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Utah State University

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 78

Full-Text Articles in Education

Teaching English As A Foreign Language: A Multicultural Perspective, Nouf Ali Alotaibi Dec 2015

Teaching English As A Foreign Language: A Multicultural Perspective, Nouf Ali Alotaibi

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This portfolio is a compilation of the author’s beliefs and practices of what constitutes effective second language teaching. It is based on the author’s teaching philosophy and the work has been done during two years of study at the Master of Second Language Teaching (MSLT) program. The teaching philosophy centers on how to implement communication inside the language classroom, develop literacy, integrate culture teaching into language instruction, and how to use technology to facilitate language learning and teaching. The teaching philosophy is followed by three artifacts, which review the literature addressing different topics on language, literacy, and culture ...


Examining Patterns In Second Graders’ Use Of Virtual Manipulative Mathematics Apps Through Heatmap Analysis, Patricia Seray Moyer-Packenham, Stephen Isaac Tucker, Arla Westenskow, Jürgen Symanzik Dec 2015

Examining Patterns In Second Graders’ Use Of Virtual Manipulative Mathematics Apps Through Heatmap Analysis, Patricia Seray Moyer-Packenham, Stephen Isaac Tucker, Arla Westenskow, Jürgen Symanzik

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examined 32 second-grade children’s interactions with six virtual manipulative mathematics apps on the iPad using a novel analysis approach called heatmap analysis. Mathematical topics of the six apps focused on understanding skip counting and place value concepts. Children interacted individually with the apps under the guidance of an interviewer during 30-40 minute clinical interviews. The heatmap analysis revealed patterns in children’s performance on the tasks and suggested individual cases for further analysis. For example, clusters of children showed high or low performance during the skip counting sequence. In the high-performing cluster, one child still struggled to ...


Analyzing Mediation Models With Multiple Informants: A New Approach And Its Application In Clinical Psychology, Christian Geiser, Lesther A. Papa, Kaylee Litson, Ginger Lockhart, Laurie Chassin Nov 2015

Analyzing Mediation Models With Multiple Informants: A New Approach And Its Application In Clinical Psychology, Christian Geiser, Lesther A. Papa, Kaylee Litson, Ginger Lockhart, Laurie Chassin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes ...


Exploración De Las Narrativas BilingüEs Orales Y Escritas En Español E Inglés, Maria Luisa Spicer-Escalante Oct 2015

Exploración De Las Narrativas BilingüEs Orales Y Escritas En Español E Inglés, Maria Luisa Spicer-Escalante

Languages, Philosophy, and Communication Studies Faculty Publications

Este estudio investiga las diferencias y/o similitudes en las narrativas personales bilingües, español e inglés, de un grupo de estudiantes de escuela secundaria, cuando cuentan una historia de manera oral o escrita. Previos estudios sugieren que los estudiantes bilingües nativo-hablantes del español tienden a producir narrativas diferentes dependiendo de la lengua en que relatan las historias. Los participantes del estudio escribieron una narración en español y unos días después escribieron la misma narración en inglés. Posteriormente, durante una entrevista personal, se les pidió que contaran la narración que habían escrito, tanto en español como en inglés. Las muestras se ...


Alabama And Mississippi: A Case Study In School Trust Land Management, John Morgan Maynes Oct 2015

Alabama And Mississippi: A Case Study In School Trust Land Management, John Morgan Maynes

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

School trust lands are an enormous, yet often overlooked resource for public education. In some states, they have the potential to fund public education in an entirely tax-free manner, and they contribute tax-free funding for schools in many states. Before the Constitution of the United States was written, Congress established a system for granting lands to support common schools. However, there is a gap in the scholarly discourse about this legacy. Souder and Fairfax (1996) noted in their comprehensive work on school trust lands that “other than noting the initial grant to Ohio, most texts ignore the remaining details surrounding ...


