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Graduate Research Papers

Counseling

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Cyberbullying : A Literature Review, Natalie Nesbitt Jan 2010

Cyberbullying : A Literature Review, Natalie Nesbitt

Graduate Research Papers

Technology is becoming more prevalent each day, with that a new form of bullying is happening. The new form is cyberbullying. It is form of bullying that takes place over cell phones, email, websites, and chat rooms. While cyberbullying is a form of bullying, there are differences between cyberbullying and normal bullying. Cyberbullying makes it hard for some students to escape from the bullying, because cyberbullying is through technology, so it allows the bullying to continue outside of the school walls. This literature review is going to give students, teachers, administrators, and parents some helpful tips as to how to ...


Gender Identity Disorder Controversies : Male To Female Transgender/Sexual Focuses, Tuyet Noriega Jan 2010

Gender Identity Disorder Controversies : Male To Female Transgender/Sexual Focuses, Tuyet Noriega

Graduate Research Papers

This literature review discusses Gender Identity disorder disputes and influences from research. Choosing a sex (male or female) is not something people consciously decide. However, there are individuals who do need to decide a sex that is not his or her chosen identity. When an individual chooses to dress as the opposite sex this creates discussion of nature versus nurture, and other dilemmas experienced by society and GID individuals. Most transgender individuals seek some form of medical or mental assistance; therefore, it is necessary for mental health counselors, doctors, and social workers to be aware of Gender Identity Disorder indicators ...


Social Development Of Children With Allergies & Asthma, Nicholas Mohwinkle Jan 2010

Social Development Of Children With Allergies & Asthma, Nicholas Mohwinkle

Graduate Research Papers

Every child needs special attention in order to develop to their fullest potential. Children struggle with problems big and small as their minds and bodies develop, whether it's a fear of reading aloud, or serious health concerns. There can be serious consequences if a child's parents and peers are not aware of their needs, including something as seemingly small as allergies and asthma. Consequences range from having a rash, to experiencing a fatal reaction if not dealt with (Maisa, 1998). In this paper, I'm discussing the importance of awareness and the issues that children with allergies and ...


Divorce : Supporting Children And Adolescents, Shannon Griffiths Jan 2010

Divorce : Supporting Children And Adolescents, Shannon Griffiths

Graduate Research Papers

Divorce impacts millions of families each year. The experience of a divorce is a process rather than a single event. Children and adolescents experience the divorce process differently. Children often go through five grieving stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Divorce can be devastating to adolescents because they have a broader sense of reality and the world as it applies to their life. Older children are often seen as capable of handing the divorce process and asked to make difficult decisions regarding custody. All children and adolescents who experience their parent's divorce should try counseling. The children and ...


Cinematherapy And Bibliotherapy : Counseling Lgbt Clients In The Coming Out Process, Stephanie A. Germann Jan 2009

Cinematherapy And Bibliotherapy : Counseling Lgbt Clients In The Coming Out Process, Stephanie A. Germann

Graduate Research Papers

Research indicates lesbians and gay men report higher rates of therapy than heterosexuals, of which 20% sought counseling during the coming out process (Murphy et al., 2002). This implies the need for counselors to be aware of the challenges and concerns involved in the coming out process, as well as counselors being knowledgeable with appropriate counseling interventions for the LGBT population. Current literature purports the effectiveness of using cinematherapy and bibliotherapy for LGBT clients. This paper includes various movie and book recommendations and how to use them to promote personal growth in clients during the coming out process.


Attachment And The Schools, Jennifer N. Allan Jan 2009

Attachment And The Schools, Jennifer N. Allan

Graduate Research Papers

In order to be effective workers in the schools, school staff members must be able to form some sort of relationship with individual students. The ability of students to form relationships depends upon the attachments they have formed with their caretakers. The purpose of this literature review was to explore different types of attachment, interventions that can be used with students who have attachment issues, and how attachment can affect schools all of which are given from. the perspective of a school counselor. The literature review investigates and summarizes the impact both healthy and unhealthy attachment has on a student ...


