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University of Northern Iowa

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Graduate Research Papers

Sociology

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Infant And Toddler Care, Maggie Trecker Jan 2017

Infant And Toddler Care, Maggie Trecker

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this review of recent research is to identify the quality of care that infants and toddlers are receiving in both home-based and center-based care settings. The review will also identify how infant and toddler caregivers perceive their work, and ways that professional development opportunities can positively impact the quality of care for infant and toddlers. The conclusion of this literature review includes recommendations for future action and education policies based on the research reviewed.


Examining Variations In Technology Use For K-12 Students Of Different Gender And Socioeconomic Status, Nikki Lyons Jan 2015

Examining Variations In Technology Use For K-12 Students Of Different Gender And Socioeconomic Status, Nikki Lyons

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature currently published on how members of different genders and socioeconomic classes use technology to suit their needs in and out of the classroom learning environment. It will focus on the use of digital technologies by students in elementary, middle, and high schools. This was done by examining 30 research-based, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, published papers, documents, and observational analyses. The research indicates there are clear differences in how members of different subpopulations such as gender and socioeconomic groups choose to use technology to suit their communication, collaboration, instructional, and entertainment ...


The Effects Of Parental Alcoholism On Child Development, Randi Burns Jan 2010

The Effects Of Parental Alcoholism On Child Development, Randi Burns

Graduate Research Papers

Alcohol has many functions for different people, for some it is an agent of socialization, while for others it is the cause of destruction in their lives. Many familes are affected by alcohol abuse and many children are exposed to its devastating effects. Children of alcoholics make up a large number of the population, and are at risk for several developmental problems throughout their lives. Several studies have been conducted on the negative effects an alcoholic parent has on their children. Many of these studies share the harmful side effects which plague children of alcoholics, including anxiety, depression, and the ...


Mediation As An Effective Method To Transform Relationships And Resolve Conflict, Julie R. Kneip Jan 2010

Mediation As An Effective Method To Transform Relationships And Resolve Conflict, Julie R. Kneip

Graduate Research Papers

Mediation has become a well-respected method of conflict resolution. It is currently utilized in a variety of areas including family situations such as divorce and custody concerns, employer and employee disputes, and individual conflicts. Mediation occurs on a global level as well, including intervention with countries engaged in conflict with one another and countries with governments at odds with their constituents. In the United States, mediation is often seen as a way to lower the burden on the courts by having parties resolve issues with the help of a mediator rather than further clogging the judicial system. While this is ...


Divorce : Supporting Children And Adolescents, Shannon Griffiths Jan 2010

Divorce : Supporting Children And Adolescents, Shannon Griffiths

Graduate Research Papers

Divorce impacts millions of families each year. The experience of a divorce is a process rather than a single event. Children and adolescents experience the divorce process differently. Children often go through five grieving stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Divorce can be devastating to adolescents because they have a broader sense of reality and the world as it applies to their life. Older children are often seen as capable of handing the divorce process and asked to make difficult decisions regarding custody. All children and adolescents who experience their parent's divorce should try counseling. The children and ...


Instructional Strategies Within Single-Gender Learning Environments, Rachelle Sarrah Grandon Jan 2009

Instructional Strategies Within Single-Gender Learning Environments, Rachelle Sarrah Grandon

Graduate Research Papers

Various instructional strategies can be beneficial in both gender-specific classrooms, as well as co-educational environments. When developing age-appropriate, individualized instruction, it is crucial to consider gender-specific needs that may assist according to certain learning styles. In order to better relate to students of each gender, these practices must be given thoughtful consideration. There are many methods, found in both types of classroom settings have been explored based on practical, research-based experiences from the real-world setting.


Cyberbullying : A Preventative Method, Kristen A. Hoelscher Jan 2008

Cyberbullying : A Preventative Method, Kristen A. Hoelscher

Graduate Research Papers

A new means of bullying has been created through the usage of cell phones, pagers, and the internet. Cyberbullying is an aggressive act intended to harm another and is repeated over a duration of time. It involves using digital communication devices to target victims. As a newer phenomenon, the research on cyberbullying is limited. However, the research that has been conducted suggests that cyberbullying is a great cause of concern among our youth today and is an issue that needs to be addressed. A four lesson guidance unit addressing cyberbullying was developed. This unit focuses on creating awareness and educating ...


Lgb Students And The School Environment, Molly C. Juhl Jan 2008

Lgb Students And The School Environment, Molly C. Juhl

Graduate Research Papers

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) students often face negative school environments. This literature review examines the current school environments encountered by LGB students and the risk factors associated with these experiences. These risk factors include suicide, substance abuse, academic issues, and struggles with identity development. After examining these risk factors, recommendations for improving the school environment are explored. Further recommendations for school counselors working with LGB students are then discussed. This literature review examines the use of client-centered therapy, bibliotherapy, group counseling, and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy as approaches to working with LGB youth.


