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University of Northern Iowa

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Graduate Research Papers

Medicine and Health Sciences

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Determining The Benefits And Designing An Externship Program For Medical Office Students At Marshalltown Community College, Kristin Murphy Jan 2014

Determining The Benefits And Designing An Externship Program For Medical Office Students At Marshalltown Community College, Kristin Murphy

Graduate Research Papers

The focus of this paper is to explore the potential benefits of and best design for an externship experience for the Medical Office program at Marshalltown Community College (MCC) in Marshalltown, Iowa. To that end, this paper provides background on Marshalltown Community College's Medical Office program; defines extemship education; highlights the value of extemships to the community college, students, instructors, and employers, as well as potential benefits specific to MCC's Medical Office program; discusses the design/setup factors that influence an effective externship program; and provides recommendations based on the findings for pursuing and implementing an externship program ...


What Are The Mechanisms Of Action Of Stereotype Threat And How Does It Contribute To The Development Of Cardiovascular Disease In African Americans, Anthony Gage Jan 2013

What Are The Mechanisms Of Action Of Stereotype Threat And How Does It Contribute To The Development Of Cardiovascular Disease In African Americans, Anthony Gage

Graduate Research Papers

The rate of hypertension and cardiovascular disease for African Americans is disproportionately higher compared to Whites Americans. Previous research has focused much of its attention on biological and socioeconomic differences as a pathway to explain the disparity in rates of cardiovascular disease. Reviewed is the connection between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease, but also extends the reach of etiology to include racially induced cardiovascular reactivity responses in African American. Stereotype threat occurs when a member of a stereotyped group encounters a situation where a stereotype exists, the threat of confirming the stereotype produces an exaggerated cardiovascular response. This model takes ...


Major Depression : Diagnosis And Intervention, Lindsay Linck Jan 2010

Major Depression : Diagnosis And Intervention, Lindsay Linck

Graduate Research Papers

This paper will be an analysis of the psychological disorder of major depression. First, the classification of this disorder using the DSM-IV-TR will be reviewed. The areas of etiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment will then be considered. Following, a theory-specific approach to the disease including theoretical framework, diagnosis and treatment, and outcomes of using this approach, will be examined. Finally a personal reflection on the subject of major depression, and lessons learned from this project, will be discussed.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Angela Bigelow Jan 2010

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Angela Bigelow

Graduate Research Papers

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders have the potential to destroy people's lives. The negative consequences of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can affect so many people-the people suffering from the disorder, the family of the sufferer, as well as the lack of insight of the disorder within the community. According to the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation (2010), the disorder affects between 2 to 3 million adults in the United States and around 500,000 children and teens have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Due to the alarming statistics and the secret lives of incredible pain and humiliation OCD sufferers' experience, it is imperative that mental health ...


Applying Forgiveness Therapy To Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Tiffany L. Clark Jan 2010

Applying Forgiveness Therapy To Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Tiffany L. Clark

Graduate Research Papers

Twenty-five percent of women in the United States will report some form of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their lifetimes (Mac, Ferron, & Crosby, 2009). At these rates, IPV has become an epidemic, touching the lives of most people. The effects of lPV on victim's physical and psychological health may be severe and chronic (Weaver & Clum, 1995). Finding potent therapy approaches with this population is essential. The author of this paper proposes forgiveness therapy as an approach worthy of further investigation. This paper focuses on explaining what forgiveness is and is not, describes common sequelae of lPV, reviews Enright's ...