Reactive Attachment Disorder : Implications For Counselors, Kim Rogers Jan 2009

Reactive Attachment Disorder : Implications For Counselors, Kim Rogers

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to provide background on reactive attachment disorder. Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is growing in diagnosis and yet it is one of the least researched disorders. This paper will discuss attachment theory, problems with the RAD diagnosis, interventions for mental health professionals, and future research ideas.


Applications For Parent-Child Relationship Concerns, Christy A. F. Jenkins Jan 2009

Applications For Parent-Child Relationship Concerns, Christy A. F. Jenkins

Graduate Research Papers

The parent-child relationship is the foundation for formative life experiences and is a common diagnosable concern in the professional counseling and human service field. This work briefly addresses the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis V 61.20 Parent Child Relational Problem, providing prevalence rates, and related risks as well as two specific intervention strategics. Intervention strategies include the use of temperament traits and the communication of love between individuals. A handout follows the text of this work which may be used with clients.


Stress And Coping Behavior : The Effects Of Poverty On Women And Children, Laura J. Sorensen Lyons Jan 2009

Stress And Coping Behavior : The Effects Of Poverty On Women And Children, Laura J. Sorensen Lyons

Graduate Research Papers

The following paper reviews research on poverty, its effects on women and their children, and how they cope with the increased level of stress. There are more single headed households now than ever, the majority headed by women. This adds an increased level of stress on both the women and the children they care for. Research also shows that a large number of these families are also coping with the special needs of their children. This stress leads many women and children to cope in some conventional and unconventional ways.

Schools are playing an increasingly larger role in the lives ...


Self-Mutilation : A Growing Concern, Sarah M. Meiners Jan 2009

Self-Mutilation : A Growing Concern, Sarah M. Meiners

Graduate Research Papers

According to an article by Nock and Prinstein, "Self-mutilation behavior is a pervasive public health problem occurring at a rate of 40% in the general adult population and 21 % in adult clinical populations. Adolescence is a period of significantly increased risk for self-mutilation behavior, as evidenced by rates of 14%-39% in adolescent community samples" (Nock & Prinstein, 2005, p.140). Raising awareness about the behaviors and emotions involved with individuals who self-mutilate may help counselors and school administrators understand better methods of treatment for adolescents. The following is a review of current research and literature regarding the nature of adolescents ...


Understanding Gender Stereotypes And Their Impact On Clients, Stacey Hurt Jan 2008

Understanding Gender Stereotypes And Their Impact On Clients, Stacey Hurt

Graduate Research Papers

Gender stereotyping has a complex and enduring history in our society, and it is an underlying factor in many issues – clients bring to counseling, including – among other things-women's and men's experience of depression (Nugent & Jones, 2005). A complicating aspect of gender stereotyping is that both males and females in our culture have been socially conditioned to fulfill many of the stereotypes imposed on them, and following stereotypical gender roles excessively can be harmful to their mental health, self-image, and interpersonal relationships (Nugent & Jones).

Counselors can use gender-role analysis and other interventions to help clients gain insight into the ...


How Poverty Affects Social Development, Behavior, And Academics Of Children : How Can School Personnel Help?, Jessica Holm-Blackburn Jan 2008

How Poverty Affects Social Development, Behavior, And Academics Of Children : How Can School Personnel Help?, Jessica Holm-Blackburn

Graduate Research Papers

This paper discusses how poverty affects the social development, behavior, and academics of children. It also provides information to professionals who work with children to explain how children in poverty may demonstrate increased behavioral and emotional problems. Additionally, it explores what school personnel can do to help improve outcomes for students in poverty. A case example of a partnership created in Georgia is utilized to help articulate these concepts. The sources cited are all from recent published literature.


