcher, the focus was on the effectiveness in the performance of second-grade students using higher-order thinking science standards. For a period of ten weeks, the researcher through comparative action research investigated how emergent technology integration improved the performance of two second-grade classrooms implementing three higher-order thinking life science standards. A total of 27 students from two second-grade classrooms volunteered for this research. For the study, a pretest ...


An Analysis Of Undergraduate Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers' Ability To Contextualize Fraction Expressions And Decontextualize Fraction Word Problems, Laura Tapp Jan 2016

An Analysis Of Undergraduate Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers' Ability To Contextualize Fraction Expressions And Decontextualize Fraction Word Problems, Laura Tapp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research was to expand on existing literature by providing information on elementary school pre-service teachers' ability to contextualize fraction expressions and decontextualize fraction word problems. The elementary school pre-service teachers who participated in this study were enrolled in a mathematics for elementary school teachers content course in a college of education at a large university during the Spring 2016 semester. In this mixed-method study, the participants were given the Contextualization and Decontextualization of Fractions Instrument (CDFI) which assessed elementary school pre-service teachers' ability to solve fraction word problems and identify decontextualized fraction word problems into expressions ...


A Multiple Case Study Examining How Third-Grade Students Who Struggle In Mathematics Make Sense Of Fraction Concepts, Rebecca Gault Jan 2016

A Multiple Case Study Examining How Third-Grade Students Who Struggle In Mathematics Make Sense Of Fraction Concepts, Rebecca Gault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative multiple case study was conducted to reveal the sense-making processes third-grade students who struggle in mathematics used to build an understanding of fraction concepts. Purposive sampling identified three participants who were struggling in a local school's third grade mathematics classes. This research describes how these participants made sense of fraction concepts through their strengths and struggles while engaged in 15 small-group intervention sessions. Vygotsky's (1934/1986/2012) theory that children's optimal learning is supported by teacher-student interactions was used as an interpretive framework. Tasks were developed over the course of the intervention sessions with consideration ...


The Role Of Virtual Avatars In Supporting Middle School Students From Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds On Science In After School Programs, Benjamin Gallegos Jan 2016

The Role Of Virtual Avatars In Supporting Middle School Students From Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds On Science In After School Programs, Benjamin Gallegos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Students who receive additional educational supports in afterschool programs were the focus of the investigation. This study was conducted to measure what effects a TeachLivE avatar, a mixed-reality virtual environment, used in combination with a video game, had on the activation of prior knowledge in science for students in rural middle school. The delivery of the biology science lessons on cell structures and processes were delivered using the video game, Cell Command. The TeachLivE adult avatar was customized as a biologist who spoke to students in the treatment group about science concepts prior to playing the science video game. Unexpected ...


Project Ican: A Stem Learning And Persistence Model For Postsecondary Students With Disabilities, Aaron Koch Jan 2016

Project Ican: A Stem Learning And Persistence Model For Postsecondary Students With Disabilities, Aaron Koch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Education and work in Science, Technology, Engineering, & Math (STEM) are of utmost importance in a post-modern society. Yet American performance in the STEM disciplines has waned over recent years. In order to recapture a global advantage in STEM, efforts are being made by educators and policy makers to compile and implement instructional supports. Of particular interest to this study are post-secondary students with disabilities (SWDs) who persist and learn in STEM degree paths. This population is an "untapped resource" with limitless potential for contribution to the collective fields of STEM (Leddy, 2010, p. 3; Alston, Hampton, Bell, & Strauss, 1998, p. 5). The National Science Foundation (NSF) has funded Project Interdisciplinary Coaching as a Nexus for Transforming How Institutions Support Undergraduates in STEM (Project iCAN) at Landmark College as a model to develop a successful STEM support model. Post hoc interview data from students and staff at Landmark revealed themes pertaining to educational and vocational-training supports that may generalize to larger, urban institutions of higher education for further development of STEM persistence and learning models.


Setting The Agenda For Stem Literacy In Higher Education: A Content Analysis Of The Chronicle Of Higher Education, Maya Abdallah Jan 2016

Setting The Agenda For Stem Literacy In Higher Education: A Content Analysis Of The Chronicle Of Higher Education, Maya Abdallah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Enhancing achievement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a long-standing national concern. The current national agenda, to instill an "all hands on deck" approach to creating a STEM literate citizenry, calls for broadening the scope of inclusion in STEM efforts. A critical population, higher education administrators, faculty, and staff are a valuable resource to advancing this agenda. Under the proposed Agenda Setting Communication Theory (ASCT) model developed for this study, their level of exposure to needed information is an important indicator of their potential participation in this agenda. As the leading news medium for the higher education community ...


