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Full-Text Articles in Education

Determining If Classroom Pets As Part Of An Empathy-Based Intervention Affect Public Elementary School Students’ Empathy, Randa Dunlap Aug 2020

Determining If Classroom Pets As Part Of An Empathy-Based Intervention Affect Public Elementary School Students’ Empathy, Randa Dunlap

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine if consistent exposure to classroom pets in public elementary school classrooms affected children’s empathy. The sample included 44 students (females = 22; males = 22; mean age = 8.3 years) from four third-grade classrooms. A pre-test, post-test design was used to measure students’ empathy levels, and percentage changes in empathy scores were recorded for all groups. The sample was a convenience sample, and random assignment to treatment groups was not possible. Treatment included using classroom pet fish along with empathy-based lessons. Of the four participating classrooms, one classroom was the Control ...


Supporting Biracial Students Through An Equity Lens: Multicultural Literature And Advocacy In School Libraries, Jacqueline Ahlborn May 2020

Supporting Biracial Students Through An Equity Lens: Multicultural Literature And Advocacy In School Libraries, Jacqueline Ahlborn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biracial students make up a substantial allocation of the school population, and their demographics are only expected to increase within the coming years. With this emergence of a larger Biracial community, schools need to consider how they will implement equitable resources and practices to meet the needs for this unique population. School librarians, serving as instructional leaders, can provide the necessary materials and strategies to support their students who are Biracial in order to foster positive racial identity. The purpose of this study is to explore school librarians’ perspectives on the influence of multicultural literature on students’ acceptance and understanding ...


Analysis Of The Hiring Process To Ensure That The Best Teacher Candidate Is Selected For A Small Southwestern Pennsylvania School District, Barbara Pagan May 2020

Analysis Of The Hiring Process To Ensure That The Best Teacher Candidate Is Selected For A Small Southwestern Pennsylvania School District, Barbara Pagan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine teacher selection through a survey of the top 100 elementary schools in Pennsylvania and analyzing commercially produced screening tools. In order to hire the most effective teachers, districts must pay attention to the characteristics they desire in a teacher and ensure that their measures are aligned with those qualities (Little, Goe, & Bell, 2009). This dissertation examines the teacher hiring practices in Brentwood Borough School District in Pennsylvania, in hopes of improving the current hiring process. The researcher developed two research questions to guide the study. The principal researcher used a combination of ...


Teacher Expectations, Self-Efficacy, And Collective Efficacy In Three Tennessee Literacy Networks, Amanda Tinker May 2020

Teacher Expectations, Self-Efficacy, And Collective Efficacy In Three Tennessee Literacy Networks, Amanda Tinker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a significant difference in the dependent variables- teacher expectations, self-efficacy, and collective efficacy among the three levels of the independent variable- membership in one three literacy networks in Tennessee- Leading Innovation for Tennessee (LIFT), Read to Be Ready Coaching Network (RTBR), and Tennessee Early Literacy Network (TELN)- and if significant correlations existed between the dependent variables for each network. The population consisted of 161 K-3 Tennessee teachers who had been involved in the work of one of the three networks. Participants responded to an online survey via Google ...


Supporting Novice Teachers In Struggling Schools: Exploring A Mentoring Program's Components, Geneva J. Feaster May 2020

Supporting Novice Teachers In Struggling Schools: Exploring A Mentoring Program's Components, Geneva J. Feaster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study addressed the problem of retention for novice teachers in struggling schools. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore a mentoring program in a large school district in Louisiana. Data were collected using questionnaires derived from the teacher questionnaire of the National Teacher and Principal Survey 2015–2016 School Year, in-depth mentor and novice teacher interviews, and mentoring artifacts. Findings indicated that friendships, relationships, common planning times, modeling, feedback, reflection, and training were critical to the success of novice teachers. Additional findings revealed that the end-of-year reflection, cohesiveness, communication, and reciprocity were the most effective components ...


A Qualitative Case Study To Investigate How Educators Promote Parent Collaboration And Involvement For African American Elementary Males With Learning Disabilities, Derek E. Pierce Feb 2020

A Qualitative Case Study To Investigate How Educators Promote Parent Collaboration And Involvement For African American Elementary Males With Learning Disabilities, Derek E. Pierce

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The disproportionate identification and achievement gap of African American students and their peers are inexhaustible. African American students continue to lag tremendously behind their Asian and Caucasian peers. There is limited research of African American students with disabilities as it relates specifically to various components of special education. To understand the narrative surrounding African American males, their achievement, and the collaboration between their parents and educators, the researcher will evaluate various components in conjunction with educators’ composition and characteristics and various parent’s attributes and behaviors. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to investigate how educators promote parent ...