Counselor-Client Connection, Sarah Larsen-Kos Jan 2008

Counselor-Client Connection, Sarah Larsen-Kos

Graduate Research Papers

In counseling profession, numerous techniques exist to assist counselors in helping clients with challenges. Although several types of strategies can be implemented by counselors, few strategies exist that are useful for majority of clients. Discussed in this text is one possible strategy that can be used with numerous types of clients and circumstances. This tool is the development of a supportive counselor-client connection, specifically used in a school setting. Benefits of this strategy include clients' feelings of support and encouragement, easing of student transitions and difficulties, increased self-esteem and general well-being, and academic and social progress. Additional considerations also noted ...


Self-Mutilating Behaviors, Patience Niemoth-Coleman Jan 2008

Self-Mutilating Behaviors, Patience Niemoth-Coleman

Graduate Research Papers

Treating self-mutilating behaviors (SMB) is complex. Since people are continuing to engage in the behaviors, counselors need to be informed of the various techniques that are used with SMB as well as to be informed about common myths around self-mutilating behaviors. This paper will explore the methods of SMB, the common myths surrounding SMB, and the theories that explain and inform treatment of.


Lgb Students And The School Environment, Molly C. Juhl Jan 2008

Lgb Students And The School Environment, Molly C. Juhl

Graduate Research Papers

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) students often face negative school environments. This literature review examines the current school environments encountered by LGB students and the risk factors associated with these experiences. These risk factors include suicide, substance abuse, academic issues, and struggles with identity development. After examining these risk factors, recommendations for improving the school environment are explored. Further recommendations for school counselors working with LGB students are then discussed. This literature review examines the use of client-centered therapy, bibliotherapy, group counseling, and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy as approaches to working with LGB youth.


Grief And Loss : The Effects On Children And The School Counselor's Role, Hope Nicole Bleckwehl Jan 2008

Grief And Loss : The Effects On Children And The School Counselor's Role, Hope Nicole Bleckwehl

Graduate Research Papers

School counselors may play a major role in the lives of grieving children. It is inevitable counselors will work with children having grieving issues. Children do grieve and their grieving process may look the same or different than adults. Children's experiences with death, developmental level, and individual differences all effect how a child will react to the loss of a loved one or a pet. The grieving process, developmental considerations, gender differences and common sources of loss are discussed in the following paper. Interventions a school counselor may use with children in classroom guidance, group counseling, and individual counseling ...


The Roles Of Coaches And Teachers : Fostering A Climate For Motivation In An Age Of Accountability, Jocelyn Hays Jan 2008

The Roles Of Coaches And Teachers : Fostering A Climate For Motivation In An Age Of Accountability, Jocelyn Hays

Graduate Research Papers

This paper examines the difference between how a coach motivates an athlete or fosters a climate for motivation versus how a teacher motivates a student or fosters a climate for motivation. One way to examine how coaches and teachers motivate their athletes and students is to examine the roles of coaches and teachers as motivators. Examining the roles of coaches and teachers as motivators and the subsequent discussion of how the roles of coaches as motivators could inform the roles of teachers as motivators seeks to satisfy society's call for teacher accountability.


Online Counseling : Risks, Benefits, And Future Development, Lindsey J. Kenison-Severson Jan 2008

Online Counseling : Risks, Benefits, And Future Development, Lindsey J. Kenison-Severson

Graduate Research Papers

Online counseling started becoming popular in the mid-1990's and is a popular source of debate right now. There are a number of risks and benefits that need to be evaluated by both the counselor and client when determining the appropriateness of online counseling. There seems to be a lack of research regarding how effective online counseling is, but preliminary research seems positive in supporting the argument that relationships can be formed when using online counseling. Some individuals may be more appropriate for online counseling and some problems may be helped more effectively. Clients and counselors need to be educated ...


