Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Walden University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 3540

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Importance Of Digital Learning And Teaching In The Era Of Covid-19, Gary J. Burkholder, Erwin Krauskopf Dec 2022

The Importance Of Digital Learning And Teaching In The Era Of Covid-19, Gary J. Burkholder, Erwin Krauskopf

Higher Learning Research Communications

We are pleased to publish the second regular issue (Volume 12, Issue 2) of Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC) for 2022. This year, we published two regular issues and a special issue, Education Technologies and COVID-19: Experiences and Lessons Learned. COVID-19 and the implications of the switch to emergency online teaching continue to capture the interest of researchers. In the present issue, some of the manuscripts focus directly on COVID-19; still others examine different aspects of digital teaching and learning. As is typical with the HLRC, articles represent the voices of academics from various parts of the globe, demonstrating …


Community Circles In Response To Restorative Justice Research And Critique, Hannah Edber Dec 2022

Community Circles In Response To Restorative Justice Research And Critique, Hannah Edber

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Zero-tolerance discipline in schools has resulted in disproportionate referrals, suspensions, and expulsions for Black students, students with disabilities, and low-income students of color. Restorative Justice (RJ) seeks to intervene in these patterns by emphasizing community interconnectedness and a discourse of harm, accountability, and repair. Although RJ has been shown to increase school connectedness and decrease suspensions and expulsions, teachers and students using RJ (as a response to discipline issues) report varying degrees of satisfaction with the framework. Frustrations can include limited time and limited depth of conversations with students who have caused harm, so that root causes of behavior are …


Emergency Remote Teaching Versus Planned Remote Teaching: Narrowing The Gap With Targeted Professional Development, Bonnie J. Covelli, Sudipta Roy Dec 2022

Emergency Remote Teaching Versus Planned Remote Teaching: Narrowing The Gap With Targeted Professional Development, Bonnie J. Covelli, Sudipta Roy

Higher Learning Research Communications

Objectives: This study reviews faculty members’ comfort level with remote teaching in the Fall 2020 semester to evaluate the effectiveness of the professional development workshops.

Method: Using survey research, we examined professional development activities and subsequent comfort level and ease of adjustment with remote teaching in Fall 2020.

Results: Following the training, faculty reported high planned usage of various online teaching tools and great comfort with using them. The data reveals some differences between part-time and full-time faculty members.

Conclusions: The experience gained in the emergency semester, combined with the targeted professional development workshops offered eased the stress of planned …


Leadership Skill Development In Master’S-Level Counselor Education, Charity A. Godfrey, Richard J. Cicchetti, Craig R. Blum, Gary Michael Szirony, Tamara Harris Dec 2022

Leadership Skill Development In Master’S-Level Counselor Education, Charity A. Godfrey, Richard J. Cicchetti, Craig R. Blum, Gary Michael Szirony, Tamara Harris

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Student leadership identity is fast becoming one of the most critical challenges educational institutions face today. However, mental health counselors may be limited in the amount of education and training received as they become leaders in the field. There is currently no known mandate at the master’s level for leadership embedded within the counseling curriculum in the educational environment, although research suggests otherwise. The purpose of this correlational predictive empirical study was to investigate leadership identity characteristics as measured by the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale, Revision 2 (SLRS-R2), moderated by demographic factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine outcome …


Faculty And Student Online Mentoring Preferences, Lee Stadtlander, Arfe Ozcan, Latoya Johnson, Briana Nicholson, Narjis Hyder Dec 2022

Faculty And Student Online Mentoring Preferences, Lee Stadtlander, Arfe Ozcan, Latoya Johnson, Briana Nicholson, Narjis Hyder

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Isolation of online doctoral students intensifies when they transition from coursework to the dissertation/capstone phase, limiting them to interacting with their mentors. A three-round modified Delphi study was conducted to examine mentoring preferences of online doctoral students and faculty. The first round provided qualitative data regarding the preferred mentoring practices for faculty and alumni. Round 1 qualitative data were organized into Likert questions and used in the second round, which resulted in data about frequency of mentoring practices for the same participants from Round 1. The third round provided data about importance of each preference rated by faculty and current …