The Effects Of Service Learning On Children, Cedilia R. Corken Jan 2007

The Effects Of Service Learning On Children, Cedilia R. Corken

Graduate Research Papers

Service learning is a teaching strategy used to connect classroom curriculum with service projects in the community (Skinner & Chapman, 1999). These opportunities enrich educational goals and enable students to apply what is learned in the classroom to meaningful service opportunities in their communities (National Commission on Service Learning, 2007). Service learning opportunities require a specific process in which students prepare and participate in the service opportunity as well as reflect and connect what was learned to classroom content (Eyler & Giles, 1999).

Education is changing and evolving. Educators are responsible for meeting the needs of all students, with various abilities (Tomlinson ...


An Investigation Of The General Population's Understanding Of Forgiveness, Wen-Chuan Rita Chang Jan 2006

An Investigation Of The General Population's Understanding Of Forgiveness, Wen-Chuan Rita Chang

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to investigate the general population's understanding and views of forgiveness and to examine if gender was a factor related to one's understanding of forgiveness and motivation to forgive. In this study, structured interviews were administered which allowed a focus on the personal views and experiences of forgiveness and descriptive statistics were used to explain the common patterns in responses among the participants. Forty-nine participants, ranging in ages from 15 to 54, were selected to be interviewed on their views and practice of forgiveness. Of the 49 participants, 15 were males and 34 ...


Cyberbullying: A Workshop For Parents, Erin Jackson Jan 2006

Cyberbullying: A Workshop For Parents, Erin Jackson

Graduate Research Papers

There are many advantages to the new technology that is flooding the American way of life. However, with the good also comes the bad. Cyber-bullying is one example of the negative side of our ever-changing technology. Cyber-bullying can be very devastating for all people involved (Campbell, 2005). it affects the victim, the bully, family, and friends. With cyber-bullying on the rise, even more children will be affected in the future and the effects of this type of bullying will become more widespread.


The Effects Of Divorce In A Society With Ever-Changing Family Structures, Rebecca L. Ahlstrom Jan 2006

The Effects Of Divorce In A Society With Ever-Changing Family Structures, Rebecca L. Ahlstrom

Graduate Research Papers

Divorce rates have doubled since the 1970s, this has influenced both the structure and the impact of the family. It is imperative not to overlook the large and growing population of children affected by divorce. This paper will discuss the differences of important variables involved, such as age, gender and cultural background. In addition, it will discuss in detail outreach ideas and intervention strategies including small groups, mentoring programs, and bibliotherapy that have all been effective in supporting these children and their families in this crucial change of family structure. Children in single parent and blended families are considered "at-risk ...


Understanding The Plight Of The Terminally Ill Population, Richelle C. Bouska Jan 2005

Understanding The Plight Of The Terminally Ill Population, Richelle C. Bouska

Graduate Research Papers

The emotional, physical, social, and relational experiences of the terminally ill population were investigated. The literature strongly stated that the dying process, though physically and psychologically taxing, need not be devoid of meaning. It was also discovered that though patient disease trajectories and emotional experiences are highly individualized many helpful generalizations can be made. The research findings support the belief that mental health practitioners have much to offer the dying person as he or she wrestles with impending death.


Eliminating The Fear Factor : Fostering An Environment Of Equality For Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual And Transgender People In Schools, Lana L. Hollar Jan 2005

Eliminating The Fear Factor : Fostering An Environment Of Equality For Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual And Transgender People In Schools, Lana L. Hollar

Graduate Research Papers

The United States of America has been listed as one of the most violent places in the world to live. For gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, the dangers of violence are even greater and are perpetuated by fear and ignorance. GLBT individuals are victims of oppression in the forms of torture, rejection, stigma, social pressure, isolation, and murder. In an attempt to understand why this oppression takes place, this paper will examine the nature of the oppression and how society is responsible for the continuation of it. With understanding, maybe fear can be eliminated and an environment of equality ...


Grandparents In Education Project, Kim Renee Freund Jan 2004

Grandparents In Education Project, Kim Renee Freund

Graduate Research Papers

The research strongly suggests that family involvement in education is vital to a child's academic achievement (Epstein, 1987; Zill, 1996). The Grandparent in Education Project goes beyond the parents and into the previous generation of grandparents. In many families grandparents have played a key role in children's lives. Today the numbers of grandparents that help raise or are full-time guardians to children are on the rise (Bafile, 1999). It is a logical connection to include them in today's educational environment.

