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Articles 1  30 of 155
FullText Articles in Education
Seeing The World Differently. An Exploration Of A Professional Development Model Bridging Science And Lay Cultures, Michael D. Garrett
Seeing The World Differently. An Exploration Of A Professional Development Model Bridging Science And Lay Cultures, Michael D. Garrett
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This study explores the rationale, efficacy, and social validity of a professional development model designed to move elementary school science activities closer to the practices of working scientists as required by the United States’ “Next Generation Science Standards.” The model is culturally sensitive and aims to create experiences with high subjective task value. The formal theory of change uses scaffolding, Piagetian agency, and Vygotskian learning opportunities to argue that culturally familiar representational tasks in culturally natural intersubjective contexts can lead to work prototypical of scientific modeling under particular facilitation conditions: when participants (a) are allowed free use of their cognitive ...
Exploring The Knowledge Of Algebra For Teaching., Jonathan David Watkins
Exploring The Knowledge Of Algebra For Teaching., Jonathan David Watkins
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
For the past few decades, researchers in mathematics education have been exploring the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)—or knowledge related to teaching content—and applying it to various areas of mathematics, such as algebra. Research related to teacher knowledge of algebra is critical because researchers (e.g., Hill, Rowan, & Ball, 2005) have found correlations between some types of teacher knowledge and student achievement in mathematics; students from around the world are outperforming U.S. students on international assessments of mathematics, including algebra (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2014, 2016); and algebra plays an integral role in the K12 mathematics curriculum in the U.S. (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000). Given this ...
A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella
A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Teachers and educational researchers in the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (Maine PSP) at the University of Maine identified making quality scientific arguments as a struggle for students. Not only is argumentation hard, but reasoning is the hardest component of an argument. Many frameworks have been developed to target teaching about argumentation but do not address how to teach one component of an argument in isolation. Educational practitioners encourage using everyday context to learn about arguments in the scientific context, but there is limited support in what is the best method. The first purpose of this research was to understand a ...
Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo
Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Educators are expected to instill a variety of skills in their students that are necessary to be competent citizens of society. One such set of skills, science literacy skills, broadly encompass the ability of an individual to evaluate reliability of data and information and critically analyze and interpret them (Gormally Brickman, Hallar, & Armstrong, 2009). These skills are utilized in everyday decisionmaking and given their pertinence, there is a need for citizens to be scientifically literate. Thus, educators need tools and assessments to help students develop these skills and analyze their science literacy. The aim of this study was to develop science literacy interventions that could be easily incorporated into college curricula, providing instructors with exemplars of classroom interventions with the intent to improve students’ science literacy skills. Therefore, the broad research question for this investigation was: How do science literacy interventions impact student proficiency in science literacy skills in college general education courses? I measured effectiveness of the interventions using the Test of Science Literacy Skills (TOSLS, Gormally Brickman, & Lutz, 2012) pre and postsurvey scores, as well as student feedback from pre and postsurvey, followup interviews. The TOSLS surveys were given as part of a participation grade to students in a general education undergraduate college course (n = 148). A subset of students volunteered to be interviewed regarding specific questions from the TOSLS survey, after both the presurvey (n = 12) and the postsurvey (n = 5), to further investigate student understanding and interpretation. Interventions were designed by modifying previous assignments from earlier years’ offerings of the class and were conducted both during class and outside of class as homework extensions. These interventions were created by evaluating scores and interviews on the TOSLS survey deployed as a pilot study in a previous semester of the undergraduate course. Based on these pilot data, four survey questions encompassing different science literacy skills of particular difficulty were targeted for intervention. The interventions were: (1) An interactive clickerbased lesson involving graph selection methods; (2) Data summits involving graph interpretation and source evaluation; and (3) A roleplay after which students discussed sources of bias.
Although the results indicated no statistically significant changes in the average scores between the presurvey and postsurvey (t test, p = 0.82, α = 0.05), interviewed students recalled ...