Dissertation Writing During Covid-19: Student Anxiety And Productivity, Christy Fraenza, Kimberly Palermo-Kielb Dec 2022

Dissertation Writing During Covid-19: Student Anxiety And Productivity, Christy Fraenza, Kimberly Palermo-Kielb

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Many students across all levels of education experienced disruptions due to stay-at-home orders as part of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of our qualitative study was to specifically explore the doctoral student experience managing the writing of a dissertation amid stay-at-home orders during COVID-19. The majority of participants reported experiencing anxiety more frequently during stay-at-home orders and more productivity before stay-at-home orders. Reasons for decreased productivity during stay-at-home orders included reduced motivation, distractions, and lack of access to outside services and support.


Availability Of Social Support, Coping Strategies, Student Stressors And Wellness Among Older Women Studying Online During The Pandemic, Stamatis Elntib, Lucy Edwards Nov 2022

Availability Of Social Support, Coping Strategies, Student Stressors And Wellness Among Older Women Studying Online During The Pandemic, Stamatis Elntib, Lucy Edwards

Higher Learning Research Communications

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between older women’s subjective perceptions of available social support, their coping strategies, self-reported wellness, and stressors experienced as online students studying during the pandemic.

Method: A convenience sample of 115 older adult women learners (Mean age = 40.88, SD = 11.27) studying online in March 2021 in one of the world’s largest providers of higher-education distance-learning courses was gathered using a survey methodology.

Results: Using structural equation modelling, we showed that perceptions of social support were associated with a higher use of positive coping and a lower use of …


Non-Governmental Organization/Non-Profit Organization Impact On Education Policy In Ghana, Sarah Ayikai Okine Nov 2022

Non-Governmental Organization/Non-Profit Organization Impact On Education Policy In Ghana, Sarah Ayikai Okine

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Non-Governmental Organizations/Nonprofit Organizations (NGOs/NPOs) are progressively becoming an essential source for government agencies in education worldwide. Developing countries such as Ghana have opened the way through regulations and policies for NGOs/NPOs to contribute to the educational system. Nevertheless, perceived threats and confrontations hinder their ability to support the Ministry of Education (MoE) and partner leaders to fulfill their duties in assisting the government in realizing comprehensive universal primary education. This qualitative case study responded to stakeholders’ perceptions of NGOs/NPOs influence on Ghana’s educational system to better comprehend the dynamic and power of NGOs/NPOs on education in Ghana’s rural communities. The …


Strategies For Creating Inclusive Learning Environments Through A Social Justice Lens, Beverly Araujo Dawson, Whitney Kilgore, Renee M. Rawcliffe Nov 2022

Strategies For Creating Inclusive Learning Environments Through A Social Justice Lens, Beverly Araujo Dawson, Whitney Kilgore, Renee M. Rawcliffe

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Culturally situated and cross-cultural approaches to instructional design and research have become increasingly important in higher education, particularly in online learning environments. As higher education becomes increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, learning environments must be structured and facilitated to meet the learning needs of BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, people of color) students. Based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) and culturally inclusive pedagogy, this paper provides an overview of inclusive teaching practices and the necessity to take a holistic approach to online teaching with BIPOC students. This paper provides an overview of key instructional design elements to achieve equity-minded instructional design.


Implementing Pbis With Fidelity: Secondary School Staff Members’ Descriptions Of School Climate, Tory Lawrence, Billie Jean Holubz, Michael Hixon, Kelly Paynter Nov 2022

Implementing Pbis With Fidelity: Secondary School Staff Members’ Descriptions Of School Climate, Tory Lawrence, Billie Jean Holubz, Michael Hixon, Kelly Paynter

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) is a schoolwide initiative implemented in many schools to address discipline concerns and promote a positive school climate. This phenomenological study examined the school climate perceptions of 12 staff members from three secondary schools in two North Carolina school districts that implemented PBIS with fidelity. All 12 participants favorably described their school climate after PBIS had been implemented with fidelity. Additionally, study participants reported improved discipline practices, as well as improved practices for acknowledging positive student behavior. This study’s findings fill a gap in the existing body of literature, regarding the implementation of PBIS …