Another important component is technology and the current role it plays in society. Digital media is continuing ...


Bullying In Elementary School, Jennifer P. Dixon Jan 2004

Bullying In Elementary School, Jennifer P. Dixon

Graduate Research Papers

The prevalence of bullying is very high among elementary students, and students are affected by bullying, whether or not they are the bully, victim, or bystander. When working with bullies and victims, it is important to be aware of the different types of bullying, as well as the various forms and characteristics of bullies and victims. The school staff and community can help prevent bullying by gaining knowledge about various aspects of bullying and making the school a safe environment.


Are College Students Prepared For Conflict? : A Review On Conflict Resolution Among College Students, Marc J. Dalmasso Jan 2003

Are College Students Prepared For Conflict? : A Review On Conflict Resolution Among College Students, Marc J. Dalmasso

Graduate Research Papers

The following is a review of the research on the topic of conflict resolution in college age students. All of the research involved used college students as their participants. The purpose of this review was to find out if college students constructively resolve conflicts in their individual and professional lives. The research reveals that there are various factors that play a key role in how this age group comes to their resolution strategies. Nevertheless, students appear to use some nonconstructive techniques. However, constructive methods to be aware of are discovered as well as skills that may offer insight further into ...


Effects Of Divorce On Adolescents : Interventions, Abigail C. Buchan Jan 2003

Effects Of Divorce On Adolescents : Interventions, Abigail C. Buchan

Graduate Research Papers

The family environment is a major contributor to the development and well-being of children and adolescents. The traditional definition for family is ever changing, and diversity in families is becoming more acknowledged and accepted. It is well known that currently more than half of all marriages end in divorce. It is necessary to understand the significant challenges and issues that young people of divorced families are faced with in order to facilitate positive change and resiliency in the counseling process. The author provides a historical overview of the divorce epidemic, the effects of divorce on youth, as well as implications ...


Effects Of Maternal Depression On Youth Adjustment, Jennifer Alexander Jan 2003

Effects Of Maternal Depression On Youth Adjustment, Jennifer Alexander

Graduate Research Papers

Depressive disorders are chronic illnesses affecting women and their families for extended periods of time. This paper summarizes research related to the effects of maternal depression on children's short and long term adjustment. Children of depressed mothers are at risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders. Genetics account for a small portion of these problems. Since depressed mothers tend to withdraw or show intrusive, hostile behaviors with their children, parent-child interaction problems account for the majority of youth adjustment problems, particularly when mothers' depression is severe, occurs during infancy, is chronic, and is paired with high family conflict or separation ...


Losing Faith : The Process Of Converting To Atheism, Jennifer J. Jacobi Jan 2002

Losing Faith : The Process Of Converting To Atheism, Jennifer J. Jacobi

Graduate Research Papers

The current study examines the process of converting to atheism and the counseling issues associated with it. It is argued that conversion to atheism can be conceptualized according to the model of religious conversion that Paloutzian, Richardson, and Rambo (1999) suggested. Research on atheism is reviewed in terms of how it fits into the stages of this model, and implications for counseling are discussed.


Creating And Maintaining A Safe Environment In The Public High School : A Reflective Essay, Chris Anderson Jan 2002

Creating And Maintaining A Safe Environment In The Public High School : A Reflective Essay, Chris Anderson

Graduate Research Papers

School violence is an unfortunate fact of life in our society. Administrators need to consider multiple variables when deciding how to deal with violence in their building. The climate of the community must be taken into consideration. In a large metropolitan school with a history of violence, measures such as metal detectors and armed security guards may be justified. At a rural school such measures might be considered an overreaction. Furthermore, in this age of shrinking budgets an administrator may have difficulty justifying expenditures for metal detectors and guards in a school without a history of violence. The answer for ...


Helping Families To Capitalize On Literacy In Their Homes, Paula K. Azinger Jan 2002

Helping Families To Capitalize On Literacy In Their Homes, Paula K. Azinger

Graduate Research Papers

Literacy events of some sort occur most everyday in every home. Most schools have not considered some children's homes to be a source of rich literacy experiences, yet literacy practices are embedded within the daily routines of almost every family (McCarthey, 1997). The opportunities provided for children's participation in literacy practices in the home environment are closely related to parents' own literacy use at home. This article presents case studies of four families that each had a child involved in America Reads, a federally funded after-school program. The case studies are the result of an ongoing investigation of ...