The Relationship Between Extracurricular Stem Activities And Performance On The Florida Science Assessment, Karin Fisher Jan 2016

The Relationship Between Extracurricular Stem Activities And Performance On The Florida Science Assessment, Karin Fisher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Students with disabilities perform below their non-disabled peers in science (National Center for Educational Statistics [NCES], 2011; National Educational Longitudinal Study [NELS], 1998; National Science Foundation [NSF], 2013). The achievement gap is a problem because the nation's competitiveness depends on individuals with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) knowledge, skills, and abilities to drive innovation that will lead to new products and economic growth (Business-Higher Education Forum [BHEF]/Act Policy Brief, 2014; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2016; National Science Board, 2015). If Florida is to continue to grow and prosper, all students, including students with disabilities ...


The Influence Of Instruction In Base 8 On Prospective Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching, Katie Harshman Jan 2016

The Influence Of Instruction In Base 8 On Prospective Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching, Katie Harshman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research project was to extend existing research literature by providing insight to how prospective teachers with differing levels of mathematical knowledge developed their conceptual understanding of whole number concepts and operations. Prospective teachers of interest were enrolled in an Elementary School Mathematics Course for Teachers (in the College of Education) with a whole number concepts and operations unit set entirely in base 8. In this mixed-mode study, participants were given the MKT, a measure designed to measure teacher mathematical knowledge for teaching, before and after taking the base 8 unit. The researcher focused on two specific ...


An Exploratory Comparison Of A Traditional And An Adaptive Instructional Approach For College Algebra, Ryan Kasha Jan 2015

An Exploratory Comparison Of A Traditional And An Adaptive Instructional Approach For College Algebra, Ryan Kasha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research effort compared student learning gains and attitudinal changes through the implementation of two varying instructional approaches on the topic of functions in College Algebra. Attitudinal changes were measured based on the Attitude Towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI). The ATMI also provided four sub-scales scores for self-confidence, value of learning, enjoyment, and motivation. Furthermore, this research explored and compared relationships between students' level of mastery and their actual level of learning. This study implemented a quasi-experimental research design using a sample that consisted of 56 College Algebra students in a public, state college in Florida. The sample was enrolled in ...


Novice Science Teachers' Thinking About The Purpose Of Teachers' Questions, Gwyndolyn Crittenden Jan 2014

Novice Science Teachers' Thinking About The Purpose Of Teachers' Questions, Gwyndolyn Crittenden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Effective teacher questioning during whole group instruction remains an important pedagogy in science education, especially the importance of helping novice teachers to guide student thinking using effective questions. This study examined how novice secondary science teachers’ understand the relationship between student thinking and teacher questioning. The sample was seven novice secondary science teachers’ enrolled in the University of Central Florida’s job embedded Resident Teacher Professional Preparation Program (RTP3 ). All participants received instruction and guided practice with the use of questions to elicit, probe, and challenge student ideas in the secondary science pedagogy class. Participants completed a questionnaire describing their ...


Secondary And Postsecondary Calculus Instructors' Expectations Of Student Knowledge Of Functions: A Multiple-Case Study, Cheryl Avila Jan 2013

Secondary And Postsecondary Calculus Instructors' Expectations Of Student Knowledge Of Functions: A Multiple-Case Study, Cheryl Avila

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This multiple-case study examines the explicit and implicit assumptions of six veteran calculus instructors from three types of educational institutions, comparing and contrasting their views on the iteration of conceptual understanding and procedural fluency of pre-calculus topics. There were three components to the research data recording process. The first component was a written survey, the second component was a "think-aloud" activity of the instructors analyzing the results of a function diagnostic instrument administered to a calculus class, and for the third component, the instructors responded to two quotations. As a result of this activity, themes were found between and among ...


Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs About Science Using Critical Incident Technique: A Case Study Approach., Meera Ravikumar Jan 2013

Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs About Science Using Critical Incident Technique: A Case Study Approach., Meera Ravikumar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary goal of this case study using qualitative and quantitative methods was to investigate pre-service elementary teachers’ initial self-efficacy beliefs about science and science teaching by exploring the K-12 science experiences of these prospective elementary teachers. Of the 108 participants who completed the science teaching efficacy belief survey (STEBI-B) (Enochs & Riggs, 1990), 12 participants were selected to be interviewed using Flanagan’s (1954) critical incident technique. Participants were asked to share their past positive and negative incidents during their K- 12 years with science and science teachers. They were also asked to report how past incidents affected them at present and how they believed they would impact them as future teachers of science in elementary schools. The past positive and negative incidents were analyzed using Bandura’s (1977) four sources of self-efficacy (mastery, vicarious, social persuasion, and physiological/emotional) and by school level; and the impact of the past science incidents on the subjects’ present and future beliefs as science teachers were categorized. The results of this study revealed that pre-service elementary teachers’ self-efficacy and beliefs were largely influenced by their past experiences with science in the K-12 years, and mastery experiences ...