Operationalizing Centerness And Measuring It In Professional Development Teams, George M. Nickles, Bruce Herbert Nov 2022

Operationalizing Centerness And Measuring It In Professional Development Teams, George M. Nickles, Bruce Herbert

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Centerness is defined as a quality of multi-agent systems (groups) where agents share a common set of system goals and interact so the system will achieve those goals. A pair of measures is identified to capture the two dimensions of centerness: distance-weighted fragmentation and average goal centerness. As a case study, the measures of centerness are applied to six teacher professional development groups within the Information Technology in Science Center for Teaching and Learning. The calculated measures of centerness of these groups generally conform to the expectations. Insights on using this measure of centerness to evaluate centerness in other professional …


Experiences And Lessons Learned From The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gary J. Burkholder, Erwin Krauskopf Oct 2022

Experiences And Lessons Learned From The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gary J. Burkholder, Erwin Krauskopf

Higher Learning Research Communications

We are pleased to publish our second special issue (Volume 12, Issue 0) of Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC) related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the first special issue (Volume 11, Issue 0), authors examined the experiences of the transition to emergency remote teaching by institutions of higher education globally. In the current special issue, authors examine, from the perspectives of different countries, the continued impact of the pandemic. Each article provides some indications of how the pandemic can impact higher education as it transitions back to models that include face-to-face learning.


Attitude Toward Physics Teaching Of Science Teachers: A Revised Scale And Analysis, Fikret Korur Oct 2022

Attitude Toward Physics Teaching Of Science Teachers: A Revised Scale And Analysis, Fikret Korur

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The first aim of the study was to apply the revised version of the Dimensions of Attitudes toward Science Scale, namely Dimension of Attitudes toward Physics Teaching Scale (DAPT) with a sample consisting of 207 in-service science teachers in Turkey. The second was to determine the percentage distributions of in-service science teachers’ attitudes toward physics teaching in the confirmed seven sub-dimensions. The DAPT is a valid and reliable scale to measure Turkish science teachers’ attitudes toward physics teaching. Most of the teachers acknowledge the importance of physics subjects in science lessons and believe that they have self-efficacy in teaching physics …


Book Review Of Rural Education In America: What Works For Our Students, Teachers, And Communities, By Geoff Marietta And Sky Marietta, Clifford Davis Jr. Oct 2022

Book Review Of Rural Education In America: What Works For Our Students, Teachers, And Communities, By Geoff Marietta And Sky Marietta, Clifford Davis Jr.

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Marietta, G., & Marietta, S. (2020). Rural education in America: What works for our students, teachers, and communities. Harvard Education Press.

This review evaluates Geoff and Sky Marietta’s book, Rural Education in America: What Works for Our Students, Teachers, and Communities. As parents, community members, practitioners, and academics, the writers have a unique perspective on rural education. In this book, they seek to dispel the myth of the rural monolith of white poverty and social conservatism, arguing that rural communities and their challenges are far more complex and diverse than is presently reflected in the literature. This review …


Factors Influencing The Development Of Social Change Involvement, Linda Johanson, Patti P. Urso, Kimberly Priode Oct 2022

Factors Influencing The Development Of Social Change Involvement, Linda Johanson, Patti P. Urso, Kimberly Priode

Journal of Excellence in Nursing and Healthcare Practice

How to cultivate and encourage the motivation to become an agent of positive social change has not been studied to a great degree. For example, what kind of factors influence the development and growth in nurses toward a desire to be involved in changing society for the better? Knowledge of these factors could help educators and nurse leaders provide and encourage those growth opportunities. The purpose of this research was to interview nurses known to be deeply involved in various types of positive social change and discover what factors influenced this development. Three overall themes emerged as influencing factors for …


Improving Computer Programming Competency For First Semester Computer Science Students Through Immersive Project-Based Learning, Ubaidah Ubaidah, Minaldi Loeis Oct 2022