The Psychosocial Effects Of Pediatric Cancer On Young Adult Cancer Survivors, Jacob D. Schaefer Jan 2008

The Psychosocial Effects Of Pediatric Cancer On Young Adult Cancer Survivors, Jacob D. Schaefer

Graduate Research Papers

Childhood cancer is a current problem in our society. Today survivor rates are increasing. There are increased numbers of childhood survivors dealing with the after affects of cancer as they move into adulthood. Research correlations between childhood problems and adulthood problems have emerged. Issues of psychological, social, and physical concerns have created difficulties for childhood cancer survivors. However, there have been mixed results as some researches show healthy adaptation while others indicate abnormal daily functioning of children and young adults. Future research areas should focus on individual coping methods, social function of young adult survivors, and the human developmental process ...


Cyberbullying : A Preventative Method, Kristen A. Hoelscher Jan 2008

Cyberbullying : A Preventative Method, Kristen A. Hoelscher

Graduate Research Papers

A new means of bullying has been created through the usage of cell phones, pagers, and the internet. Cyberbullying is an aggressive act intended to harm another and is repeated over a duration of time. It involves using digital communication devices to target victims. As a newer phenomenon, the research on cyberbullying is limited. However, the research that has been conducted suggests that cyberbullying is a great cause of concern among our youth today and is an issue that needs to be addressed. A four lesson guidance unit addressing cyberbullying was developed. This unit focuses on creating awareness and educating ...


When To Refer : Religiosity And Counseling Students' Decision To Refer Glbt Clients, Cynthia R. Boyle Jan 2007

When To Refer : Religiosity And Counseling Students' Decision To Refer Glbt Clients, Cynthia R. Boyle

Graduate Research Papers

This paper sought to investigate how religious beliefs affect counseling students' thoughts about referring gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) clients. A thorough review of the research literature examined: attitudes toward sexual minorities, religiosity and attitudes toward sexual minorities, and GLBT issues in counselor education. Findings suggest religious attitudes are often related to negative, or at least, non-affirming beliefs/behaviors towards members of sexual minority groups. There are serious legal and ethical implications for counselors who refuse to treat GLBT clients. The research also suggests education can be a means of moderating discriminatory tendencies in counseling students who struggle with ...


"Feelin' Blue, Oh What To Do?": Coping With Negative Emotions, Jana L. Brinkman Jan 2007

"Feelin' Blue, Oh What To Do?": Coping With Negative Emotions, Jana L. Brinkman

Graduate Research Papers

Over the past five years I have had the opportunity to work with children and youth, ages birth to eighteen, in a variety of environments. The settings in which I have interacted with children include nonprofit agency environments, after school programs, church environments, parks and recreation programs, individual and small group counseling sessions, classroom guidance settings, and home environments. My own observations and experiences along with those of parents, school staff, university faculty, fellow undergraduate and graduate students, and co-workers have supported my conclusion that children from early childhood to high school youth struggle with knowing how to appropriately respond ...


Sandplay With Children In The School Setting, Sophie I. Banwarth Jan 2007

Sandplay With Children In The School Setting, Sophie I. Banwarth

Graduate Research Papers

Sandplay therapy, developed by Margaret Lowenfeld, is a technique where children choose miniature objects to place in a sand tray to create a concrete representation of their internal struggles. The counselor's role is to create a safe and protected environment and does not impose personal suggestions or ideas. The counselor can choose to facilitate different types of sandplay with a child: directed, nondirected, static, moving, or interactive. Sandplay therapy offers techniques such as hide and seek, family sand trays, mazes, and self-figures. Sandplay therapy is effective with children in the school setting. Teachers report that students return to class ...


Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Adolescent Populations : Implications And Implementation Of Lgbt Guidance Programs, Adam L. Karsten Jan 2007

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Adolescent Populations : Implications And Implementation Of Lgbt Guidance Programs, Adam L. Karsten

Graduate Research Papers

Adolescence is a trying time for all youth, especially lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents. Although they experience the same physical and emotional changes as others their age, as sexual minorities, LGBT students deal with many additional situations and conflicts brought on by societal systems, specifically in school settings.

