Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Education

Inner Dialogue Reading Behaviors And Student Comprehension Of Texts, Antonio Madau Dec 2017

Inner Dialogue Reading Behaviors And Student Comprehension Of Texts, Antonio Madau

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study examines the use of inner dialogue reading behaviors by third grade students who achieve high scores on commercial reading assessments. The study looks at one class of third grade students in Western New York, and comparatively analyzes their self-reported use of reading behaviors in relation to their achieved scores on the Next Step in Guided Reading (GRA) commercial reading assessment. The researcher collected qualitative data from the participants using results from the administered GRA assessment, structured verbal interviews, and participants’ written responses in their weekly Independent Reading Logs. Conclusions for participants who scored highly on commercial reading assessments ...


First Grade Teachers' Literacy Instructional Practices Influence On The Learning Of Elementary School Students In English Language Arts (Ela) And Reading, Carole A. Barkin May 2017

First Grade Teachers' Literacy Instructional Practices Influence On The Learning Of Elementary School Students In English Language Arts (Ela) And Reading, Carole A. Barkin

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This qualitative case study investigated the literacy educational practices of five general education first grade teachers in a charter school in Western New York. Charter schools typically hire teachers with less experience; therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore how first grade teachers in English Language Arts (ELA) and reading modified their literacy instruction to support all students, including, but not limited to, students with a variety of different disabilities. Through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations, this study focused on how specific literacy instructional tools and teaching methods, such as the arts and/or technology, impacted students’ literacy ...


The Use Of Confidence Building Strategies And Self-Concept Of Emergent Readers, Gina Bessing May 2017

The Use Of Confidence Building Strategies And Self-Concept Of Emergent Readers, Gina Bessing

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This research study explores how confidence building strategies impact students’ self-concept as readers. The purpose of this research was to discover strategies or teaching practices that may help students form a positive self-concept as readers. Data were collected over the course of four weeks using student interviews, field notes, transcribed audio recordings, and parent surveys. Data were analyzed for how often students discussed using reading strategies, made meaningful comprehension while reading wordless picture books, and how students rated their self-concept as readers. Results showed students were better equipped and more engaged in discussing use of reading strategies when explicitly taught ...


Educating Parents Effectively To Prepare Them For Their Role In The Special Education Process, Dawn Harnischfeger Aug 2008

Educating Parents Effectively To Prepare Them For Their Role In The Special Education Process, Dawn Harnischfeger

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Students with a labelled learning disability comprise approximately 5% of the population in American public schools. This research project seeks to identify appropriate ways to both prepare and inform parent/caregivers to enable them to advocate for their children through the Committee on Preschool Special Education/Committee on Special Education (CPSE/CSE) processes. It determines that the children are best served through a collaboration between the educators’ experience and the parents’ intimate knowledge of both student and home environment. Additional questions considered in this research project are: parent/guardian emotional response to their child’s suspected learning disability, identification of ...


Listening Comprehension And The Development Of Emergent Reading Skills, Andrea Helena Priolette Jun 2005

Listening Comprehension And The Development Of Emergent Reading Skills, Andrea Helena Priolette

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Emergent readers face a difficult task as they begin to build their reading skills. Reading is a process that utilizes various skills, especially in the early stages of reading development. This study was conducted in an urban elementary school to investigate the importance of listening comprehension within a setting of emergent readers, participating in the Success For All: Reading Roots program. Specifically, this research explores the correlation between listening comprehension skills and reading levels in a group of beginning readers. It identifies teachers' beliefs on the value and purpose of read-alouds in the classrooms. Furthermore, it examines the relationship of ...


The Effects Of Prekindergarten Programs On Later Academic And Social Achievement, Johanna Jennifer Soule Aug 2004

The Effects Of Prekindergarten Programs On Later Academic And Social Achievement, Johanna Jennifer Soule

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study investigated how prekindergarten affects students' language arts and social achievement. It targeted one first grade classroom as a case study in an urban elementary school in Western New York. In this classroom, the researcher collected writing samples, observed social skills, and collected Reading Excellence Act Scores. The scores of students that attended prekindergarten were compared to those students that attended preschool and Head Start. Also, kindergarten and first grade teachers were surveyed to determine the teachers' perceptions of prekindergarten. An informal interview was done with the current prekindergarten teacher in the urban elementary school as well. Overall, the ...


The Effects Of Preschool On Phonemic Awareness In First Grade, Debbie Godsen Aug 2002

The Effects Of Preschool On Phonemic Awareness In First Grade, Debbie Godsen

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study examined whether there was a statistically significant difference between the reading readiness skills in first grade of students who attended preschool and students who did not attend preschool. The researcher compiled a list of students in first grade who attended preschool. Another group of students in first grade was randomly selected. The Emergent Literacy Survey (ELS) was administered to all students within the first two weeks of their first grade year. The average score for each group was compared using a t test. The results of the t test show there is no statistically significant difference in mean ...