Experiential Learning In Webcasting For Peace Through Tourism, Courtlandt Butts Jan 2002

Experiential Learning In Webcasting For Peace Through Tourism, Courtlandt Butts

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to report on a project to develop cultural awareness and knowledge of the tourism profession; and to bring the team of students to Amman, Jordan to facilitate the first ever-global webcast of a conference. Within the international experience itself, the major components of the overall project involved grant writing, technological hands-on training, international student presentations, and the production of a professional videotape. The possibility of gaining such access had been made possible through the Undergraduate Research/ Experiential Learning Grant (UREL Grant) offered by the College of Education at UNI, which provided the ideal avenue ...


School Climate : A Review Of Literature, Sarah Galloway Jan 2002

School Climate : A Review Of Literature, Sarah Galloway

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature and research on school climate to determine how school climate affects achievement, social, emotional and behavioral development, school safety, and school attendance and completion. Reviewing these outcomes for students leads the author to address principles for school climate measurement and improvement, as presented in the school climate literature. The measurement and improvement programs are reviewed in the context of school psychologists contributing to climate interventions.


Identity Formation Of Asian American Teenagers And The Role Of The School Counselor, Susan K. Baker Jan 2001

Identity Formation Of Asian American Teenagers And The Role Of The School Counselor, Susan K. Baker

Graduate Research Papers

Teachers and counselors who work with young people know that adolescence is a time of physical, mental, emotional, and social change. Adolescence is a time when teenagers are trying to form an identity for themselves and as they go through this process, many factors will help form who they are and who they become. Most teenagers are able to navigate these years with little conflict, on the other hand, some struggle with different issues. Adolescents have to deal with issues related to sexuality, peer pressure, and development to name a few. However, adolescents belonging to ethnic/racial underrepresented groups have ...


Parenting Styles In Society Today, Julie Hammond Jan 2001

Parenting Styles In Society Today, Julie Hammond

Graduate Research Papers

This paper is a review of parenting styles relative to the importance of childrearing practices. Its primary focus is to identify and examine parenting styles, which impacts childrearing methods. The authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative methods were identified with strengths and weaknesses compared.

From the comparison, it was determined that the authoritative parenting style provides the most success for childrearing in today's changing American society. The conclusion of the paper offers guidelines and suggestions to parents on establishing this childrearing method.


Facing The Death Of A Child : Effects On The Family System, Rita Kae Conger Jan 2001

Facing The Death Of A Child : Effects On The Family System, Rita Kae Conger

Graduate Research Papers

The death of a child could very well be the most difficult crisis a family system can face. The uniqueness and severity of this type of crisis make it quite important for those in the counseling field to be aware of the many different aspects of a child's death which may be very significant to the child's family.

For this reason, the purpose of this paper is to describe a number of variables which affect the healing process. These variables include the cause of death, the age of the child at the time of death, family dynamics, and ...


Conflict Resolution : A Counseling Skill, Carol Jean Friedmann Jan 2000

Conflict Resolution : A Counseling Skill, Carol Jean Friedmann

Graduate Research Papers

Conflict resolution is a counseling skill (Ivy, 1994; Haley, 1976; Pearce, 1996). Counselors are in a unique place to both promote conflict resolution skills and use counseling skills while practicing conflict resolution for longer lasting and therapeutic resolutions. Two environments in which counselors have been especially active regarding conflict resolution have been in the schools and in the family (Moore, 1996).

To take a closer look at conflict resolution, this paper will do the following: define conflict resolution; look at common attitudes and ways of handling conflict; examine the effects of destructive conflict resolution and the effects of teaching constructive ...


Stepfamilies : Implications And Interventions For Children, Deanna S. Johnson Jan 2000

Stepfamilies : Implications And Interventions For Children, Deanna S. Johnson

Graduate Research Papers

The American family has been in a state of transition for the past three decades. Marital dissolution has quadrupled in the past 20 years, with three in five marriages ending in divorce. Approximately 80% of divorced men and 75% of divorced women remarry, creating 5.3.million married-couple households in which at least one stepchild under 18 resides.

The author of this paper will address several factors and intervention strategies that have been identified as potential determinants of healthy adaptation in children in stepfamilies. Given the increasing prevalence of stepfamilies in this country, it is imperative that school counselors become ...


The Effects Of Computers And The Internet On Small Town America, Judith L. Clefisch Jan 2000

The Effects Of Computers And The Internet On Small Town America, Judith L. Clefisch

Graduate Research Papers

Computers and the Internet have changed the way small town America operates. The infusion of technology has allowed rural areas to be competitive with residents in urban areas in education, business, and personal fulfillment. Computerized systems have made the workplace more efficient and effective. The Internet connects rural areas to the rest of the country, even the world. Just because a small town atmosphere appears to be in a different era with its quiet streets and friendly people, this does not necessarily indicate that the small town has not kept up with the technology era. A small town can have ...