Formative Assessment: Benefit For All, William Wallace Jan 2013

Formative Assessment: Benefit For All, William Wallace

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated how formative assessment implemented in a fifth grade mathematics classroom with a student response system and a student self-evaluative tool affected student self-assessment. Data were collected through individual student and focus group interviews, self-assessment sheets, and teacher reflections. Formative assessment is a low stakes classroom assessment that is an assessment for learning. This study used a student response system to convey feedback from the formative assessment to both students and teacher during instruction. The student self-assessment sheet was implemented to provide a more dynamic level of feedback for students than what could be provided through the student ...


A Case Study Exploring The Relationship Between Culturally Responsive Teaching And A Mathematical Practice Of The Common Core State Standards, Tashana Howse Jan 2013

A Case Study Exploring The Relationship Between Culturally Responsive Teaching And A Mathematical Practice Of The Common Core State Standards, Tashana Howse

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This collective case study explores the nature of the relationship between teachers’ use of culturally responsive teaching (CRT) practices and students’ engagement in constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others (SMP3). This study was informed by the Common Core State Standards Initiative related to developing mathematically proficient students through the use of student engagement practices consistent with the standards for mathematical practice. As a means to support teachers’ facilitating specific student engagement practices, professional development was provided. This study is situated in the growing body of research associated with student engagement and cultural identity. The case of two ...


Gifted Students' Engagement In A Middle School Research And Critical Thinking Course, Samuel Crupi Jr Jan 2012

Gifted Students' Engagement In A Middle School Research And Critical Thinking Course, Samuel Crupi Jr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This action research was an analysis of a group of eighth grade gifted students ‘classroom engagement in a large urban school district. Over a two-week period a variety of data were collected. Data were collected using the Student Engagement Instrument (Appleton & Christenson, 2004), which is a self-report of students’ perceptions of engagement. Observation data of student engagement were collected using a teacher developed student engagement checklist, which measured academic and behavioral indications of student engagement. At the end of the two week observation period students participated in an exit interview focused on their perceptions of student engagement. The student engagement ...


The Influence Of Choice In Manipulatives On Second Grade Students' Attitudes, Achievement, And Explanations Of Two-Digit Addition Concepts, Aryn Siegel Jan 2012

The Influence Of Choice In Manipulatives On Second Grade Students' Attitudes, Achievement, And Explanations Of Two-Digit Addition Concepts, Aryn Siegel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to improve my teaching practice, as well as my second grade students' success with two-digit addition concepts, by allowing them to choose the manipulative tools to explore problems and justify solutions. I examined how allowing my students this choice influenced their attitudes, achievement, and explanations of their thought processes. I found that allowing students to choose their own manipulatives had positive influences in all three areas. Pre- and post-test results showed an overall shift toward more positive mathematics attitudes, as well as increased academic achievement with two-digit addition concepts. Students also demonstrated changes in ...


Influencing Students To Become Stewards Of The Earth's Ocean, Jenifer Trimble Jan 2012

Influencing Students To Become Stewards Of The Earth's Ocean, Jenifer Trimble

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this action research study was to document 8th grade students' experiences at a residential marine learning facility as they discovered the interconnections between life on Earth and its dependency on ocean health. My goal was for students to take their new knowledge and share it with others in a quest to become educated and caring stewards of the Earth's ocean. Students in this study participated in open peer and instructor discussions, performed full and guided inquiry activities, and snorkeled among the shallow water habitats that transition from mangroves toward coral reefs to discover the interconnections among ...


Mathematic Strategies For Teaching Problem Solving: The Influence Of Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving Strategies On Students' Attitudes In Middle School, Kelly Lynn Klingler Jan 2012

Mathematic Strategies For Teaching Problem Solving: The Influence Of Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving Strategies On Students' Attitudes In Middle School, Kelly Lynn Klingler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this action research study was to observe the influence of teaching mathematical problem solving strategies on students’ attitudes in middle school. The goal was to teach five problem solving strategies: Drawing Pictures, Making a Chart or Table, Looking for a Pattern, Working Backwards, and Guess and Check, and have students reflect upon the process. I believed that my students would use these problem solving strategies as supportive tools for solving mathematical word problems. A relationship from the Mathematics Attitudes survey scores on students’ attitudes towards problem solving in mathematics was found. Students took the Mathematics Attitudes survey ...


Probing Space: Formative Assessment In A Middle School Inquiry-Based Science Classroom, Clinton W. Anderson Jan 2012

Probing Space: Formative Assessment In A Middle School Inquiry-Based Science Classroom, Clinton W. Anderson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This action research thesis was performed to explore the research questions: How did the use of formative assessment affect student performance data in understanding the concepts of the Sun-Earth-Moon system?, How did the use of learning scales as formative techniques impact student self-assessment of their knowledge of the Sun-Earth-Moon system?, How did the implementation of formative assessment techniques affect student discourse on the topic of the Sun-Earth-Moon system? Formative assessment techniques including "talk-friendly" probes, sticky bars, and agree-disagree statements were used in the classroom to expose gaps in knowledge, to facilitate discourse, and promote self-assessment. A triangulation of data included ...