The Beliefs Literacy Specialists Hold Regarding Processes That Assist Struggling Readers With The Comprehension Of Informational Text, Marguerite Haldin Dec 2019

The Beliefs Literacy Specialists Hold Regarding Processes That Assist Struggling Readers With The Comprehension Of Informational Text, Marguerite Haldin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children have a basic human right to read. It is the evolving work of the reading/literacy specialists to provide support and build confidence in readers struggling in all components of reading. The purpose of this study is to explore the beliefs of reading/literacy specialists regarding the processes that assist struggling readers with the comprehension of informational text. The methods used were designed to address the research question: What are the beliefs reading/literacy specialists hold regarding processes that assist struggling readers with the comprehension of informational text? Nineteen members of a professional learning group from an intermediate unit ...


Preservice Teachers Knowledge Of Adolescent Suicide, Annette N. Johnson Dec 2019

Preservice Teachers Knowledge Of Adolescent Suicide, Annette N. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teacher preparation programs have a responsibility to prepare future teachers to teach

and mentor students through their academic years. With the rise of suicide in school age children, responsibility has fallen to teachers to better recognize and understand students who may be suicidal. This study sought to answer the question: to what degree does teaching certification, teaching experience, and suicide awareness embedded coursework predict preservice teachers’ knowledge of suicide awareness and prevention? Data from the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire and a demographic survey which asked about participants’ preservice training was sent to universities and colleges in Texas with an undergraduate ...


Ensuring A Holistic And Quality Education For Every Child: A Phenomenological Inquiry Of Principals’ Transformational Leadership, Elijah Granger Aug 2019

Ensuring A Holistic And Quality Education For Every Child: A Phenomenological Inquiry Of Principals’ Transformational Leadership, Elijah Granger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have not fully examined how school leaders impact the teaching and learning environment when working toward generating students’ academic success. Balyer (2012) called for more work on understanding the transformational leadership behaviors that create conditions conducive to generating student achievement within educational accountability. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological inquiry is to explore the lived experiences of principals and their perceptions concerning the state accountability system and how it may impact their transformational efforts in ensuring a holistic and quality education for every child. The phenomenological inquiry will yield the opportunity to compare administrators’ in-depth perceptions of the accountability ...


Pedagogies Of Possibility : A Study Reconceptualizing The Teacher's Role In A Reggio-Inspired Urban Preschool Classroom., Christina Louise Angleton Aug 2019

Pedagogies Of Possibility : A Study Reconceptualizing The Teacher's Role In A Reggio-Inspired Urban Preschool Classroom., Christina Louise Angleton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education is an innovative and often imitated “way of being” with young children (Rinaldi, 2006). Reggio-inspired teachers enact rich pedagogical stances in their work with young children. In North American contexts, the approach is frequently associated with wealthy, suburban communities. Adopting a feminist methodology, this dissertation explores the pedagogical moves one teacher made as she enacted the identity of a Reggio teacher in an urban preschool classroom. The theoretical framework guiding this study is grounded in feminist poststructural, postmodern, and decolonization scholarship, each of which inform a movement known as Reconceptualizing Early Childhood ...


A Qualitative Study Of Teacher Perceptions Of Guided Reading As An Instructional Model For Fifth-Grade Students, Codi Freeman May 2019

A Qualitative Study Of Teacher Perceptions Of Guided Reading As An Instructional Model For Fifth-Grade Students, Codi Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the multi-case qualitative study was to examine the perceptions of Grade 5 teachers after professional development using a guided reading training model. The study district, a suburban district in South Texas, serves over 600 Grade 5 students. Four Grade 5 teachers from four elementary schools in the same school district were selected to participate. The teachers were trained in the methodology of guided reading based on the protocols and research recommendations by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell. Prior to training in the methodology of guided reading, Grade 5 teachers were not required to teach guided reading ...


Capability Approach And Teacher Quality: An Analysis Of Female Teacher Experience In A Rural, Malawian Community, Annabelle Hardy May 2019

Capability Approach And Teacher Quality: An Analysis Of Female Teacher Experience In A Rural, Malawian Community, Annabelle Hardy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study used the capability approach as a lens to understand teacher quality from both the perspective of educational leaders and practicing teachers in a rural community in central Malawi. The overarching question of this research study was “How can the capability approach inform our understanding of teacher quality from both the perspective of educational leaders and practicing teachers?” The focus questions to guide this research were:

  1. What do national educational leaders value in a quality teacher?
  2. What do rural, Malawian, female teachers value in teaching?
  3. How do these teachers pursue and achieve what they value in teaching?