An Initial Meta-Analysis Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Treating Substance Use Disorders, Eric B. Lee, Woolee An, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Oct 2015

An Initial Meta-Analysis Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Treating Substance Use Disorders, Eric B. Lee, Woolee An, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: In the past decade, multiple studies have examined the effectiveness ofAcceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for substance use disorders relative to other active treatments. The current meta-analysis examined the aggregate effect size when comparing ACT to other treatments (e.g., CBT, pharmacotherapy, 12-step,treatment as usual) specifically on substance use outcomes. Method: A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were identified through systematic searches. Results: A significant small to medium effect size was found favoring ACT relative to active treatment comparisons following treatment. Effect sizes were comparable across studies for smoking cessation (k = 5) and for other drug use ...


Closing The Gap Between Two Countries: Feasibility Of Dissemination Of An Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention In México, José Rubén Parra-Cardona, Elizabeth Aguilar Parra, Elizabeth Wieling, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Hiram E. Fitzgerald Sep 2015

Closing The Gap Between Two Countries: Feasibility Of Dissemination Of An Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention In México, José Rubén Parra-Cardona, Elizabeth Aguilar Parra, Elizabeth Wieling, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Hiram E. Fitzgerald

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this manuscript, we describe the initial steps of an international program of prevention research in Monterrey, México. Specifically, we present a feasibility study focused on exploring the level of acceptability reported by a group of Mexican mothers who were exposed to a culturally adapted parenting intervention originally developed in the United States. The efficacious intervention adapted in this investigation is known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTO®). Following a description of our international partnership, we describe the implementation of the pilot study aimed at determining initial feasibility. Qualitative data provided by 40 Mexican mothers exposed to the ...


Collapsing Factors In Multitrait-Multimethod Models: Examining Consequences Of A Mismatch Between Measurement Design And Model, Christian Geiser, Jacob Bishop, Ginger Lockhart Aug 2015

Collapsing Factors In Multitrait-Multimethod Models: Examining Consequences Of A Mismatch Between Measurement Design And Model, Christian Geiser, Jacob Bishop, Ginger Lockhart

Psychology Faculty Publications

Models of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are frequently applied to examine the convergent validity of scores obtained from multiple raters or methods in so-called multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) investigations. Many applications of CFA-MTMM and similarly structured models result in solutions in which at least one method (or specific) factor shows non-significant loading or variance estimates. Eid et al. (2008) distinguished between MTMM measurement designs with interchangeable (randomly selected) vs. structurally different (fixed) methods and showed that each type of measurement design implies specific CFA-MTMM measurement models. In the current study, we hypothesized that some of the problems that are commonly seen in ...


Learning From The Teaching Practices Of Successful Teachers Of Latina And Latino Students, Glori H. Smith Aug 2015

Learning From The Teaching Practices Of Successful Teachers Of Latina And Latino Students, Glori H. Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The achievement gap between White students and students of color has long been a concern of educators. It is well established that critical pedagogy and culturally relevant teaching practices increase the possibility of academic achievement for ethnic minority students; yet, throughout the U.S., the implementation of such practices has been less than optimal. It is also clear that some teachers are doing an excellent job of teaching students of color. However, it is not clear what those teachers are doing and what their practices look like, particularly in secondary classrooms and for Latina/o students—the fastest growing ethnic ...


Qualitative Case Study On Cell Phone Appropriation For Language Learning Purposes In A Dominican Context, Gisela Martiz Aug 2015

Qualitative Case Study On Cell Phone Appropriation For Language Learning Purposes In A Dominican Context, Gisela Martiz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research study investigated how a Dominican English language teacher and her students appropriated cell phone features for educational purposes inside and outside the classroom. The dissertation used a qualitative approach that focused on the teacher, and four students selected from a class of 23. Data collection took place for 8 weeks in an English language center located at a public university in the Dominican Republic in the summer of 2014. I collected data through interviews, conversations, classroom observations, and questionnaires. Data were analyzed to identify emerging themes that described how the teacher and students used their cell phones for ...