School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs
School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This study was designed to examine the benefits of positive school climate and to measure the perceptions of school climate for intermediate grades in a Northeast Tennessee School district. An online school climate survey was used to collect responses from participants in intermediate grades and focused on the 3 major components of school climate: school engagement, school environment, and school safety. Data were collected for 2 consecutive years in 20162017 and 20172018. Response totals included 1,955 student responses, 116 teacher responses, and 210 parent responses that were analyzed and used for this study. Of the student totals, some students ...
Developmental Mathematics: A Quantitative Investigation Of Instructor Classification As Related To Student Success, Brittany A. Fish
Developmental Mathematics: A Quantitative Investigation Of Instructor Classification As Related To Student Success, Brittany A. Fish
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine what type of predictive power exists between an instructor’s employment classification, student gender, student race, and firstgeneration status on a student’s academic success in developmental mathematics, as measured by final semester grades at a regionally comprehensive state university in Texas between fall 2013 and spring 2017. Data were collected from the institution under study and the sample population included 1932 unique student observations. The data collected in this study were analyzed through a binary logistic regression model to determine whether an instructor’s employment classification, student gender, student race ...
Investigating Student Understanding Of Vector Calculus In UpperDivision Electricity And Magnetism: Construction And Determination Of Differential Element In NonCartesian Coordinate Systems, Benjamin Schermerhorn
Investigating Student Understanding Of Vector Calculus In UpperDivision Electricity And Magnetism: Construction And Determination Of Differential Element In NonCartesian Coordinate Systems, Benjamin Schermerhorn
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Differential length, area, and volume elements appear ubiquitously over the course of upperdivision electricity and magnetism (E&M), used to sum the effects of or determine expressions for electric or magnetic fields. Given the plethora of tasks with spherical and cylindrical symmetry, nonCartesian coordinates are commonly used, which include scaling factors as coefficients for the differential terms to account for the curvature of space. Furthermore, the application to vector fields means differential lengths and areas are vector quantities. So far, little of the education research in E&M has explored student understanding and construction of the nonCartesian differential elements used in applications of vector calculus. This study contributes to the research base on the learning and teaching of these quantities.
Following course observations of juniorlevel E&M, targeted investigations were conducted to categorize student understanding of the properties of these differentials as they are constructed in a coordinate system without a physics context and as they are determined within common physics tasks. In general, students did not have a strong understanding of the geometry of nonCartesian coordinate systems. However, students who were able to construct differential area and volume elements as a product of differential lengths within a given coordinate system were more successful when applying vector calculus. The results of this study were used to develop preliminary instructional resources to aid in the teaching of this material.
Lastly, this dissertation presents a theoretical model developed within the context of this study to describe students’ construction and interpretation of equations. The model joins existing theoretical frameworks: symbolic forms, used to describe students’ representational understanding of the structure of the constructed equation; and conceptual blending, which has been used to describe the ways in which students combine mathematics and physics knowledge when problem solving. In addition to providing a coherent picture for how the students in this study connect contextual information to symbolic representations, this model is broadly applicable as an analytical lens and allows for a detailed reinterpretation of similar analyses using these frameworks.
Echoes Of The Past: The Effect Of Background Experience On Far Transfer, Graham H. HummelHall
Echoes Of The Past: The Effect Of Background Experience On Far Transfer, Graham H. HummelHall
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Far transfer is the application of knowledge learned in one setting to a problem in a very different setting. This multimethod study looked at far transfer in humans and whether it could be facilitated, inhibited, or remain unaffected by the number of courses or years a student at a university spent learning about the subject matter of the knowledge being transferred. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of pretest and posttest data from an introductory undergraduate earth science course, I found that students with more physical science background experience more frequently engaged in successful and accurate transfer of physics information to ...
Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And OnGround Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat
Success Rates Of Second Semester Anatomy Students In Online And OnGround Classes At A Community College In East Tennessee, William Sproat
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Educators expect the number of institutions offering online courses and the number of students enrolling in these courses to increase as many students, particularly nontraditional students, discover the advantages of online content delivery. Online courses require new methods of communication between students and faculty as well as discovering new ways to build relationships, earn student trust, conduct appropriate assessment, and deliver useful course content. Many institutions—public, private, and forprofit—offer a wide variety of online coursework but faculty, employers, and the public have expressed concerns about the quality of online course content. In particular, online delivery of coursework in ...
Assessing Student Understanding Of Reasoning Using ArgumentBased Contrast Matrices, Ethan Geheb
Assessing Student Understanding Of Reasoning Using ArgumentBased Contrast Matrices, Ethan Geheb
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
There is strong national interest in increasing student proficiency in STEM, which includes the learning and practice of scientific argumentation. The codevelopment of scientific knowledge and argumentation has shown to positively influence student general understanding of argument construction, scientific knowledge and principles. Research indicates students continue to struggle with constructing complete arguments, with specific difficulty in correctly incorporating reasoning. Numerous frameworks have been developed to support student learning about argumentation. These frameworks contain common teaching strategies for introducing and teaching reasoning within the context of a science classroom. However, these strategies do not specifically target student struggle with using reasoning ...
Middle Grades Science In Florida: A Comparison Of Student Achievement In Comprehensive And SubjectSpecific Science Courses 20132017, Kenneth Moore
Middle Grades Science In Florida: A Comparison Of Student Achievement In Comprehensive And SubjectSpecific Science Courses 20132017, Kenneth Moore
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
As with U.S. student achievement on national and international science assessments, Florida's 8th grade student achievement on the 2013–2017 8th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) 2.0 Science/Statewide Science Assessment (SSA) was stagnant. To break this stagnation, many Florida school districts have changed middle grades science course offerings from traditional, subjectspecific, disciplinebased, layered, or fieldspecific science courses to comprehensive, integrated, spiraled, interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, thematic, or general science courses. There was a lack of research showing if either type of science course improved student achievement on standardized science assessments. Controlling for school district student population, low ...
A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Successful Women In Science Fields, Jonathan Hall
A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Successful Women In Science Fields, Jonathan Hall
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Girls and women face several forms of genderbased biases and discrimination in the science community. These issues create difficult circumstances for them to develop positive science identities. Since these difficult circumstances exist, science education and sociology researchers have used a deficit model to learn about their experiences, achievements, and attitudes. Understanding the experiences of successful women in science offers insight into how women can navigate the challenges presented by the science community and how science educators can support them. However, research studies that explore the experiences of successful women in science are scant. Therefore, the objective of this study was ...
A Multiple Case Study Exploring The Relationship Between Engagement In ModelEliciting Activities And PreService Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching Algebra, Aline Abassian
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The goal of this research study was to explore the nature of the relationship between engagement in modeleliciting activities (MEAs) and preservice secondary mathematics teachers' (PSMTs') mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) algebra. The data collection took place in an undergraduate mathematics education content course for secondary mathematics education majors. In this multiple case study, PSMTs were given a Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) preassessment designed to measure their MKT algebra, and based on those results, three participants were selected with varying levels of knowledge. This was done to ensure varied cases were represented in order to be able to examine ...
A Single Case Study On The Influence Of Feedback On The Instructional Quality Of A Preservice Elementary Teacher In Mathematics: The Instructional Quality Assessment Toolkit As A Resource, Makini Campbell Sutherland
A Single Case Study On The Influence Of Feedback On The Instructional Quality Of A Preservice Elementary Teacher In Mathematics: The Instructional Quality Assessment Toolkit As A Resource, Makini Campbell Sutherland
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this single case study was to determine if a preservice elementary teacher's instruction would be influenced by feedback on mathematics lessons. The focus of the research was on the use of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA) (Boston 2012) toolkit as an integral part in the feedback process. The IQA toolkit provides number ratings as well as qualitative descriptive ratings of various aspects of the mathematics lesson, defined under two constructs, or groups, labeled Academic Rigor and Accountable Talk. The researcher evaluated a preservice teacher's instruction on three occasions and facilitated feedback sessions following those observation ...
