Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 1880

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Relationship Of Perceived Learning And Self-Regulated Learning Of Undergraduate Students And The Curiosity Scores Generated By Packback, Rosemarie Rizzuto Sep 2022

The Relationship Of Perceived Learning And Self-Regulated Learning Of Undergraduate Students And The Curiosity Scores Generated By Packback, Rosemarie Rizzuto

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Institutions work to improve their retention rates. Research supports academically and socially integrated students are more likely to develop a commitment to the institution and persist to graduation. Historically these theories emphasized perceived learning and self-regulated learning as contributing factors for student retention. Curiosity is a motivational factor that improves student engagement and academic integration. Discussion boards are used with face-to-face, online, and hybrid courses. Instructors use the virtual workspace to build a collaborative community for students to engage with one another, the instructor, and the course material. Packback uses artificial intelligence (AI) to heighten student engagement on discussion board ...


Managing Risk: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology On The Experiences Of Corporate Instructors When Planning And Developing Disaster Driven Training Content, Seeke Diana Hughes Sep 2022

Managing Risk: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology On The Experiences Of Corporate Instructors When Planning And Developing Disaster Driven Training Content, Seeke Diana Hughes

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This phenomenological study aimed to understand and interpret corporate trainers' perspectives when developing disaster or pandemic-driven training content for remote situations and suggest a baseline response to identified deficits. Using the disaster risk management theory by Kim and Sohn (2018), with specific emphasis on Petak's (1985) and McLoughlin's (1985) framework, data from the participants was collected using semi-structured individual interviews, document analysis, and observations. While corporate trainers have used years of experience and seasoned pedagogy to enhance learning for their participants to achieve corporate objectives, almost no content exists regarding the process. Due to increased remote learning resulting ...


The Relationship Between Technology Readiness And Online Professional Development, Scott Farrell Ringkamp Sep 2022

The Relationship Between Technology Readiness And Online Professional Development, Scott Farrell Ringkamp

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study is to determine if there is a relationship between technology readiness and grades, the number of attempts taken, or the time it took to complete an online professional development. Because of the pandemic, much educator professional development has shifted online. When this occurred, many teachers were unprepared to make this shift. To study the relationship, the researcher surveyed 73 staff members of an LEA in central Pennsylvania using the Technology Readiness Index 2.0 instrument. Then, the researcher computed a correlation coefficient between each participant’s Technology Readiness Index score and their grades ...


The Effects Of Religious Commitment On The Loneliness And Authenticity Of Single Millennial Women Churchgoers, Zowee Jamison-Shanks Sep 2022

The Effects Of Religious Commitment On The Loneliness And Authenticity Of Single Millennial Women Churchgoers, Zowee Jamison-Shanks

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

There has been a plethora of studies that have been conducted regarding the large number of millennials who are leaving the religious institution. Despite the studies that have been conducted there are a limited number of studies that examine the reasoning behind millennials leaving religious institutions. This study adds to current knowledge about single millennial women and their religious commitment. This study provides knowledge that can benefit leaders of religious institutions in reconnecting with single millennial women and engaging in conversation that could help to decrease the internal and external factors that cause disaffiliation. The purpose of this quantitative study ...


Improving Inattentiveness Through Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex Integration Exercises: A Quantitative, Quasi-Experimental Study, Arrin Christine Brummett Sep 2022

Improving Inattentiveness Through Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex Integration Exercises: A Quantitative, Quasi-Experimental Study, Arrin Christine Brummett

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to understand the difference in the posttest detectability scores, as measured by the Conners Kiddie Continuous Performance Test 2nd edition, among early childhood students participating in various activity types, including ATNR integration exercises, running exercises, or sedentary work, when controlling for pretest detectability scores at schools in rural north Texas using a nonequivalent control-group, pretest-posttest design. This study built on the theory of structural cognitive modifiability and helped to expand research regarding the impact of a specific type of physical activity, namely asymmetric tonic neck reflex integration exercises, on focal inattentiveness, a ...


The Application Of Praxis In High School Classrooms: A Qualitative Case Study, Tonia R. Maher Sep 2022

The Application Of Praxis In High School Classrooms: A Qualitative Case Study, Tonia R. Maher

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the application of educational research-based instructional methods by teachers in public secondary high school classrooms in Colorado. The use of educational research-based instructional methods will be defined as praxis. Bruner’s constructivist theory of learning and instruction guided this study. This qualitative case study employed an epistemological perspective that provided the framework for predicting, describing, empowering, and deconstructing worldviews by increasing the knowledge that leads to further understanding of the application of praxis in public secondary high school classrooms. The setting was Colorado public high schools. Data were collected from ...