Aspergers Syndrome, Miquel K. Anastasi Jan 2009

Aspergers Syndrome, Miquel K. Anastasi

Graduate Research Papers

Aspergers Syndrome has recently become a "popular" topic in the mental health fields. More and more school aged children are being formally diagnosed with the disorder. Yet, many professionals do not truly understand the nature of Aspergers syndrome beyond being a form of autism. In this paper Aspergers Syndrome is defined and compared with Autism and the causes and possible treatments are discussed, particularly from biological and sociocultural points of view.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Dorothy M. Bartleson Jan 2009

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Dorothy M. Bartleson

Graduate Research Papers

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological disorder. The disorder OCD is now the fourth most common psychiatric disorder among Americans. (Adams & Burke, 1999) Two percent of adults have some level of OCD and many others have experienced signs at some point. (Campost & Leckaman, 1999) The number of children that have this disorder is one out of two hundred. (Black) The causes of OCD can be physical or emotional or both. (Barlow, 2002) Treatments for OCD include Cognitive Behavior therapy, Visual Reality therapy, medications, social skills training, support groups and individual and family therapy. (Lutz, 2002) Neurological disorders associated with ...


Social Phobia, Sarah S. Cosley Jan 2009

Social Phobia, Sarah S. Cosley

Graduate Research Papers

Social phobia is a common diagnosis for people of all ages. In the United States alone millions of people suffer from Social Phobia. People who suffer from social phobia can have problems in many areas of their life including: work, school, relationships, and daily functioning. Symptoms associated with social phobia can range from general fears to specific fears. A discussion of the definition of social phobia, symptoms, treatment, and application will be explored in the following paper.


An Exploration Of The Diagnostic Criterion, Etiology, And Treatment Of Binge Eating Disorder, Amy C. Ebert Jan 2009

An Exploration Of The Diagnostic Criterion, Etiology, And Treatment Of Binge Eating Disorder, Amy C. Ebert

Graduate Research Papers

An exploration of the DSM IV-TR research diagnostic criterion of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), its etiology, and viable treatments was conducted. The purpose of this literature review was to provide more information for mental health professionals treating clients who may fit the criteria for BED. Published research literature and treatment manuals were utilized in this review. It was concluded that there are many potential risk/maintenance factors linked to the development of BED, and that treatment interventions involving mindfulness appear to be effective in minimizing the symptoms of BED. Given the current obesity statistics among U.S. adults, it seems ...


Reactive Attachment Disorder, Kalen J. Espy Jan 2009

Reactive Attachment Disorder, Kalen J. Espy

Graduate Research Papers

Reactive Attachment Disorder, or RAD, has several possible causes usually stemming from traumatic childhood events. The attachment disorders were initially explored in 1948 by John Bowlby which led to the attachment theory being established in the 1960's. Attachment is the bond a child makes with other human beings, allowing for a healthy emotional and psychological growth. Attachment is developed primarily from birth to two years of age and up to the age of five.

There are four attachment styles and four phases that a child must go through to develop a healthy attachment to a caregiver. A child who ...


Dance Therapy, Darcy Gene Feuerbach Jan 2009

Dance Therapy, Darcy Gene Feuerbach

Graduate Research Papers

"The arts, often a source of joy and expression, have helped us to say what we could not say in words" says Fran Levy, who is a psychotherapist and creative arts therapist. Whether it is music or drama, art or dance, all of the arts can have implications for the counseling process. This project focuses specifically on Dance Movement Therapy. Dance/movement therapy has been developing ever since the early 1900s and it is based on the notion that mind and body are inseparable. (Levy 1)


Play Therapy With Adults, Lisa E. Heiden Jan 2008

Play Therapy With Adults, Lisa E. Heiden

Graduate Research Papers

Play therapy is a type of therapy that utilizes play as the method for communication instead of the traditional talk therapy. It is most often used with children, but it can also be used with adults regardless of age, ethnicity, or background. Play allows people to experiment with different roles, learn and try new skills, and create or recreate events from life.

Play therapy has been adapted to fit different theoretical orientations and multicultural considerations, and it can be demonstrated through a variety of mediums and formats. There is a lack of adequate information and research concerning play therapy. The ...