Kindergarten Readiness: Teacher And Parent Expectations, Debra M. Ramsey May 2001

Kindergarten Readiness: Teacher And Parent Expectations, Debra M. Ramsey

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare the expectations of kindergarten teachers and parents of pre-school-aged children on school readiness. Clarifying expectations can provide guidance and direction for parents in order to prepare their children in ways that meet teachers expectations.

The subjects of this study were parents of pre-school-aged children and kindergarten teachers from the Rochester area. A survey was distributed to determine which readiness skills both parents and teachers found as critical for entrance into kindergarten.

The data from the survey reveal that teachers and parents in the Rochester area have similar expectations when it comes to ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Sight Words Learned In Kindergarten And Reading Ability In First Grade, Paul D. Kesler Mar 2001

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Sight Words Learned In Kindergarten And Reading Ability In First Grade, Paul D. Kesler

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between kindergarten sight word recognition and first grade reading ability. The subjects included 20 first graders in an urban school who had been in the researcher's kindergarten class. In kindergarten, the students were instructed in recognizing 135 sight words. The sight words were comprised from the Dolch List as well as words that were frequently used in the classroom. Their recognition of sight words varied from 10-135.

The students were tested in December of first grade to determine their reading level. The data were analyzed quantitatively to determine the ...


The Effects Of A Balanced Literacy Program On Kindergartners’ Writing, Catherine Valente Melia May 2000

The Effects Of A Balanced Literacy Program On Kindergartners’ Writing, Catherine Valente Melia

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a balanced literacy program affects the writing of kindergartners in comparison to the writing of kindergartners involved in a more traditional instructional program. This study involved 36 kindergartners from two classrooms in a suburban district in Western New York. The chosen classrooms were selected because of the differences in their early literacy practices. The kindergartners in this study were part of a full day program. The subjects came from diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. A heterogeneous mix of ability levels was represented. The kindergartners were given a writing ...


Hunter Vs. Lazeer: Which Lesson Design Is Most Effective?, Michelle New Dec 1998

Hunter Vs. Lazeer: Which Lesson Design Is Most Effective?, Michelle New

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine if one particular lesson design is more-effective in teaching vocabulary words and definitions to second grade students. Eight separate paired two sample t-tests were used to investigate the research questions presented in this study:

(1) Is there a statistically significant difference between the mean post-test scores of the students who were taught vocabulary words and definitions using the Hunter lesson design, and students who were taught vocabulary definitions using the multiple intelligence model, created by David Lazeer?

(2) Which lesson design will produce greater student success for retention of the already learned ...


What Is The Correlation Between Risk-Taking Behaviors And Letter Recognition In Kindergarten Students?, Michelle Delong May 1998

What Is The Correlation Between Risk-Taking Behaviors And Letter Recognition In Kindergarten Students?, Michelle Delong

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study attempted to determine whether there was a significant correlation between the letter recognition ability of kindergarten students and their risk-taking characteristics in the classroom. To achieve this purpose, letter recognition scores from November report cards were used, along with teacher input regarding risk-taking behaviors. One hundred ten kindergarten students from an upstate New York suburban community were the subjects for this study. Eleven participating teachers listed the five students in their class who exhibited the most risk-taking behaviors in the academic setting and the five students in their class who exhibited the fewest risk-taking behaviors in the academic ...


The Effects Of Parent Workshops On The Home Literacy Environments Of Urban Prekindergarten Children, Kristen Ruth Neckers May 1998

The Effects Of Parent Workshops On The Home Literacy Environments Of Urban Prekindergarten Children, Kristen Ruth Neckers

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine if a series of parent workshops based on early literacy development would empower parents to provide their prekindergarten children with increased literature-rich materials and experiences within their homes. The fifteen subjects were the parents of prekindergarten students attending an urban school in western New York. The subjects attended a series of parent workshops which focused on incorporating literature events into everyday life activities. The subjects completed a pre survey and post survey. This researcher-designed survey was used as a pre-assessment and post-assessment to determine the quantity of literature-rich materials which were present ...


Preschooler’S Perception About Reading: Is There A Correlation Between Interest Level And Reading Concept Development Among Emergent Readers?, Julie Waldinger Lercher Dec 1997

Preschooler’S Perception About Reading: Is There A Correlation Between Interest Level And Reading Concept Development Among Emergent Readers?, Julie Waldinger Lercher

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study was designed to examine preschoolers' interest levels in reading and their knowledge of basic reading concepts to determine if there is a statistically significant correlation between interest and concept development. In addition, preschoolers were asked twelve questions to determine their understanding of the reading process to see if any trends emerge such as age and sex.