Experiences Of Homeschool High School Students In The Development Of Their Educational Plan: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Melissa Lyn Macconney Sep 2022

Experiences Of Homeschool High School Students In The Development Of Their Educational Plan: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Melissa Lyn Macconney

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative, transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of homeschool high school students in Georgia in the development of their educational plan of study. The theory guiding this study was Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory as it relates to learning and development and the interaction of the learner with the environment. Ten participants were identified from the Local Homeschool Association which serves families in 13 counties in the state of Georgia. The study sought to answer this central research question: What are the experiences of homeschool high school students in Georgia in the development of their ...


Managing Student Misbehavior Through A Restorative Approach: A Phenomenological Study, Michael Preston Christie Sep 2022

Managing Student Misbehavior Through A Restorative Approach: A Phenomenological Study, Michael Preston Christie

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative, transcendental phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of alternative education teachers in utilizing a restorative approach to managing student behaviors at a small, rural school district in north Florida. Gordon’s (1981) theory on Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET) steered this study in investigating the research questions central to this study: (1) What are the experiences of alternative education teachers in using a restorative approach for addressing student behaviors? (2) How have these experiences shaped the teacher-student relationship? (3) What are the professional development needs of alternative education teachers to improve the restorative practices experience ...


A Correlational Study Of Noncognitive Variables And Student Success In Dental Education, Jennifer Lynn Keim Wibbeler Sep 2022

A Correlational Study Of Noncognitive Variables And Student Success In Dental Education, Jennifer Lynn Keim Wibbeler

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

In 1995, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published Dental Education at the Crossroads: Challenges and Change, advocating for a revolution in dental education. Notably, it recommended that course content, structure, and delivery be modernized in response to graduating clinicians lacking the critical thinking and problem-solving skills required in a patient care setting. To help determine if current dental education trends are promoting these skills, the purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study is to investigate the relationship between students' noncognitive variables (self-regulation, intrinsic motivation, autonomous functioning, learning strategies, and grit), as predictor variables, and self-directed academic performance (as measured by end-of-term ...


A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of School Leaders' Preparation And Leadership Of Inclusive And Special Education Programs, April Denise Burwell Sep 2022

A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of School Leaders' Preparation And Leadership Of Inclusive And Special Education Programs, April Denise Burwell

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This transcendental phenomenological study describes how public school leaders experience learning and leading inclusive and special education programs. Two theories guided this study Knowles’s adult learning theory and Mezirow’s transformative learning theory. The central research question for this study was how school leaders describe their professional experiences in leading inclusive and special education programming. The 10 participants in this study were school leaders endorsed in administration and supervision K–12. A criterion sampling was utilized for participant selection across three school districts in Central Virginia. The phenomenological approach was applied during data analysis. Horizontalization and coding were used ...


A Phenomenological Study Of Administrators' Perceptions Of College Mergers, Abigail Carter Sep 2022

A Phenomenological Study Of Administrators' Perceptions Of College Mergers, Abigail Carter

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the experience of administrators who participated in mergers of technical colleges in a Southern state in the United States. The theory guiding this study was Lewin’s (1997) change theory. Lewin (1997) suggested that the critical factor of an organization’s tone lies in leadership before, during, and after a change. Therefore, the success of any significant organizational transition, such as a merger, relies on the skills of leaders. A central research question and three sub-questions were used to understand the lived experiences that impact administrators during a college merger ...


Exploring The K-12 School Experiences That Contribute To Resilience In Adulthood As Described By Resilient Adults With Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Phenomenology, Susannah Wyndi Bradley Aug 2022

Exploring The K-12 School Experiences That Contribute To Resilience In Adulthood As Described By Resilient Adults With Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Phenomenology, Susannah Wyndi Bradley

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe the K-12 school experiences that contributed to resilience in adulthood for individuals with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). The theory guiding this study is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as it explains how students’ achievement and engagement in learning, as well as their barriers to the same are related to students’ unmet basic needs, the pursuit of safety, and feelings of fear and mistrust. The research questions will explore how resilient adults with ACEs describe the K-12 classroom experiences that contributed to their resilience in adulthood, the classrooms where they ...