Introversion : Relationship With Mental Well-Being, Elizabeth A. Balder Jan 2007

Introversion : Relationship With Mental Well-Being, Elizabeth A. Balder

Graduate Research Papers

This paper explores connections between introversion and decreased mental well-being. The author sought to discover whether introverts are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than extroverts. Overall findings show introverts are more vulnerable than extroverts to depression and decreased mental well-being. Introverts are more likely to be compliant and have lower self-esteem than extroverts, and also have less social support than extroverts, which can be detrimental when experiencing depression. Western culture gives preference to extroverted individuals, which pressures introverts to attempt to change their personalities.


Exercise : Nature's Defense Against Depression And Anxiety, Holly A. Dorenkamp Jan 2007

Exercise : Nature's Defense Against Depression And Anxiety, Holly A. Dorenkamp

Graduate Research Papers

Exercise and mental health is a relatively new area of study within health care and mental health disciplines. Whereas many mental health professionals focus on the mental status of clients, research suggests that physical health, exercise in particular, has a positive impact on mental health and well-being. Currently, typical treatment approaches lean toward psychotropic medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, mental health issues such as depression and anxiety are becoming so widespread that other effective and affordable treatment approaches and options are greatly needed and vital to the overall mental health of society. Utilizing exercise in the treatment ...


Abuse And Dissociation Disorder, Myrtle Godfrey Jan 2007

Abuse And Dissociation Disorder, Myrtle Godfrey

Graduate Research Papers

Child sexual abuse is widely regarded as a cause of mental problems in adult life. The damage inflicted by child sexual abuse.has an affect on the child's capacity to develop trust, intimacy and sexuality. Sexually abused children not only encounter assaults on their developing sense of sexual identity, but a blow to their interpretation of the world as a safe environment, and their developing sense of others as trustworthy. In addition, childhood sexual abuse is correlated with higher levels of dissociation. (Fleming, J. & Mullen, P. E., 1998). Of the victims that were abused by someone with whom he ...


Understanding The Mind-Body Connection For Optimal Health And Healing, Molly M. Cretsinger Jan 2006

Understanding The Mind-Body Connection For Optimal Health And Healing, Molly M. Cretsinger

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of the research paper is to understand how a person's attitudes and beliefs shape their life and influence their health and healing. It is fundamental for someone in the helping profession to gain insight into the role of love, faith, hope, and forgiveness in overall health and healing. The key to health and healing is to understand, accept, and believe in the notion of control over one's thinking and the ability to be who one chooses to be. Every day and every thought is a choice. It is crucial for health and overall wellness that individuals ...


Optimal Characteristics For Happy And Satisfying Marriages, Britni J. Anderson Jan 2006

Optimal Characteristics For Happy And Satisfying Marriages, Britni J. Anderson

Graduate Research Papers

For many people, having a happy satisfying marriage is the ultimate goal in a marital relationship. However, what constitutes a happy marriage is not always clear. Many people go into marriage with high ideals and expectations, but without the reality that marriage is an entity in its own right that needs to be maintained daily. Communication, including conflict resolution, is a large part of a successful marriage. Other characteristics include sharing positive feelings, having more positive than negative interactions, having a solid friendship, maintaining a strong commitment, and staying focused on the positive aspects of the marriage. Marriage is difficult ...


An Introduction To Body Dysmorphic Disorder For Mental Health Counselors, Teresa M. Barrett Jan 2006

An Introduction To Body Dysmorphic Disorder For Mental Health Counselors, Teresa M. Barrett

Graduate Research Papers

Although researchers have been studying Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) for almost two decades, the majority of research findings with regard to the disorder have only recently been reviewed and published. Additional research is needed to better understand and treat BDD. But those that currently suffer from BDD cannot wait for these studies to be published; they are in need of adequate treatment and competent professionals to assist them with their disorder. Information from published literature has been synthesized within this paper to provide mental health counselors with an awareness of BDD including the definition of BDD, the relation of gender ...


Play Therapy With Victims Of Child Abuse, Annie E. Jessen Jan 2006

Play Therapy With Victims Of Child Abuse, Annie E. Jessen

Graduate Research Papers

Child abuse is a very serious issue around the world. An estimated 906,000 children were determined to be victims of child abuse or neglect in the United States in 2003. Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. Play therapy provides children with the ideal environment where they feel safe and they may experience their feelings without restriction.