Improving Computer Programming Competency For First Semester Computer Science Students Through Immersive Project-Based Learning, Ubaidah Ubaidah, Minaldi Loeis

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The objective of this research is to describe the implementation of project-based learning (PJBL) in improving computer programming competency in a higher education setting. The method applied in this study is action research with a one-cycle framework with four phases of development: a) planning, b) action, c) observing, and d) reflection phases. This research tries to answer two questions: how to implement PJBL in a programming course to improve programming competency and how to ensure students’ satisfaction in the learning process. The PJBL applied in this research consists of seven steps, including a) a challenging problem or question; b) sustained …


Effective Teaching Of Literature-In-English In Nigerian Secondary Schools: The Persistent Problems, Eucharia Okwudilichukwu Ugwu Sep 2022

Effective Teaching Of Literature-In-English In Nigerian Secondary Schools: The Persistent Problems, Eucharia Okwudilichukwu Ugwu

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

Literature-in-English is a major school subject that equips students with language and other soft skills needed for entry into the workforce. For students to acquire the skills, effective teaching, which is dependent on the availability of basic teaching–learning resources, is essential. Education is underfunded in Nigeria. This affects the quality of teaching and impedes learning. The rate at which students fail Literature-in-English, which is getting worse each year, indicates that there is a problem in the teaching–learning process. Using a mixed-method research design, this study investigated the problems of teaching Literature-in-English in 51 public senior secondary school in Ibadan metropolis, …


Class Size And Self-Esteem As Determinants Of Student Learning Outcomes In Essay Writing, Kehinde Olufemi Ogunyemi Sep 2022

Class Size And Self-Esteem As Determinants Of Student Learning Outcomes In Essay Writing, Kehinde Olufemi Ogunyemi

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

This study was carried out mainly to investigate the effects of class size and self-esteem on student achievement in—and attitude toward—English essay writing. The study was influenced by earlier research reports indicating that the large class sizes prevalent in Nigerian schools may be detrimental to student academic and emotional well-being. The study employed an ex post facto research design, as no attempt was made to alter the pre-existing conditions in the schools. Three hundred and thirty-five (335) Senior Secondary School 2 students from nine purposively selected schools participated in the study. An achievement test in essay writing (r = …


Assessing Companion Animal Attachment Among Future Latino Human Services Professionals, Yuleinys A. Castillo, Roy K. Chen Sep 2022

Assessing Companion Animal Attachment Among Future Latino Human Services Professionals, Yuleinys A. Castillo, Roy K. Chen

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

As the population of individuals from minoritized ethnic background continues to grow in the United States, the relationship between humans and their companion animals can provide valuable information for human services professionals. Attachment to companion animals can play a significant part in clients’ emotional well-being, family dynamics, and quality of life. This study aimed to examine the associations between human attachment with companion animals and their educational training and attitudes about animals. Analysis revealed that relational attachment was significant among Latino students in the study, and particpants’ positive attitudes and beliefs about animals significantly predicted their level of attachment to …


How The “Lessons Learned” From Emergency Remote Teaching Can Enrich European Higher Education In The Post-Covid-19 Era, Dimitrios Vlachopoulos Sep 2022

How The “Lessons Learned” From Emergency Remote Teaching Can Enrich European Higher Education In The Post-Covid-19 Era, Dimitrios Vlachopoulos

Higher Learning Research Communications

More than 2.5 years after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lessons learned from the implementation of emergency remote teaching in (European) higher education, this essay reflects on how universities, governments, and policy makers can re-imagine higher education in the post-COVID-19 era. It envisions universities as inclusive, student-centered, and accessible organizations capable of meeting diverse learning needs through technology-enhanced high-quality academic programs. This can be achieved through wide-scale uptake of blended learning in higher education; capacity building for stakeholders on online/blended learning; consideration of the unique needs of its stakeholders; and a holistic quality assurance framework. The author’s …


Experiential Learning Of School Counselors-In-Training To Work With English Learners, Qi Shi, Cielo Cournoyer, Ashlei Randolph, Matthew Scheffenacker, Jasmine Brown Aug 2022