A Case Study Of Audio Video Technology And Film Teachers’ Preparedness, Brian Ronald Holt Aug 2022

A Case Study Of Audio Video Technology And Film Teachers’ Preparedness, Brian Ronald Holt

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to provide a deeper understanding of audio video technology and film (AVTF) teachers’ preparedness to teach this curriculum in the state of Georgia. Their preparedness will generally be defined as the degree of formal training, or lack thereof, for teaching the AVTF curriculum in Georgia public schools. The research questions were as follows: Central Question: To what degree are current AVTF teachers’ formal training experiences sufficient in teaching a CTE course offering? Sub-Question 1: What are AVTF teachers’ training experiences? Sub-Question 2: What research-based teaching strategies are employed by AVTF teachers? Sub-Question ...


The Spiritual And Emotional Dynamics Of Pastoral Transitions: A Phenomenological Study, Carl Michael Mclaughlin Aug 2022

The Spiritual And Emotional Dynamics Of Pastoral Transitions: A Phenomenological Study, Carl Michael Mclaughlin

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the central phenomenon of how the spiritual and emotional dynamics of outgoing and incoming pastoral leadership impacted the pastoral transition and to discover common patterns in successful transitions. The central question addressed in this phenomenological research was, “How do pastoral teams consisting of the outgoing pastor and spouse and the incoming pastor and spouse process the spiritual and emotional dynamics of a pastoral transition?” The church is described as a family (Eph 3:15) with spiritual and emotional needs. The pastor should possess personal competence and social competence to lead ...


A Case Study Examining School Leadership And General Education Teachers' Perceived Preparedness For Inclusion Of Students With High-Functioning Autism, Melony Yvonne Marciniak Aug 2022

A Case Study Examining School Leadership And General Education Teachers' Perceived Preparedness For Inclusion Of Students With High-Functioning Autism, Melony Yvonne Marciniak

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this case study in a Pre-K-12 Christian school environment was to understand the perceived preparedness and perceived efficacy of education professionals and general education middle- and high-school teachers for inclusion of students with high-functioning autism (HFA). The education professionals included a school nurse, one special education teacher, a director of special education and a religion teacher. Three theories guiding the research were self-fulfilling prophecies as defined by Merton (1948), Gilbert and Wilson’s (2007) theory of prospection, and Bandura’s (1995) theory of self-efficacy. The central research question was: How do education professionals and general education teachers ...


Facilitating Conditions That Increase Faculty Perceived Usefulness Of Learning Management Systems: A Multiple-Case Study, Darnell S. Kemp Aug 2022

Facilitating Conditions That Increase Faculty Perceived Usefulness Of Learning Management Systems: A Multiple-Case Study, Darnell S. Kemp

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this research study designed as a multiple-case study was to discover the facilitating conditions that led faculty at the higher education level to create activities using student-centered learning tools in the learning management systems (LMSs). The theories guiding this study were Davis’ technology acceptance model and two versions of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Both theories looked at how perceived ease of use (PEU) and perceived usefulness (PU) determine a user’s use of a technology. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology added facilitating conditions as a primary determiner of ...


A Case Study Of Cultural Awareness Integration Throughout The Elementary Education Curriculum, Kristina Nicole Laird-Arnold Aug 2022

A Case Study Of Cultural Awareness Integration Throughout The Elementary Education Curriculum, Kristina Nicole Laird-Arnold

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this instrumental case study was to understand the critical aspects of cultural awareness education at the elementary level. This study intended to assess a variety of educators’ perceptions of elementary students’ cultural awareness and character development by asking what role culture awareness plays in the development of the whole child. This instrumental case study sought to identify teachers’ perceptions of the current educational provisions of teaching and learning through cultural proficiency in elementary education. The central research question was: How do elementary teachers’ perceptions of cultural awareness help integrate content throughout the educational curriculum? It was used ...


The Relationship Between Servant Leadership And Self-Efficacy Among Law Enforcement Officers In Western North Carolina, Anthony Scott Teague Aug 2022

The Relationship Between Servant Leadership And Self-Efficacy Among Law Enforcement Officers In Western North Carolina, Anthony Scott Teague

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The role of a servant united with the role of a leader, combines to form the servant leader. The term self-efficacy is defined as a person’s belief in the ability within a specific situation to be successful. The purpose of this quantitative non-experimental correlational descriptive research study was to discover law enforcement officers’ perception regarding the influence of the servant leader behaviors of their immediate supervisor on the officers’ own self-efficacy level in law enforcement officers located in western North Carolina. Law enforcement officers who attended training at two community colleges in western North Carolina was surveyed for this ...


Differences In Test Anxiety Levels Among Elementary Students: A Causal-Comparative Study, Candice Lynn Nurney Aug 2022

Differences In Test Anxiety Levels Among Elementary Students: A Causal-Comparative Study, Candice Lynn Nurney

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of test anxiety among students since the introduction of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. Test anxiety has been found to significantly impact student achievement and motivation. A review of the literature indicates a gap exists in the study of test anxiety among elementary students, particularly as it relates to changes in the prevalence of test anxiety between grade levels at the elementary level. A nonexperimental cross-sectional causal comparative research design was utilized to determine the relationship between students’ grade level and level of test anxiety. The research questions ...