The Effects Of Journaling And Vocabulary Strategies On Elementary Students' Attitudes Towards Mathematical Performance, Renee Marie Janzen Jan 2012

The Effects Of Journaling And Vocabulary Strategies On Elementary Students' Attitudes Towards Mathematical Performance, Renee Marie Janzen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an attempt to examine the effects of journaling and vocabulary strategies on elementary students’ attitudes towards mathematical performance, I embedded reflective journaling and vocabulary strategies into my fourth grade mathematics curriculum. The mathematics content focused on whole number place value, multiplication, and division. My study revealed the positive effects these interventions can have on elementary students’ attitudes towards mathematics.


The Implementation Of Engineering Design Challenges On 4th Grade Students' Attitudes Towards Engineering, Classroom Climate, And Writing Ability, Tara L. Newby Jan 2012

The Implementation Of Engineering Design Challenges On 4th Grade Students' Attitudes Towards Engineering, Classroom Climate, And Writing Ability, Tara L. Newby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if my practice of having 4th grade students participate in engineering design challenges impacted their attitudes towards engineering, the classroom climate, and writing ability. In this action research students were given a pre and posttest that measured their attitudes towards engineering and their perceptions of the classroom climate. A pre and post written reflection was also examined and compared for the use of predicting, observing, thinking, explaining, reflecting, and yearning to learn more. A triangulation of data included the use of pre and posttest statistical analysis, rubrics, teacher observation, and student interviews ...


An Investigation In Journal Writing And Cooperative Learning With 8th Grade Geometry Students In The Construction Of Proof, Paul Wojcik Jan 2011

An Investigation In Journal Writing And Cooperative Learning With 8th Grade Geometry Students In The Construction Of Proof, Paul Wojcik

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This action research study summarizes the investigation of journal writing and cooperative grouping with 8th grade geometry students in the construction of proof. Students written responses to prompts in journals were analyzed over the course of twelve weeks. Case studies of four students were developed from the researchers’ three geometry classes. All four students in the study participated in an academic program called Pre International Baccalaureate Preparation. Standardized test scores and an attitude scale categorized the four students. The ATMAT survey (Appendix A) measured each student’s attitude toward mathematics. Writing prompts focused on the students’ perceptions of the group ...


Influence Of Using Context Supportive Of The Area Model On Sixth Grade Students' Performance When Writing Word Problems For Fraction Subtraction And Multiplication, Monica L. Friske Jan 2011

Influence Of Using Context Supportive Of The Area Model On Sixth Grade Students' Performance When Writing Word Problems For Fraction Subtraction And Multiplication, Monica L. Friske

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this action research study was to evaluate my own practice of teaching writing word problems with fraction subtraction and fraction multiplication using appropriate context. I wanted to see how focusing my instruction on the use of the area model and manipulatives could develop students’ understanding of fractions when writing word problems. I chose this topic because Florida has adopted the Common Core State Standards and will be implementing them in the coming years. These standards encourage the development of deeper understanding of mathematics, including fractions. I hoped this research would give my students the opportunity to make ...


The Influence Of Virtual Manipulatives On Second Grader's Acquisition Of Place Value Concepts, Kay Jolicoeur Jan 2011

The Influence Of Virtual Manipulatives On Second Grader's Acquisition Of Place Value Concepts, Kay Jolicoeur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine my own practice of teaching place value and the influence virtual manipulatives had, in addition to physical manipulatives, on place value understanding of my second grade students. I wanted to see how adding a base-ten computer applet might better meet the needs of all learners while also meeting the needs of today’s technological classroom. Through this study, I found that both physical and virtual manipulatives helped students acquire place value concepts. I found that virtual manipulatives had features that engaged students in a way that increased their mathematical language, increased students ...


Developing Fourth Graders' Proficiency In Basic Multiplication Facts Through Strategy Instruction, Stacey Braddock Jan 2010

Developing Fourth Graders' Proficiency In Basic Multiplication Facts Through Strategy Instruction, Stacey Braddock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this action research study was to evaluate my own practice of teaching basic multiplication facts to fourth graders. I wanted to see how focusing my instruction on strategies would help my students develop proficiency in basic multiplication facts. I chose this topic because Florida was in the process of shifting to new standards that encourage teaching for deeper meaning. I hoped this research would give my students the opportunity to make sense of multiplication on a deeper level, while giving me insight into how students learn multiplication. Through this study, I learned that students initially find multiplication ...