Modeling Student Enrollment At Etsu Using A DiscreteTime Markov Chain Model, Lohuwa Mamudu
Modeling Student Enrollment At Etsu Using A DiscreteTime Markov Chain Model, Lohuwa Mamudu
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Discretetime Markov chain models can be used to make future predictions in many important fields including education. Government and educational institutions today are concerned about college enrollment and what impacts the number of students enrolling. One challenge is how to make an accurate prediction about student enrollment so institutions can plan appropriately. In this thesis, we model student enrollment at East Tennessee State University (ETSU) with a discretetime Markov chain model developed using ETSU student data from Fall 2008 to Spring 2017. In this thesis, we focus on the progression from one level to another within the university system including ...
Investigating Student Mental Models At The Intersection Of Mathematics And Physical Reasoning In Physics, Savannah E. LodgeScharff
Investigating Student Mental Models At The Intersection Of Mathematics And Physical Reasoning In Physics, Savannah E. LodgeScharff
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
A significant challenge in learning science and mathematics is coordinating different types of mental models, such as mathematical and physical mental models, that represent different aspects of a given phenomenon. This challenge is illustrated in the present study, in which we observed a small number of college students reasoning about forces as both physical and mathematical quantities as they reasoned about a physical system. Using video analysis of the students’ gesture and as they reasoned qualitatively and mathematically about the system, we documented the construction and coordination of participants’ mental models. We found that participants constructed mathematical mental models as ...
Contrast Dependent Knowledge Development In Contrast Supported Scientific Observation, Maura B. Foley
Contrast Dependent Knowledge Development In Contrast Supported Scientific Observation, Maura B. Foley
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Knowledge of contrasts between phenomena can influence how people think and reason about them, so learning contrasts is important in school science. Building knowledge through a process of construction is a common framework through which school science is taught. However, telling phenomena apart through differentiation also plays an important role in learning and may be underused as a teaching framework. An effective way to learn contrasts is to use them to perceptually differentiate similarlooking phenomena presented sidebyside. However, little is known about the persistence/usefulness of knowledge generated during perceptual differentiation over short periods of time and its usage in ...
Using Contrasting Cases To Build Metacognitive Knowledge About The Impact Of Salient Distracting Features In Physics Problems, Thanh K. Le
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Student reasoning on physics problems is often context dependent. A possible explanation is that salient distracting features (SDFs) in physics problems may cue students’ “spontaneous” reasoning. This cued reasoning is often accepted without question, even though it may be unproductive and may even preclude the use of relevant knowledge. One possible approach to address such reasoning difficulties is to strengthen students’ metacognitive skills, particularly their metacognitive knowledge. While metacognitive knowledge plays an important role in facilitating effective regulation, little is known about how to build student metacognitive knowledge. This dissertation explores the use of contrasting cases (e.g., a number ...
A Quantitative Survey Analysis Of Elementary Preservice Teacher Perceptions Of Assessment Tasks In Science Coursework, Allison D. Killingsworth
A Quantitative Survey Analysis Of Elementary Preservice Teacher Perceptions Of Assessment Tasks In Science Coursework, Allison D. Killingsworth
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This replication survey research study sought to further understand preservice elementary teachers’ perceptions of assessment tasks they encountered in secondary science coursework. Students are assessed through informal and formal assessments, including closeended and openended questions, through classroom and highstakes assessments. With great significance placed on highstakes state assessments, classroom instruction and assessments oftentimes mirror the format of state assessments. The researcher administered a validated Likert scale inventory, the Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI), to preservice elementary teachers to examine their perceptions of how assessment tasks reflected their knowledge and understanding of science assessment tasks. The researcher found the research ...