Personal Vulnerability In University Student Mothers: An Examination Of Cultural Expectations And Coping Mechanisms, Joanna Daines Aug 2015

Personal Vulnerability In University Student Mothers: An Examination Of Cultural Expectations And Coping Mechanisms, Joanna Daines

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Past research has emphasized the inter-role conflict and resulting stress and depression working mothers' experience. Similar conflicting responsibilities are faced by student mothers, or mothers attending post-secondary institutes of higher education. These women may be subject to feelings of personal vulnerability, depression, feelings of incompetence as parents, and dysfunctional interaction with their children. However, it is unclear how these factors are related among the student-mother population. Additionally, stress resulting from conflicting roles may be exacerbated by the cultural expectations placed on these women especially in the context of Utah culture. This study sought to understand how personal vulnerability is related ...


Integrating Literacy And Engineering Instruction For Young Learners, Amy Wilson-Lopez, Stacie Gregory Jul 2015

Integrating Literacy And Engineering Instruction For Young Learners, Amy Wilson-Lopez, Stacie Gregory

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

According to recently published national standards, elementary students should engage in engineering design activities. This article outlines ways that teachers can use literacy instruction to support young students’ engineering design activity, such as by selecting texts in which characters face problems that can be solved through engineering, providing students with opportunities to practice comprehension strategies while reading those texts, and modeling for them how to write a variety of texts that are relevant to engineers’ practices. The authors describe how they integrated this type of literacy instruction into engineering units in third- and fifth-grade classrooms.


Are We Preparing The Next Generation? K-12 Teacher Knowledge And Engagement In Teaching Core Stem Practices, Louis Nadelson, Anne Seifert, J. Kade Hendricks Jun 2015

Are We Preparing The Next Generation? K-12 Teacher Knowledge And Engagement In Teaching Core Stem Practices, Louis Nadelson, Anne Seifert, J. Kade Hendricks

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

Background: Several of the recent reform efforts in K-12 STEM education (e.g. Next Generation Science Standards [NGSS and Common Core State Standards-Mathematics [CCSS-M]) have included significant emphasis on the practices of STEM. We argue that K-12 teachers' ability to effectively engage their students in these core STEM practices is fundamental to the success of potential and current engineering students and their subsequent careers as engineers. Practices such as identifying problems, modeling using mathematics, and arguing from evidence are fundamental processes in engineering. Helping students develop their capacity to engage in these practices early in their education will increase the ...


Opportunistic Uses Of The Traditional School Day Through Student Examination Of Fitbit Activity Tracker Data, Victor R. Lee, Joel Drake, Ryan Cain, Jeffrey Thayne Jun 2015

Opportunistic Uses Of The Traditional School Day Through Student Examination Of Fitbit Activity Tracker Data, Victor R. Lee, Joel Drake, Ryan Cain, Jeffrey Thayne

Instructional Technology and Learning Sciences Faculty Publications

In large part due to the highly prescribed nature of the typical school day for children, efforts to design new interactions with technology have often focused on less-structured after-school clubs and other out-of-school environments. We argue that while the school day imposes serious restrictions, school routines can and should be opportunistically leveraged by designers and by youth. Specifically, wearable activity tracking devices open some new avenues for opportunistic collection of and reflection on data from the school day. To demonstrate this, we present two cases from an elementary statistics classroom unit we designed that intentionally integrated wearable activity trackers and ...


Undergraduate Latina/O Students: A Systematic Review Of Research Identifying Factors Contributing To Academic Success Outcomes, Gloria Crisp, Amanda Taggart, Amaury Nora Jun 2015

Undergraduate Latina/O Students: A Systematic Review Of Research Identifying Factors Contributing To Academic Success Outcomes, Gloria Crisp, Amanda Taggart, Amaury Nora

Teacher Education and Leadership Faculty Publications

A systematic review was conducted to produce an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of qualitative and quantitative evidence specific to the factors related to undergraduate Latina/o student academic success outcomes during college. The purpose of the study was to make sense of and provide critique to this rapidly growing body of research, as well as to direct future research efforts. Findings indicate that a combination of (a) sociocultural characteristics; (b) academic self-confidence; (c) beliefs, ethnic/racial identity, and coping styles; (d) precollege academic experiences; (e) college experiences; (f) internal motivation and commitment; (g) interactions with supportive individuals; (h) perceptions of ...