This study ...


Seeing The World Differently. An Exploration Of A Professional Development Model Bridging Science And Lay Cultures, Michael D. Garrett May 2019

Seeing The World Differently. An Exploration Of A Professional Development Model Bridging Science And Lay Cultures, Michael D. Garrett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the rationale, efficacy, and social validity of a professional development model designed to move elementary school science activities closer to the practices of working scientists as required by the United States’ “Next Generation Science Standards.” The model is culturally sensitive and aims to create experiences with high subjective task value. The formal theory of change uses scaffolding, Piagetian agency, and Vygotskian learning opportunities to argue that culturally familiar representational tasks in culturally natural intersubjective contexts can lead to work prototypical of scientific modeling under particular facilitation conditions: when participants (a) are allowed free use of their cognitive ...


Characteristics Of High Quality Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study, Kelli Barnett May 2019

Characteristics Of High Quality Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study, Kelli Barnett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the characteristics of high quality teachers. This study used a phenomenological methodology, enabling the researcher to gather information from a purposeful selection of people directly identified as high quality teachers by their principals. This study employed processes of data collection commonly used in observational analysis and included the use of interviews found in qualitative design.

The researcher was able to extract meaning using the coding process and the constant comparative method. Information was sorted into themes that supported and aligned with the research questions leading to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. This ...


Urban-Ready, Willing, And Able? Collaborative Induction Experiences For New Urban Elementary Educators., Sandra Lynn Hogue May 2019

Urban-Ready, Willing, And Able? Collaborative Induction Experiences For New Urban Elementary Educators., Sandra Lynn Hogue

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of six first year urban educators who participated in a series of multi-stakeholder induction experiences during the first semester of their first year teaching in high-need urban elementary schools. This study underscores how participation in needs-based induction experiences nurture self-efficacy and encourage teacher retention through the challenging first semester of teaching. Data for this study was collected over a four-week period of new teacher participation in a system of support that included focus group conversations, professional development sessions, documentation of experiences using PhotoVoice, and participant reflective journal entries. The research methodology that structures ...


Cultivating A Pedagogy Of Empathy: Teaching Science Fiction In A Changing Biotechnological World, Kathy L. Avery Jan 2019

Cultivating A Pedagogy Of Empathy: Teaching Science Fiction In A Changing Biotechnological World, Kathy L. Avery

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

CULTIVATING A PEDAGOGY OF EMPATHY: Teaching Science Fiction in a Changing Biotechnological World

By

KATHY L. AVERY

(Under the Direction of John Weaver)

Abstract

I argue that science fiction affords us the ability to think past our anthropocentrism, opening up a space for us to consider our relationship to burgeoning biotechnologies and the other. I provide critical interpretations of science fiction film and literature, which I believe stimulate the power of the narrative imagination to envision the “netherworld experience of the other”. I believe science fiction provides a site of speculation, a means to better understand and consider the role ...


A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella Aug 2018

A Granular Account Of Student's Understanding Reasoning Within An Everyday And Scientific Contexts, Grace M. Gonnella

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers and educational researchers in the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (Maine PSP) at the University of Maine identified making quality scientific arguments as a struggle for students. Not only is argumentation hard, but reasoning is the hardest component of an argument. Many frameworks have been developed to target teaching about argumentation but do not address how to teach one component of an argument in isolation. Educational practitioners encourage using everyday context to learn about arguments in the scientific context, but there is limited support in what is the best method. The first purpose of this research was to understand a ...


School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs Aug 2018

School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the benefits of positive school climate and to measure the perceptions of school climate for intermediate grades in a Northeast Tennessee School district. An online school climate survey was used to collect responses from participants in intermediate grades and focused on the 3 major components of school climate: school engagement, school environment, and school safety. Data were collected for 2 consecutive years in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Response totals included 1,955 student responses, 116 teacher responses, and 210 parent responses that were analyzed and used for this study. Of the student totals, some students ...


Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions Of The Student Growth Portfolio Model In Tennessee, Amanda Pickens Aug 2018

Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions Of The Student Growth Portfolio Model In Tennessee, Amanda Pickens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this quantitative study was to discover perceptions of pre-K and kindergarten teachers within public schools in Tennessee regarding the appropriateness of the student growth portfolio model. This study explored teachers’ perceptions of the appropriateness of the math standards, English language arts standards, and the scoring guide included within the SGPM. A quantitative survey was used to understand pre-K and kindergarten teachers’ perceptions of the appropriateness of the 2017-2018 student growth portfolio model. There were 16 pre-K teachers and 51 kindergarten teachers who participated in the survey. Single sample t-tests were used to analyze responses. Research indicated that ...