Oftentimes play allows children to distance themselves from experiences that are quite painful if expressed directly to a therapist. When assessing the needs of children, it is important for play therapists to assess the phenomenological impact of the abuse, the ...


Nebbe's Nature Nest : A Summary Of An Animal Assisted Therapy Camp, Trisha L. Ames Jan 2006

Nebbe's Nature Nest : A Summary Of An Animal Assisted Therapy Camp, Trisha L. Ames

Graduate Research Papers

Two graduate students conducted a small animal assisted therapy camp. The main goal for this camp was to enhance and promote the campers' socialization skills and self-esteem through the use of animal assisted therapy. Two pre and post measurement scales were used to evaluate the children's loneliness and self-concept. The campers participated in a one-week camp lasting approximately three hours a day. To meet desired lesson goals, the campers engaged in direct animal contact and specific animal assisted activities. The following is a complete description and reaction to the animal assisted therapy camp led by Trisha (Hobbiebrunken) Ames, Nicole ...


Oppositional Defiant Disorder : Using Family Therapy And Parent Training Techniques For Effective Treatment Outcomes, Caroline S. Dieken Jan 2005

Oppositional Defiant Disorder : Using Family Therapy And Parent Training Techniques For Effective Treatment Outcomes, Caroline S. Dieken

Graduate Research Papers

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) clinically affects children and adolescents through the display of unwanted disruptive, hostile, defiant, and oppositional behaviors. Development of these can be linked to parental psychopathology, family and marital dysfunction, poor parent-child interaction, atypical parenting, maternal age, substance abuse, poor supervision, and inconsistent or harsh discipline. The effects of ODD lead to impaired social functioning, depression, low self-esteem, academic failure, substance abuse, delinquency, and family discord. Compared to other treatments ( e.g., medication, behavior modification, punishment, or removal from the home) the most effective course of treatment for ODD is the use of family therapy and parent ...


Ukimwi : Hiv/Aids In Kenya, Virginia Wangui Gathua Jan 2005

Ukimwi : Hiv/Aids In Kenya, Virginia Wangui Gathua

Graduate Research Papers

This manuscript points out the deficiencies school counseling programs in Kenya for children/adolescents affected/infected by HIV/AIDS. In addition, the paper is intended to inform, guide, and encourage policy makers, program developers, and school counselors as they develop school counseling interventions for the disease. The focus of the paper is limited to children/adolescents because they bear the greatest burden of HIV/ AIDS infections. The paper also provides evidence for planning and implementation of culturally and developmentally relevant, school-based counseling interventions. The paper explores the impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenyan children/adolescents infected/affected by HIV/AIDS ...


Play Therapy, Melissa A. Hardman Jan 2005

Play Therapy, Melissa A. Hardman

Graduate Research Papers

Play therapy techniques are valuable tools for a variety of professionals who work with children. One need not be a registered play therapist to implement play techniques when working with child clients. There are many types of clients that would benefit from play therapy. There are several different theoretical approaches, but the researcher chose to focus on Adlerian Play Therapy, Client-Centered Play Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy, and Psychodynamic Play Therapy. The paper considers the best location to implement play techniques, by urging the counselor to be aware of the setting's location within the building, ease of cleaning, available space ...


The Effects Of Divorce On Children And Adolescents, Rachelle A. Haker Jan 2005

The Effects Of Divorce On Children And Adolescents, Rachelle A. Haker

Graduate Research Papers

This research paper focuses on the effects of divorce on children and adolescents. Based on a review of literature, there are many short-term and long-term effects including emotional, behavioral, and physical issues. Children and adolescents vary in adjustment to divorce depending on multiple factors such as communication, conflict, and parental adjustment. The stages that children and adolescents of divorce go through depend on one's developmental stage and gender. Counselors can greatly influence how children and adolescents adjust to divorce.