Preserved Motor Asymmetry In Late Adulthood: Is Measuring Chronological Age Enough?, Sydney Y. Schaefer May 2015

Preserved Motor Asymmetry In Late Adulthood: Is Measuring Chronological Age Enough?, Sydney Y. Schaefer

Kinesiology and Health Science Faculty Publications

When comparing motor performance of the dominant and nondominant hands, older adults tend to be less asymmetric compared to young adults. This has suggested decreased motor lateralization and functional compensation within the aging brain. The current study further addressed this question by testing whether motor asymmetry was reduced in a sample of 44 healthy right-handed adults ages 65-89. We hypothesized that the older the age, the less the motor asymmetry, and that ‘old old’ participants (age 80+) would have less motor asymmetry than ‘young old’ participants (age 65-79). Using two naturalistic tasks that selectively biased the dominant or nondominant hands ...


The Effectiveness Of Using An Ipad Literacy Application To Engage Early Readers With And Without Hearing Loss, K. Michelle Brown May 2015

The Effectiveness Of Using An Ipad Literacy Application To Engage Early Readers With And Without Hearing Loss, K. Michelle Brown

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Previous research has found that engagement is key for the success of early readers. There is not sufficient previous research to show how best to engage early readers, particularly with mobile technologies, and almost none on the engagement of those with hearing loss. Electronic and mobile devices have been used in previous research to increase the engagement and success of students. The Reading for All Learners beginning reading curricula iPad application was adapted to include child and adult narrators and multiple modes of access to sound. Recordings of 24 (12 typical and 12 with hearing loss) early readers, ages four ...


The Promotion Of Self-Determination: A Survey Of General And Special Educators, Melanie P. Allen May 2015

The Promotion Of Self-Determination: A Survey Of General And Special Educators, Melanie P. Allen

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Learning self-determination skills is critical for all students to ensure they advocate for themselves and participate in a seamless transition from the secondary school setting to college and career. This quantitative study surveyed 224 general education, 37 mild/moderate special education, 10 severe special education, 28 alternative high general educators, 5 alternative high special educators, 3 transition special educators’ mild/moderate, and 8 special education severe teachers in a suburban school district in the western US. A rating scale and open-ended questions were used to assess the degree to which teachers provide students with instruction and require students to demonstrate ...


College Student Perceptions Of Secondary Teacher Influence On The Development Of Mathematical Identity, Kathryn Van Wagoner May 2015

College Student Perceptions Of Secondary Teacher Influence On The Development Of Mathematical Identity, Kathryn Van Wagoner

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This phenomenological study explored how college students’ perceptions of experiences with their secondary mathematics teachers affected their mathematical identities. The study was rooted in Wenger’s notion that learning is an experience of identity and Dewey’s theory that all experiences are inextricably linked to past and future experiences. Constructed narratives of eight college developmental mathematics students with high and low levels of mathematics anxiety were created from autobiographical essays and semistructured interviews. Analysis of the constructed narratives employed a deductive coding process using a priori themes related to experiences with secondary teachers and dimensions of mathematical identity.

The study ...