Assessing Students' Understanding Of Variability And Graph Interpretation Through An Authentic Science Investigation, William M. Schlager
Assessing Students' Understanding Of Variability And Graph Interpretation Through An Authentic Science Investigation, William M. Schlager
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This thesis research combined efforts of two existing projects at the University of Maine in collaboration with the Schoodic Institute, the Acadia Learning Snowpack Project and the Maine Data Literacy Project. The Snowpack Project provided a context to explore student learning of variability and graphing skills by gathering data on snowfall and accumulation throughout the winter and using the data to ask and answer a scientific question. The Maine Data Literacy Project provided a framework and instruments for assessing students’ understanding of variability and graph interpretation skills.
The first goal of this research was to measure student learning about variability ...
Investigating Student Learning Of Analog Electronics, Kevin L. Van De Bogart
Investigating Student Learning Of Analog Electronics, Kevin L. Van De Bogart
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Instruction in analog electronics is an integral component of many physics and engineering programs, and is typically covered in courses beyond the first year. While extensive research has been conducted on student understanding of introductory electric circuits, to date there has been relatively little research on student learning of analog electronics in either physics or engineering courses. Given the significant overlap in content of courses offered in both disciplines, this study seeks to strengthen the research base on the learning and teaching of electric circuits and analog electronics via a single, coherent investigation spanning both physics and engineering courses.
This ...
Instructional Teacher Job Resources And Student Achievement In Mathematics., Amy StokesLevine
Instructional Teacher Job Resources And Student Achievement In Mathematics., Amy StokesLevine
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Research shows that teachers who are supported with job resources are more engaged regardless of the level of demands (Klusmann et al., 2008). Additionally, teachers who are engaged with their work are less likely to report their intention to leave the teaching profession (Klassen et al., 2012), which is particularly important for mathematics teachers who are in high demand (Sutcher, DarlingHammond, & CarverThomas, 2016). Supporting employees with job resources is a commonly accepted practice in many professional fields (e.g., Christian, Garza, & Slaughter, 2011), yet is not a common practice in education (e.g., Bidwell, 2013; Gewertz, 2014; Layton, 2015; Rentner & Kober, 2014a). Current research on teacher work engagement and job resources has focused on big ideas like access to information and supervisory support (e.g., Hakanen, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2006). However, a more specific set ...
Development Of An ActiveLearning Lesson That Targets Student Understanding Of Population Growth In Ecology, Elizabeth Trenckmann
Development Of An ActiveLearning Lesson That Targets Student Understanding Of Population Growth In Ecology, Elizabeth Trenckmann
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Integrating quantitative literacy skills into the undergraduate biology curriculum has been advocated as a way to better reflect the tools and practices used by scientists. One area where students often need and can develop quantitative skills is population ecology, and previous studies have shown that students often have conceptual difficulties in this area. The focus of this thesis project was to explore student thinking about population ecology and develop an inclass activelearning lesson that incorporates quantitative skills for use in largeenrollment undergraduate biology courses. The development of this lesson was guided by in depth reviews of literature, textbooks, and online ...
The Role Of The Planetarium In Students' Attitudes, Learning, And Thinking About Astronomical Concepts., William Raymond Thornburgh
The Role Of The Planetarium In Students' Attitudes, Learning, And Thinking About Astronomical Concepts., William Raymond Thornburgh
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the planetarium on students while learning astronomy. The main goals of this study were to evaluate changes in students’ attitudes towards astronomy, whether students learned and retained more knowledge due to planetariumenriched instruction, and how the planetarium helped students think about astronomical concepts. The framework that guided this study was the Contextual Model of Learning (CML) (Falk & Dierking, 1992; 2000), which includes three overlapping contexts that contribute to the overall learning experience in informal science venues  the personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts. The planetarium program was successful in reaching students in ...