A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Parents As They Choose The Appropriate Classroom For Their Child With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Lorie Michele Mick Aug 2022

A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Parents As They Choose The Appropriate Classroom For Their Child With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Lorie Michele Mick

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to explore the experiences and challenges of parents as they choose an appropriate classroom setting for their child with highfunctioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) at an elementary school. Parents of students with HFASD must grapple with this decision each year at their child’s annual IEP review meeting. The theory guiding this study is Knowles’ adult learning theory. Adult learning theory states that adults use both their personal experiences and intrinsic motivation to discover information that they need to make a decision. Ten parents of elementary-aged children diagnosed with HFASD were selected ...


Development And Pedagogy Of Vocal Jazz Ensembles According To Illinois High School Choral Directors: Perspectives, Andrew Baguisa Evangelista Aug 2022

Development And Pedagogy Of Vocal Jazz Ensembles According To Illinois High School Choral Directors: Perspectives, Andrew Baguisa Evangelista

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this study is to explore instructional strategies and participation concerns regarding vocal jazz ensembles according to high school choral directors in Illinois who lead their schools’ vocal jazz programs. High school choir directors without jazz experience often recognize the need to expand their performance and pedagogical abilities in jazz and access to vocal jazz repertory; however, professional development opportunities in Illinois’ music education organization have yet to offer guidance. This leaves choral directors without jazz experience little insight on how to familiarize themselves with jazz styles, pertinent pedagogical ideas, and how to apply available resources towards the ...


Faith Development In Eighth-Grade Christian Students Studying Creation-Theory-Based Science: A Phenomenological Study, Stephen Matthew Lowe Aug 2022

Faith Development In Eighth-Grade Christian Students Studying Creation-Theory-Based Science: A Phenomenological Study, Stephen Matthew Lowe

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to explore the lived faith development experiences of eighth-grade Christian students following a creation-theory-based curriculum at a Northern Michigan Christian school. The 12 male and female students who participated were aged 13–14 years and self-identified as Christian. The study setting was a small Christian middle school in Northern Michigan. Researchers have thoroughly investigated many aspects of faith development but had not addressed the faith development of eighth-grade Christian students following a creation-theory-based curriculum. The theoretical framework underlying the study was Fowler’s faith development theory. Data were triangulated from semistructured interviews ...


Effect Of Vertical Alignment On Elementary, Middle, And High School Music Programs, Tamekia Denise Holliday Aug 2022

Effect Of Vertical Alignment On Elementary, Middle, And High School Music Programs, Tamekia Denise Holliday

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the effects of vertical alignment on elementary, middle, and high school music programs. Thirty-five (n = 35) elementary, middle, and secondary music educators participated in the study. Of the 35 participants, 41% (n = 15) were high school music educators, 25% (n = 9) were middle school music educators, 27% (n = 10) were middle and high school music, and 2% (n = 1) taught elementary, middle, and high school. Analysis of survey data revealed significant relationships related to vertical alignment. The most significant relationship was between vertical alignment and retention (r = .643, p < .01), suggesting that student retention increases as vertical alignment increases. As well, results indicated that as vertical alignment decreases, the number of students “who wish to continue in music classes but cannot” increase (r = -.530, p < .01). Analysis of open-ended survey questions revealed valuable themes related to consistent band participation, music teacher expectations, and the effect of vertical alignment on music programs. Applying the results of this study may improve understanding of the effects of vertical alignment and enhance effective teaching and learning in music.


Full-Hearted Leading: A Multiple Case Study Of Principals' Sensemaking Toward Implementing Moral Character Development In Elementary Schools, Kimberly Renee Starks Aug 2022

Full-Hearted Leading: A Multiple Case Study Of Principals' Sensemaking Toward Implementing Moral Character Development In Elementary Schools, Kimberly Renee Starks

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this multiple case study was to understand how elementary school principals make sense of moral character development in their schools. The theories that guided this study were Weick’s sensemaking theory and Kohlberg’s moral development theory as it provided explanations to principals’ sensemaking regarding the effectiveness of moral character development implementation in elementary schools. The case studies, in one Midwestern school district, examined ten school administrators’ sensemaking toward implementing essential and effective moral character development programs in their schools. This study utilized a multiple case design that was critical to theory, deviated from theoretical norms, and ...