A Study Of The Purpose And Value Of Recess In Elementary Schools As Perceived By Teachers And Administrators, Vickie Beard Aug 2018

A Study Of The Purpose And Value Of Recess In Elementary Schools As Perceived By Teachers And Administrators, Vickie Beard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children spend at least seven and a half hours or 46.9% of their waking hours in the school setting, which brings a unique responsibility to schools (Beighle, Erwin, Morgan, & Alderman, 2012). School systems are expected to educate children according to adopted state standards and encourage a healthy, active lifestyle. The concept then is to increase knowledge by putting focus on academic achievement as well as promoting good citizenship by developing children’s social, emotional, and physical development, which happens during recess. Yet, recess and free play opportunities are on the decline in school systems across our nation. This reduction ...


Teacher Perceptions Of The Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (Team), Kelley Harrell May 2018

Teacher Perceptions Of The Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (Team), Kelley Harrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the perceptions of Pre K through 8th grade Tennessee teachers about the impact of Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (TEAM) evaluations on classroom instructional strategies, teacher planning, professional development and teacher effectiveness. Participants in this study were PK-8 public school teachers from 2 districts in Northeast Tennessee who had been evaluated using the Tennessee Educator Acceleration Model (TEAM). Specifically this research was guided by 8 research questions on perceived changes in instructional strategies utilized by teachers, the perceived changes in teacher planning practices and lesson preparation, the perceived changes in professional development ...


Parent And Teacher Perceptions Of Elementary School Homework, Jimmy Marcum May 2018

Parent And Teacher Perceptions Of Elementary School Homework, Jimmy Marcum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perceptions of parents and teachers of elementary school students regarding homework. Specifically, the researcher examined parent and teacher perceptions, perceptions of teachers in kindergarten through fifth grades, and parents of elementary students in kindergarten through fifth grades. In this qualitative study, the researcher analyzed feedback obtained from two focus groups: a group of three parents and a group of three teachers. One-on-one in-depth interviews of seven parents or guardians and seven elementary school teachers were utilized. These interviews were conducted in settings chosen by the participants. All participants worked in ...


A Phenomenological Study On Teacher Perception Of Change In School Culture As A Result Of The Implementation Of Mindfulness, Justin Penley May 2018

A Phenomenological Study On Teacher Perception Of Change In School Culture As A Result Of The Implementation Of Mindfulness, Justin Penley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the phenomenon of teacher perception of change in school culture as a result of the implementation of mindfulness. This study used a phenomenological methodology, enabling the researcher to gather information by focusing on and describing the impact of mindfulness on school culture in a deep comprehensive manner.

The investigator was able to extract meaning and code data, leading to the emergence of themes that supported and aligned with the study’s research questions and thus led into a holistic understanding of the phenomenon. This was accomplished through data analysis of rich, in-depth interviews ...


A Case Study Of Teacher And Principal Perceptions Of A School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention And Supports Framework In An Urban Elementary School., Cassaundra Lynn Watkins May 2018

A Case Study Of Teacher And Principal Perceptions Of A School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention And Supports Framework In An Urban Elementary School., Cassaundra Lynn Watkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This single site case study examined the perceptions of teachers and the principal of a persistently low achieving elementary school in a large urban school district. Using the Concern-Based-Adoption-Model (CBAM), which originated in Fuller’s (1969) study of perceptions of pre-service and practicing teachers and used by Roach, Kratochwill and Frank (2009) as a tool to ascertain support for the implementation of research-based practices, teacher and principal perceptions of the effectiveness of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) framework were examined. Interviews and document analysis were utilized to collect data and triangulate teacher and principal perceptions of obstacles and ...


Leadership Practices In Similar Schools With Varying Primary Grade Reading Outcomes: A Comparative Multiple-Case Study, Jacqueline M. Cuthill Jan 2018

Leadership Practices In Similar Schools With Varying Primary Grade Reading Outcomes: A Comparative Multiple-Case Study, Jacqueline M. Cuthill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Students who are below grade level before they leave third grade are less likely to graduate. A large number of schools are failing to increase student achievement in reading, especially for students of color and those who are economically disadvantaged. Leadership can influence student achievement; however, literature lacks specifics about leadership practices that could help school leaders improve student outcomes. This multiple-case study explores the leadership practices in three similar elementary schools with varying primary grade reading outcomes and contributes details about the leadership functions of Setting Direction, Developing People and Redesigning the Organization (Leithwood, Seashore, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004). The ...