Overview Of Attachment Disorder And Effective Treatments For Children, Kathryn H. Hedican Jan 2005

Overview Of Attachment Disorder And Effective Treatments For Children, Kathryn H. Hedican

Graduate Research Papers

When children experience extreme chronic trauma as a result of the effects of the disruption of healthy attachment patterns, a disorder known as Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) can develop. The importance for mental health counselors to understand the etiology of RAD cannot be overemphasized. Symptoms most often associated with this disorder include the inability to trust, failure to develop intimate relationships, or show affection, lack of self-confidence, low self-esteem, and anti-social behaviors and attitudes (Levy & Orlans, 1998 as cited in Sheperis, Renfro-Michel, & Doggett, 2003). Highlighting the foundational work of Erikson, Harlow, Bowlby, and Ainsworth includes a brief overview of research ...


Nature And Its Application With Students Who Have Special Needs, Nicholas J. Hoeger Jan 2005

Nature And Its Application With Students Who Have Special Needs, Nicholas J. Hoeger

Graduate Research Papers

This paper examines the utility of Nature-Assisted Therapy and its processes in conjunction with students who have been identified as having special needs. In addition, it weighs both the pros and cons of applying this method with various populations. Finally, it weighs the value of this approach within the educational setting and identifies common strategies that have been adopted.


Cutting And Self-Mutilating Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls : A Counselor's Role In Understanding And Treatment, Carla C. Hughes Jan 2005

Cutting And Self-Mutilating Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls : A Counselor's Role In Understanding And Treatment, Carla C. Hughes

Graduate Research Papers

With the reported incidence of cutting and self-mutilating behaviors in adolescent girls on the rise, counselors need to take a look at the changing role they can play in helping these young girls understand the reasons underlying their self-destructive behaviors. The counselor can also help them find new ways to cope with the deep emotional trauma that precipitates the behavior. Understanding the causes and dynamics of this disorder will lead to better opportunities for effective treatment. This paper is intended to focus on the nature of the disorder and the role of counseling in bringing these young women back from ...


Women Who Gamble, Hannah Rb Heritage Jan 2004

Women Who Gamble, Hannah Rb Heritage

Graduate Research Papers

Understanding the differences between the male compulsive gambler and the female compulsive gambler can play an important role in the healing process of the female compulsive gambler. This manuscript describes these differences and discusses treatment methods and issues specific to the female pathological gambler including the Twelve Step program for gamblers and cognitive treatment methods. The co-occurrence of other addictions and mental health issues are also examined.


Attachment Theory : How To Treat Attachment Disorders In Adults, Kristy L. Hrdlicka Jan 2004

Attachment Theory : How To Treat Attachment Disorders In Adults, Kristy L. Hrdlicka

Graduate Research Papers

Attachment is a bond formed between two individuals over a period of time, dealing with how they relate to one another through their interactions (Sable, 2000). In this paper, a review of the literature is discussed regarding how the attachments between individuals are formed and the four different patterns of attachment: Secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized. Following the review, practical interventions are also provided for counseling professionals to use when working with clients who have attachment disorders.


Women Alcoholics And Addicts : An Examination Of The Role Of Gender-Specific Treatment Programs In Substance Abuse Counseling, Adarienne L. Burrow Jan 2004

Women Alcoholics And Addicts : An Examination Of The Role Of Gender-Specific Treatment Programs In Substance Abuse Counseling, Adarienne L. Burrow

Graduate Research Papers

Traditionally, substance abuse treatment programs have been developed based on data collected on male substance abusers. Women entering into these traditional treatment programs often are not successful at recovery. Male-based treatment programs are not designed to meet the complex set of needs of women substance abusers and addicts. The purpose of this research is two-fold. First, to identify the specific needs of women substance abusers and addicts. And secondly, determine how to address these identified needs in a substance abuse treatment program in order to provide a holistic approach to substance abusing and addicted women.