Forty preschoolers (20 male--20 female), ages 3 and 4, participated in this study. The subjects were selected from preschools across Monroe County in upper New York State. Data were collected from preschoolers' teachers and in 1:1 sessions with the preschoolers. The ...


A Holistic Comparison Of The Writing Abilities Of First-Grade Students Who Attended Either Full-Day Or Half-Day Kindergarten, Kirsten Carey Aug 1996

A Holistic Comparison Of The Writing Abilities Of First-Grade Students Who Attended Either Full-Day Or Half-Day Kindergarten, Kirsten Carey

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Limited research has been conducted to compare full-day and half-day kindergarten programs. Most studies examined reading and math achievement. Standardized tests were generally used to measure achievement. Virtually no studies have been conducted to assess and compare writing proficiency of full-day and half-day students.

The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in the writing scores of first grade students who attended either a full-day or half-day kindergarten program the previous year. Holistic scoring was used in keeping with the need for authentic assessment.

The writings of 65 first-grade students from two rural school districts were examined and ...


Language Interactions Between Parent And Child During A Shared Reading Storytime, Lynda S. Krens May 1996

Language Interactions Between Parent And Child During A Shared Reading Storytime, Lynda S. Krens

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the language interactions between a parent and child during a shared reading storytime. Children from a Head Start program were videotaped with a parent "reading" a wordless picture book. Transcripts were taken from these videos and the language between the parent and the child was examined. Positive and negative interactions were noted, as well as child initiated and parent initiated interactions. The data were analyzed and implications for further research and classroom practice were discussed.


Kindergarten Teachers’ And Parents’ Perceptions Of What Characteristics A Child Should Have To Be Ready For Kindergarten, Holly Jean R. Nachbar May 1994

Kindergarten Teachers’ And Parents’ Perceptions Of What Characteristics A Child Should Have To Be Ready For Kindergarten, Holly Jean R. Nachbar

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of both kindergarten teachers and parents of kindergartners as to what characteristics are important for a child to have in order to be ready for kindergarten.

Twenty-one teachers and thirty-two parents anonymously recorded their perceptions on questionnaires distributed by Rochester area elementary schools. The questionnaire also asked where these characteristics were thought to have been initially developed, and what one single characteristic they believed to be the most important. In addition, the parent questionnaire asked if the child had attended day care or preschool and for how long. Responses were separated and ...


An Investigation Of Emergent Readers’ Hypotheses-Making About Print In Environmental Messages, Karen Lentz-Durrick Feb 1994

An Investigation Of Emergent Readers’ Hypotheses-Making About Print In Environmental Messages, Karen Lentz-Durrick

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

In this study, the researcher investigated the hypothesis generating process that emergent readers apply when encountering environmental messages. A debate has arisen concerning the transition period when emergent readers begin to see the significance of print around them. The step from reading messages using all cues to reliance only on print was first seen as a natural occurrence, but recent research has been unable to prove or disprove this. Using familiar, unfamiliar, correct and altered logos and labels the researcher questioned preschoolers about the stimuli's meanings and what part of the stimuli gave them that information. The researcher then ...


Preschool Teachers’ Stated Approaches To Imaginary Companion Behavior Among Preschool Students, Sharon Rose Stevens Dec 1992

Preschool Teachers’ Stated Approaches To Imaginary Companion Behavior Among Preschool Students, Sharon Rose Stevens

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of preschool teachers toward students with imaginary companions, in particular, their reactions to situations involving imaginary companions in the classroom settings.

Past research has focused on reflections of individuals who have had imaginary companions in childhood. Professional attitudes toward these children have ranged from very positive to suggestive of mental illness, requiring treatment.

The subjects were 27 female preschool teachers currently teaching nursery school in the western New York region. Eight hypothetical imaginary companion scenarios were devised. Each scenario was comprised of three to five short sentences. Subjects responded to ...


Observations Of Emergent Literary Behaviors In A Literacy-Enriched Play Environment: Does Teacher Guidance Make A Difference?, Cheryl M. Totten Sep 1992

Observations Of Emergent Literary Behaviors In A Literacy-Enriched Play Environment: Does Teacher Guidance Make A Difference?, Cheryl M. Totten

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study was completed to investigate whether there are differences in emergent literacy behaviors between a teacher guided literacy-enriched play environment and a literacy-enriched play environment without teacher guidance.

This study occurred over a five week period. During the first week, base-line data were collected using qualitative naturalistic observations where literacy behaviors were recorded during spontaneous play. The play area was literacy-enriched with play centers, environmental print, and literacy props. Six four-year olds were exposed to the environment for a half hour daily. During the first week of treatment, three of the subjects received teacher guidance / modeling while they played ...