Elementary School Teachers' Perceptions Of Student Motivation To Use Classroom Integrated Technology, Jason Lynn Webb Aug 2022

Elementary School Teachers' Perceptions Of Student Motivation To Use Classroom Integrated Technology, Jason Lynn Webb

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The integration of technology into the classroom transforms curriculum design and instructional methods. Research suggests that the perspectives of teachers and students are not always in agreement regarding the influence of classroom integrated technology on learning motivation. The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine if there is a significant difference in how teachers perceive the influence of technology integration on student learning motivation based on teacher gender, teacher weekly hours of computer use, and teacher years of teaching experience. The study used the Teacher Attitudes toward Classroom Computing Scale to collect data from 238 4th- and 5th-grade rural ...


Grit As A Predictor Of Academic Achievement Among Street-Connected Boys In Bungoma, Kenya: A Quantitative Study, Brigid Siobhan Scripa Aug 2022

Grit As A Predictor Of Academic Achievement Among Street-Connected Boys In Bungoma, Kenya: A Quantitative Study, Brigid Siobhan Scripa

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, predictive, correlational study was to examine the relationship between street-connected children’s grit while enrolled in Reach International Children’s Center and street-connected children’s grit while living with family of origin. Furthermore, the purpose of this study was to examine hypothesized predictors of rank-ordered academic achievement among street-connected children, recently rescued street-connected children, recently reintegrated street-connected children, and home-connected children. A world phenomenon is currently occurring where children are migrating to the streets in search of shelter, security, and safety; children are migrating to the streets in search of meeting their basic needs. While ...


Leaders And Restraints: Investigating How Attitudes Of School Leaders Predict The Number Of Physical Restraints, Sarah S. Ulmer Aug 2022

Leaders And Restraints: Investigating How Attitudes Of School Leaders Predict The Number Of Physical Restraints, Sarah S. Ulmer

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study investigates how attitudes of school leaders predict the number of physical restraints that occur in schools that serve students under IDEA. This study focuses on the attitudes of school leaders from the geographical regions of Virginia in public and private schools. The “Educational Leadership and Behavioral Interventions” survey was used to gather research from 33 schools within Virginia. After collecting the data through the survey, the data was analyzed using a predictive correlation research design. The bivariate linear regression was used to analyze the predictor and criterion variables using SPSS. Based on the results of the data analysis ...


Interactive Textbooks: A Study On The Effects On Learning Gains And Course Grades Among Community College Minority Students, Victoria C. Brower Aug 2022

Interactive Textbooks: A Study On The Effects On Learning Gains And Course Grades Among Community College Minority Students, Victoria C. Brower

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study is to examine whether the use of interactive e-textbooks by community college minority students makes a difference in academic outcomes (as measured by final course test grades) and if the use of interactive textbooks could lead to course completion and terminal degrees. This study adds to the existing literature insight into alternative methods of increasing learning and developing positive attitudes among minorities in the community college setting. The sample population included minority students enrolled in a government class attending a community college in an urban area in South Florida. There were N = 118 ...


Effect On Student Achievement For Middle School Math Students Using Blackboard, Canvas And Schoology In The State Of Virginia, Rosa Ann Woodley-Richard Aug 2022

Effect On Student Achievement For Middle School Math Students Using Blackboard, Canvas And Schoology In The State Of Virginia, Rosa Ann Woodley-Richard

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative research was to compare the differences in middle-school student achievement for grade 7 math students among three different learning management systems: Blackboard, Canvas, and Schoology. The instrument was the Virginia Grade 7 Math Standards of Learning test. The population included students in the 7th grade attending a public school in the state of Virginia. The participants were the individual school districts. The study examined the means between the pass rates of the three learning management systems to see if there was a significant difference. The independent variable included the three learning management systems: Blackboard ...


Exploratory Analysis Of Variance: Examining The Role Of Teacher Education Level On Educator Sense Of Self-Efficacy, Jonetta L. Cooper Aug 2022

Exploratory Analysis Of Variance: Examining The Role Of Teacher Education Level On Educator Sense Of Self-Efficacy, Jonetta L. Cooper

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this causal-comparative study was used to analyze the hypothesized differences among inclusion teachers’ sense of self efficacy (TSES) based on their highest level of degree completion (bachelor’s, master's, master's plus). In an era of educational reform, students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) continue to lag behind regular education counterparts in all schooling environments. Schools in the southwestern region of Tennessee are now servicing a growing number of SLD-diagnosed students with a paucity of research addressing teacher's impact on SLD literacy scores. Participants in the study comprised 59 English language arts (ELA) inclusion teachers ...