Experiential Learning Of School Counselors-In-Training To Work With English Learners, Qi Shi, Cielo Cournoyer, Ashlei Randolph, Matthew Scheffenacker, Jasmine Brown

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

While the need for school counselors to support ELs is prominent, school counselors believed they were not well prepared to effectively work with EL students. To inform and strengthen our practice, we engaged in a practitioner inquiry study to understand the lived experiences of school counselors-in-training (SCITs) in an experiential learning activity to work with English Learners. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of classroom observations, SCITs’ reflection journal entries, and transcripts of a focus group: (a) SCITs’ perceived challenges, (b) strategies used to overcome challenges and (c) how this experiential training benefited their future work as a school …


Reflections On Inclusive Teaching, Michelle Pacansky-Brock Aug 2022

Reflections On Inclusive Teaching, Michelle Pacansky-Brock

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The COVID-era has left a lasting impression on each of us. How are college educators applying the full complexity of these experiences to their work to make teaching and learning in all modalities more welcoming, meaningful, and fulfilling for everyone? This reflection opens a conversation about inclusive teaching and invites you to be part of it.


A Winning Approach: Teaching Science Communication Skills Through Small-Group Workshops, Serena B. Gumusoglu, Maria Noterman Soulinthavong, Jennifer Barr Aug 2022

A Winning Approach: Teaching Science Communication Skills Through Small-Group Workshops, Serena B. Gumusoglu, Maria Noterman Soulinthavong, Jennifer Barr

Higher Learning Research Communications

Objectives: Research almost always culminates in the communication of findings. Despite the necessity of grant and manuscript writing throughout academic careers, scientific trainees often receive little guided practice in written communication. To fill this gap, we designed, implemented, and evaluated a voluntary writing initiative for biomedical students at a research-intensive (R1) university in the midwestern United States called Writing Initiative in Neuroscience (WIN).

Method: WIN consisted of didactic and workshop components. The didactic component included discussions with topic-specific experts on writing grants and manuscripts for the public and for non-academic scientific careers. The workshop component consisted of small group-based peer …


Analyzing Impact Of Aesthetic Visual Design On Usability Of E-Learning: An Emerging Economy Perspective, Akanksha Ghai, Urvashi Tandon Jul 2022

Analyzing Impact Of Aesthetic Visual Design On Usability Of E-Learning: An Emerging Economy Perspective, Akanksha Ghai, Urvashi Tandon

Higher Learning Research Communications

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to examine various dimensions of aesthetic visual design and their role in predicting usability in e-learning in higher education institutions of northern India. Using quantitative means of data collection, this research identified, ways and means to make learning content effectively usable, that is, attractive, interesting, motivating, and engaging for the learners.

Method: A survey questionnaire was developed through focused group discussions with field experts. Data were collected through online as well as offline modes. A Google form was created and its weblink was shared with the students pursuing degree courses in various state …


Synchronous Communication Technology For Remote Academic Advising At A State University, Charles Xiaoxue Wang, Michael Houdyshell, Matthew Plescia Jul 2022

Synchronous Communication Technology For Remote Academic Advising At A State University, Charles Xiaoxue Wang, Michael Houdyshell, Matthew Plescia

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The use of synchronous communication technology has significantly increased in recent years for communications in online learning and instruction, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic. Synchronous communication technology, such as Zoom, Google Meets, and Microsoft Teams, is widely adopted by academic advisors to continue their advising services as many universities were forced to move their traditional in-person academic advising to remote academic advising (RAA) in an online format. In this context, we explored the knowledge, experiences, and perceptions of students and academic advisors at a state university using synchronous communication technology for RAA during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study includes data …


“I Did Not Sign Up For This”: Student Experiences Of The Rapid Shift From In-Person To Emergency Virtual Remote Learning During The Covid Pandemic, Jeff Kuntz, Viola Manokore Jul 2022

“I Did Not Sign Up For This”: Student Experiences Of The Rapid Shift From In-Person To Emergency Virtual Remote Learning During The Covid Pandemic, Jeff Kuntz, Viola Manokore

Higher Learning Research Communications

Abstract

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to explore students’ experiences of the emergency virtual remote teaching, which was implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: 439 students enrolled at a community college in Canada responded to a survey that had Likert-scale and open-ended questions. Anderson’s model for online learning was used as an analytic lens to gain insight on student experiences. Descriptive statistics were used to make meaning of the data. Thematic analysis was done on student responses to open-ended questions.