An Evaluation Of An Ipad-Based Activity Schedule, Kassidy Stuart Reinert May 2015

An Evaluation Of An Ipad-Based Activity Schedule, Kassidy Stuart Reinert

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children with autism often engage in repetitive behaviors and may not engage appropriately with leisure activities. Visual activity schedules are an effective way to promote independence and teach appropriate task engagement. Previous researchers have found that activity schedules are not only effective in teaching a range of skills, but also have been shown to reduce problem behavior. Paper-based activity schedules, while inexpensive and fairly easy to prepare, can be cumbersome. Socially, activity schedule books may also be stigmatizing. This study investigated the effectiveness of using an iPad to teach visual activity schedule following with preschoolers with autism. Findings from the ...


Teacher-And Student-Developed Summaries Of Performance: Perceptions Of Teachers And Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors, Heidi S. Preece May 2015

Teacher-And Student-Developed Summaries Of Performance: Perceptions Of Teachers And Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors, Heidi S. Preece

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Students receiving special education services occasionally experience problems with accessing adult services after graduation. Mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorization of 2004, the summary of performance (SOP) is a document that should ideally provide necessary information to adult service providers on needed services and eligibility of a student after graduation. This project examined student-completed portfolios and teacher-completed SOP forms to determine which form was more useful for providing necessary documentation for eligibility. Participants were vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors and special education teachers who evaluated a student-completed portfolio compared with a teacher-completed SOP form in an online survey ...


Identifying Factors Common Among Students Who Do Not Fit The Typical Mathematics Self-Efficacy And Achievement Correlation, Jodi H. Mantilla May 2015

Identifying Factors Common Among Students Who Do Not Fit The Typical Mathematics Self-Efficacy And Achievement Correlation, Jodi H. Mantilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that mathematical self-efficacy is positively correlated with mathematical performance level. However, in elementary classroom settings, teachers noticed that students with high mathematical self-efficacy had low mathematical performance level. On the other end of the spectrum, there are students who have low mathematical self-efficacy yet excel in mathematics. Discovering what factors are common among these two types of students can aid teachers in helping these students improve their self-efficacy and mathematics performance.

This explanatory mixed-methods design was conducted in a K-6 elementary school with the research participants consisting of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students. The first of ...


An Evaluation Of Group Activity Schedules To Train Children With Autism To Play Hide-And-Seek With Their Typically Developing Peers, Jessica S. Akers May 2015

An Evaluation Of Group Activity Schedules To Train Children With Autism To Play Hide-And-Seek With Their Typically Developing Peers, Jessica S. Akers

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children with autism spectrum disorders often have deficits in the area of social skills. Because of this deficit many children with autism avoid engaging in play activities with typically developing peers. The purpose of this study was to identify the utility of a photographic activity schedule, with embedded scripts, to teach three children with autism to play a complex social game with typically developing peers. In this study we used activity schedules to train children with autism to play hide-and-seek in a group with typically developing peers. All participants were prompted using physical guidance to follow the activity schedules to ...


The Effects Of A Training Session On Teacher Knowledge, Perceptions, And Implementation Of Assistive Technology In Secondary Schools., Robert Woodbury Jr May 2015

The Effects Of A Training Session On Teacher Knowledge, Perceptions, And Implementation Of Assistive Technology In Secondary Schools., Robert Woodbury Jr

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Despite the prevalence of students with mild disabilities in special education and the legal mandate to consider assistive technology to support their needs, research suggests low rates of assistive technology use by this population (Bouck, Maeda, & Flanagan, 2012; Derer, Polsgrove, & Rieth, 1996; Quinn, Behrmann, Mastropieri, & Chung, 2009). One major barrier to assistive technology consideration and implementation cited by teachers is a lack of training. This study examined changes in teachers’ knowledge, perceptions, and implementation of assistive technology as a result of a hands-on teacher training session. Participants included 61 regular and special education teachers and administrators in secondary public schools in one Western state ...