To Sing Or Not To Sing: The Effect Of Singing On Recall Of Nursery Rhymes With Preschoolers, Nancy L. Kogler Aug 1992

To Sing Or Not To Sing: The Effect Of Singing On Recall Of Nursery Rhymes With Preschoolers, Nancy L. Kogler

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Much research has been cited which notes a positive regard for the incorporation of music and singing with young children. The study conducted here sought to examine which method of presentation of four selected nursery rhymes, singing or read-aloud, would promote greater recall efficacy with four year olds.

The study included fifty-seven four year olds who participated in a two part study. The subjects were divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. For Part One of the study, Group A heard Rhymes One and Two through a read-aloud book experience and Group B heard the same rhymes through ...


Evaluation Of A Stress Management Program Effectiveness For Preschool Children, Pnina C. Herzbrun May 1992

Evaluation Of A Stress Management Program Effectiveness For Preschool Children, Pnina C. Herzbrun

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Thirty-two preschool children from a day care center in suburban Rochester, New York participated as an experimental group in a study to evaluate a Stress Management Program. The program was designed to provide the children with different relaxation techniques for coping with stress. Thirty four preschool children from a second day care center, also in suburban Rochester, served as the control group. It was hypothesized that the stress management program would be effective in reducing the level of stress in the treatment group as contrasted with the control group. Material included a short form of the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ-S ...


A Study Of Preschool Children Telling “Book Stories”, Maureen Maas-Feary May 1991

A Study Of Preschool Children Telling “Book Stories”, Maureen Maas-Feary

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of information preschool children who had been exposed to books and stories had internalized about books and stories. Developmental differences regarding knowledge of story elements and book-reading conventions observed between 3- and 5-year-olds were also probed. A wordless picture book was used to prompt the children to produce oral versions of the story depicted.

The subjects were eight 3-year-olds and eight 5-year-olds enrolled in nursery schools in western New

York.

The researcher tape-recorded the children telling or "reading" their stories and also recorded book-reading behaviors exhibited. The stories were then ...


The Correspondence Between Auditory Duration And Grapheme Length: A Developmental Study, Jhan L. Sauer Jul 1990

The Correspondence Between Auditory Duration And Grapheme Length: A Developmental Study, Jhan L. Sauer

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study examines the development of young children’s conceptions of the correlation between auditory duration and grapheme length of a word. The researcher hypothesizes that that children’s concept of this relationship is developed over time and will increase with age. The author also hypothesizes that that there will be a statistically significant difference between the metalinguistic abilities of children who have received formal reading instruction and those who have not. The study examined 26 preschoolers, 40 kindergarteners, and 34 first graders from private suburban schools in western New York. The researcher used word-pair cards consisting of pseudowords and ...


Receptive Vocabulary And Birth Order Of Children With A Non-Working Parent At Home During Their Pre-School Years, Beverly Paris Cass May 1990

Receptive Vocabulary And Birth Order Of Children With A Non-Working Parent At Home During Their Pre-School Years, Beverly Paris Cass

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the receptive vocabulary scores on the Stanford Achievement Test of children having different birth orders all of whom were raised with a non-working parent in the home during their pre-school years.

This study examined the effect of birth order on a child’s receptive vocabulary. It analyzed the effects on a child's language development by environment, birth order, parental involvement, sibling communications, schema and intelligence.

Researchers agree that a child’s academic success is correlated with his/her language components. A child’s ...


A Longitudinal Study To Investigate Young Children’S Changing Perceptions And Abilities Within The Writing Process, Lynne Ellen Keefer May 1983

A Longitudinal Study To Investigate Young Children’S Changing Perceptions And Abilities Within The Writing Process, Lynne Ellen Keefer

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This two year longitudinal study was designed to investigate young children’s changing perceptions and abilities within the writing process. Twenty-one children were interviewed and asked to produce writing samples at four intervals during two school years, nursery school and kindergarten. Responses to questions were categorically arranged and writing episodes were classified among five levels that emerged. Changes among categories and levels were reported and observations were discussed.

Data suggested that children have a limited perspective of the functions of writing. Children were observed to progress from writing their own name, to writing names of significant others, to writing one ...


The Child’S Concept Of Reading: Its Relationship With Cognitive Development And Reading Achievement, Patricia M. Fletcher Aug 1977

The Child’S Concept Of Reading: Its Relationship With Cognitive Development And Reading Achievement, Patricia M. Fletcher

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the child's cognitive level of development and his concept of reading. The secondary purpose was to explore the relationship between the child’s concept of reading and his performance on a standardized reading measure, the Metropolitan Reading Achievement Test. The subjects, eight girls and twelve boys from a self-contained second grade class in a suburban school in western New York, ranged in age from 7.3 years to 9.2 years. The child's cognitive level of development, either preoperational-transitional or concrete operational, was determined by performance ...