Results: Findings were organized according to Anderson’s six factors in online teaching, namely: (a) …


Global Issues Spanning Higher Education, Gary J. Burkholder, Erwin Krauskopf Jun 2022

Global Issues Spanning Higher Education, Gary J. Burkholder, Erwin Krauskopf

Higher Learning Research Communications

We are pleased to publish the first regular issue (Volume 12, Issue 1) of Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC) for 2022. While the pandemic waxes and wanes, students in many parts of the world are returning or have returned to face-to-face instruction. It will take some time to fully understand the impact of the pandemic on higher education and what lasting changes will result from it. The Special Issue, Education Technologies and COVID-19: Experiences and Lessons learned, for which we are continuing to review manuscripts, should provide some insight into this question.This letter also contains article summaries.


Faculty Making The Emergency Online Transition During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Effects Of Prior Online Teaching Experience And Strategies Used To Learn To Teach Online (Special Edition 2022), Edward Hebert, Ralph Wood, Kwonchan Jeon, Ismatara Reena Jun 2022

Faculty Making The Emergency Online Transition During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Effects Of Prior Online Teaching Experience And Strategies Used To Learn To Teach Online (Special Edition 2022), Edward Hebert, Ralph Wood, Kwonchan Jeon, Ismatara Reena

Higher Learning Research Communications

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, university faculty experienced an emergency pivot to online instruction in the Spring 2020 semester. Many had no prior online teaching experience and were given little time to adapt. This study examines pre-pandemic online teaching experience and training strategies used to learn how to teach online during the emergency remote teaching semester, perceptions of change in online teaching ability and the pandemic’s impact on teaching effectiveness, and interest in future online teaching opportunities.

Method: Full-time faculty (n = 455) from four public regional universities in the southern United States completed a survey at …


Elementary Teachers’ Use Of 1:1 Tablets In Lesson Planning And Presentation On A Western Pacific Island, Sinton Soalablai, Andrea M. Wilson, Beate Baltes Jun 2022

Elementary Teachers’ Use Of 1:1 Tablets In Lesson Planning And Presentation On A Western Pacific Island, Sinton Soalablai, Andrea M. Wilson, Beate Baltes

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The Ministry of Education on a Western Pacific island invested in an expensive 1:1 tablet program providing elementary teachers and students with a tablet but had not determined if the program produced desired positive changes in the teachers’ instructional practices of lesson planning and lesson presentation. Guided by experiential learning theory, this causal–comparative study’s purpose was to determine if the 1:1 tablet program resulted in changes in elementary teachers’ use of technology in their lesson planning and lesson presentation practices. We analyzed pre and postimplementation lesson planning and lesson presentation data, collected from 63 elementary teachers, using repeated measures t …


Co-Teaching Effects On Algebra I Achievement Of Students With Disabilities, Valeree Williams, Peter Ross, Chukwuemeka Eleweke, Shereeza Mohammed Jun 2022

Co-Teaching Effects On Algebra I Achievement Of Students With Disabilities, Valeree Williams, Peter Ross, Chukwuemeka Eleweke, Shereeza Mohammed

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of co-teaching versus inclusive non-co-teaching for students with disabilities (SWD) using algebra I end-of-course scores (EOC) and whether these effects differed by gender. Participants included 244 ninth-grade algebra I SWD. The research design consisted of a posttest only with a control group and a test group. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the results. Results showed that co-teaching did not significantly benefit either male or female SWD in algebra I. The fact that SWD in inclusive settings who did not receive co-teaching scored higher than those in inclusive …