The Use Of Feedback In Group Counseling In A State Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: A Pilot Study, Saara Grizzell May 2015

The Use Of Feedback In Group Counseling In A State Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: A Pilot Study, Saara Grizzell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of providing feedback with group counseling upon the employment, symptom distress, interpersonal relationships, social role, and mental health functioning of 30 individuals with disabilities receiving services at a state vocational rehabilitation agency. Utilizing a repeated measures randomized wait-list control trial design, participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: treatment (feedback plus group counseling) or treatment-asusual (group counseling only). Each participant completed the Outcome Questionnaire- 45, a measure of mental health, on a weekly basis and attended a group counseling program, 1.5 hours each week, for 10 ...


Who Cares? Developing A Pedagogy Of Caring In Higher Education, Andrew Shayne Larsen May 2015

Who Cares? Developing A Pedagogy Of Caring In Higher Education, Andrew Shayne Larsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

When students are asked about their motivation to succeed in a course, about whether they enjoyed their instructor, and about their overall satisfaction with the class, answers can often be traced back to an educator who was perceived by the student as caring. Perceived caring occurs when a student feels that a teacher’s positive behaviors directed toward the student are motivated by good intentions and good will.

Research in the area of teacher care has almost exclusively focused on elementary and secondary classrooms, and has advanced the theory that caring teachers and caring classroom environments prompt many positive educational ...


Sources Of Authority For Leadership And Instructional Technology Coaches' Diffusion Of High Access Teaching And Learning, Gregory M. Proffit May 2015

Sources Of Authority For Leadership And Instructional Technology Coaches' Diffusion Of High Access Teaching And Learning, Gregory M. Proffit

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used a theoretical framework to explore the leadership of three schoolbased instructional technology coaches (ITCs). The researcher employed typical qualitative fieldwork methods by compiling observation notes, interview transcripts, and archival documents for data analysis. This research and dissertation were also placed in context with the tenets of diffusion research.

The collected evidence was analyzed with a theory that proposes five sources of authority for leadership: bureaucratic, psychological, technical rational, professional, and moral. The study presents four major findings: First, ITCs do not use bureaucratic or moral sources of authority for leadership. Second, the coaches are aware of and ...


Comparison Of Neurological Activation Patterns Of Children With And Without Autism Spectrum Disorders When Verbally Responding To A Pragmatic Task, Daphne U. Hartzheim May 2015

Comparison Of Neurological Activation Patterns Of Children With And Without Autism Spectrum Disorders When Verbally Responding To A Pragmatic Task, Daphne U. Hartzheim

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the neurological activation of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while performing a pragmatic judgment task. In this study, children between the ages of 9 and 15 years responded to questions regarding a social situation, taken from the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language, while concurrently having their brain activity measured. We targeted four brain regions for analysis: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL).

Ten children with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) children participated. Matching occurred in a bracketing manner with each child in the ASD ...


Negative Reinforcement Through Contingent Easy-Task Presentation, Cicely Irene Nickerson May 2015

Negative Reinforcement Through Contingent Easy-Task Presentation, Cicely Irene Nickerson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Escape from instructional demands is one of the most common functions of problem behavior. Some research suggests that a switch from difficult to easy tasks may function as a reinforcer for problem behavior. This is of particular concern for situations in which easy tasks are part of the intervention procedure to reduce problem behavior. This project examined the reinforcing effects of a switch from low-probability (low-p) to high-probability (high-p) tasks for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by escape from demands. It also provided preliminary evidence as to the quality of reinforcement provided by a switch from low- high-p tasks ...


Early Hearing Detection And Intervention Conferences: Cultural And Pathological Messages, Kathryn Byrne May 2015

Early Hearing Detection And Intervention Conferences: Cultural And Pathological Messages, Kathryn Byrne

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Babies who are born with hearing loss have historically missed out on early language acquisition opportunities due to delayed diagnosis. Over 95% of deaf children are born to hearing families who would have no reason to suspect a hearing loss until typical language development is not evidenced (Marschark, 2010). Unfortunately, a dearth of language acquisition in early childhood has damaging affects on any subsequent language learning as well as social and emotional development. By waiting until children are of an age to evidence this lack of language, their overall language capability is already impeded, and the consequences of this delay ...