Roman Domination In Complementary Prisms, Alawi I. Alhashim
Roman Domination In Complementary Prisms, Alawi I. Alhashim
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The complementary prism GG of a graph G is formed from the disjoint union of G and its complement G by adding the edges of a perfect match ing between the corresponding vertices of G and G. A Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E) is a labeling f : V(G) → {0,1,2} such that every vertex with label 0 is adjacent to a vertex with label 2. The Roman domination number γR(G) of G is the minimum f(V ) = Σv∈V f(v) over all such functions of G. We study the Roman domination number ...
Inclusive Teaching Strategies: An Evaluation Of Course Structure And Summative Assessment In Introductory Biology, Oluwaseun O. Agboola
Inclusive Teaching Strategies: An Evaluation Of Course Structure And Summative Assessment In Introductory Biology, Oluwaseun O. Agboola
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Several active learning strategies have been used when increasing the structure of a course as increasing course structure has been known to improve student learning in introductory STEM courses. Much has been studied on the value of frequent formative assessment; however, few studies have evaluated the effective modes of delivering summative assessment. This study examines the use of summative assessment as an inclusive teaching practice to improve first generation college student success in introductory biology and also uses faculty surveys to find out how instructors structure their introductory biology course and why they are structured that way. Final exams were ...
Analysis Of The Effects Of Formative Assessment In Promoting Transfer Of Learning In An Undergraduate General Microbiology Laboratory Course, Andrea Rediske
Analysis Of The Effects Of Formative Assessment In Promoting Transfer Of Learning In An Undergraduate General Microbiology Laboratory Course, Andrea Rediske
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The undergraduate microbiology lab serves an important role in establishing a foundation of best practices in aseptic technique and infection control for premedical, prenursing, prepharmacy, or preallied health students. The high incidence of hospitalacquired infections (HAIs) in the US and evidence in the literature of less effective implementation of proper aseptic technique among apprentice doctors and nursing students suggests that more effective transfer of learning could improve implementation of these procedures in the clinical setting. The research described in this study aimed to assess learning transfer as it applied to aseptic techniques and infection control skills learned in the undergraduate ...
The Effectiveness Of ProjectBased Learning Using Digital Storytelling Technology On Improving SecondGrade Students' Performance Of Science Standards, Mariella Dorr
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of digital storytelling technology integration through a projectbased learning approach using digital stories combined with handson guided inquiry science lessons. As a teacher researcher, the focus was on the effectiveness in the performance of secondgrade students using higherorder thinking science standards. For a period of ten weeks, the researcher through comparative action research investigated how emergent technology integration improved the performance of two secondgrade classrooms implementing three higherorder thinking life science standards. A total of 27 students from two secondgrade classrooms volunteered for this research. For the study, a pretest ...
Mathematics Teacher's Beliefs And Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching: How Teacher's Mkt Shifts In Planning And Impacts Their Beliefs And Instructional Practice, Paul Conley
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
In an effort to understand how a teacher developed Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and how that knowledge can shift teacher's beliefs and instructional practice, I worked with a teacher to deeply plan and implement six mathematical lessons.
The research suggests that planning can be a vehicle to develop a teacher's Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching. In addition, as a teacher's Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching started to develop through lesson planning, the teacher's beliefs about her own knowledge of mathematics started to increase which started to shift the teacher's instructional practice.
This combination of a stronger Mathematical ...
“I’M Not Good At Math”: Mathematical Illiteracy And Innummeracy In The United States, G. Wesley Rogers
“I’M Not Good At Math”: Mathematical Illiteracy And Innummeracy In The United States, G. Wesley Rogers
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Why do we view mathematics the way we do in the United States and how have these views created an environment where we consider mathematical illiteracy and innumeracy socially and culturally acceptable when a lack of this knowledge and ability can function to enslave, exploit, restrict, and oppress. Throughout this investigation, I have explored some of the possible reasons for why we view education, mathematics, and the learning of mathematics the way we do and the impact of these views on our motivation and desire to learn mathematics. Using my over 20 years of teaching experience and the review of ...