The Effects Of Preceding Stimuli Formats On Proportional Reasoning Ability In Elementary School Students, Natalie D. Branch Jan 2018

The Effects Of Preceding Stimuli Formats On Proportional Reasoning Ability In Elementary School Students, Natalie D. Branch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) described fraction knowledge as the most important, yet most underdeveloped foundational skill among students. Due to the complex nature of fraction education, this study sought to understand the underlying fraction problem-solving skill of proportional reasoning in the hopes of gaining insight into children’s problem-solving strategies in order to implement more focused educational designs. The current study examined the effects of stimuli formats on children’s proportional reasoning ability by presenting four conditions involving two formats (continuous and discrete). Previous research indicates that students perform better on continuous stimuli and the goal of this ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Using Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports As Behavioral Interventions In A Pre-K-5 Elementary School: A Phenomenological Study, Meghann Roberts-Clawson Dec 2017

Teacher Perceptions Of Using Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports As Behavioral Interventions In A Pre-K-5 Elementary School: A Phenomenological Study, Meghann Roberts-Clawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers’ Perceptions of Using Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports as Behavioral Interventions in a Pre-K-5 Elementary School: A Phenomenological Study by Meghann E. Roberts-Clawson This qualitative study addresses teacher perceptions of using positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) as positive behavioral interventions. This phenomenological study was conducted within a Pre-K-5 elementary school in northwestern North Carolina. In order to collect qualitative data, personal individualized interviews were conducted from a purposeful sample of teachers in the school who have experience implementing more intensive positive behavioral interventions. By analyzing data derived from the interviews and classroom and individualized documentation, the researcher was ...


Educating Critically : Challenging The Familiar Contours Of Literacy Teacher Education., Bianca Nightengale-Lee Dec 2017

Educating Critically : Challenging The Familiar Contours Of Literacy Teacher Education., Bianca Nightengale-Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The shifting cultural ecologies of U.S. classrooms emphasize acknowledging difference, accepting diversity, and sustaining both cultural and linguistic plurality (Banks & Banks, 2009; hooks, 1994; Paris 2014). Teacher education programs play an integral role in preparing Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs) with skills, knowledge, and dispositions necessitated by a growing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) student population (Cruz, Ellerbrock, Vasquez & Howes, 2014). To enact equitable teaching practices reflective of 21st century students, PSTs need to demonstrate a level of cultural awareness that acknowledges the racially, socially, and politically charged societal structures that shape education for CLD students (Hall & Carlson, 2016). However, for Teacher Preparation Programs (TPPs), this task is complicated by the racial, cultural, and linguistic divide amid CLD students and their White teacher counterparts (Ball & Forzani, 2009). Research suggests cultural dissonance can result in a lack of knowledge and understanding about diverse students and how socio-historical oppression can affect their achievement (Brock, Case, & Taylor, 2013; Grossman & McDonald, 2008; Lazar, 2007). Thus, if White PSTs are expected to cultivate equitable classrooms, responsive of the socio-cultural, linguistic, and educational needs of CLD students, then TPPs need radical alterations in curriculum and instructional design to not only deliver practical applications of classroom pedagogy, but ...


Exploring The Ways In Which Highly Efficacious Intermediate Teachers Employ Best Practices In Reading Instruction For Struggling Readers, Terrence P. Young Aug 2017

Exploring The Ways In Which Highly Efficacious Intermediate Teachers Employ Best Practices In Reading Instruction For Struggling Readers, Terrence P. Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed method study was to build on the earlier efficacy work of Tschannen, Moran, and Hoy (2001) and the reading teacher efficacy work of Szabo and Mokhtari (2004) to add to educational research related to teacher efficacy and reading. This study is specifically focused on the teaching of reading to struggling readers at the intermediate levels. The study was guided by four research questions that focused on the teaching of struggling readers at the intermediate level. Reading teacher self-efficacy levels were established through a survey instrument. In addition, data from two interviews, structured and semi-structured, about ...


The Perceptions Of Father Involvement In Elementary Schools, Myles J. Hebrard Aug 2017

The Perceptions Of Father Involvement In Elementary Schools, Myles J. Hebrard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of father involvement in elementary schools. The focus of the study was to allow the researcher to develop a greater understanding of perceptions of father involvement, from both a father and teacher perspective. Data was collected from teachers and fathers through surveys and interviews. Specific content areas of the father survey included communication, activities fathers engaged in, training opportunities provided at the school, parent conferences, when events were offered, availability, and suggestions for school staff. Specific content areas of the teacher survey included communication, activities fathers engaged in, training ...