School counselors play a unique role in the development of LGBT adolescents. Counselors must maintain open lines of communication with all students,specifically LGBT populations, for their own safety and concerns. LGBT students need proper resources and support to increase self-growth and self-identity. LGBT guidance programs provide an environment that ...


African Americans Participation And Counseling, Tawanna L. Moore Jan 2007

African Americans Participation And Counseling, Tawanna L. Moore

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this literature reviewed is to understand African Americans' underutilization of mental health services available to them. It is also important to understand barriers that keep African Americans from seeking mental health services, so this population of people can maintain a healthy life. This review also addresses implications for Caucasian clinicians. The following literature review will explore: The kind of support and treatment African Americans seek or receive to help them with mental health problems, effectiveness of these programs, and barriers to treatment when services are available.


Psychological Barriers To White Counselors' Racial Identity Development, Kathleen Rice Jan 2007

Psychological Barriers To White Counselors' Racial Identity Development, Kathleen Rice

Graduate Research Papers

White racial identity development includes abandoning racism and considering racial information more objectively. Racial identity is a key aspect of multicultural competency, which is a high priority within the counseling profession. Psychological barriers to White counselors' racial identity development include personal characteristics, cognitive strategies, and beliefs. Personal traits related to racism include poorer overall mental health, more anxiety, more neurotic tendencies, and less open, extroverted, agreeable, flexible, responsible, and tolerant personalities.

Cognitive processes to avoid confronting the reality of racial issues include self distortion, defense mechanisms, dysconsciousness, stereotyping, and stigmatization. Racist attitudes are maintained by specific beliefs including the myths ...


Investigating The Effects Of An Elective Abortion On Women's Mental Health, Marilyn Schneiderman Jan 2007

Investigating The Effects Of An Elective Abortion On Women's Mental Health, Marilyn Schneiderman

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this research project is to investigate evidence that an elective abortion affects a woman's mental health. Included are literature reviews and studies aimed at gathering information and quantifying these effects. Because this is a highly politicized and controversial topic, it has been difficult to find objective resources. Several areas are addressed: the difference between short vs. long-term effects on a woman's mental health subsequent to an elective abortion, evidence of delayed grief reaction and the link with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post-Abortion Stress is defined and specific psychological sequelae are addressed such as grief, depression ...


Advisory Programs : Organization And Implementation, Angela Ruth Black Jan 2007

Advisory Programs : Organization And Implementation, Angela Ruth Black

Graduate Research Papers

This literature review examined how to implement an advisory program into middle schools. This review looked at the pros and cons of advisory programs, and what needed to be considered before implementing an advisory program.

The topic of advisory programs was chosen after having discussions during my graduate program, as well as with work colleagues. During class discussions, advisory programs sounded like a wonderful concept. But when I went to work, my coworkers made advisory programs sound like a waste of time. I decided I needed to learn more about advisory programs, so I could make my own decision about ...


Impacts Of Cyberbullying, Kelly Burns Jan 2007

Impacts Of Cyberbullying, Kelly Burns

Graduate Research Papers

With the recent change in technology, bullying has taken on a new form called cyberbullying. Due to how new cyberbullying is, parents and educators may be unaware of what it is and how it takes place. There are many different forms of cyberbullying that can take place twenty-four hours a day, seven days week. Cyberbullying can take place at schools and at home while leaving an everlasting impact on an individual. This paper will discuss what cyberbullying is and the different forms it can take on. It will also address how students spend their time on the internet and why ...


Promoting Resilience In Inner City Youth : Implications For Counselors, Anthony D. Lymus Jan 2007

Promoting Resilience In Inner City Youth : Implications For Counselors, Anthony D. Lymus

Graduate Research Papers

The strain and difficulties that plague the inner city continue to mount. As a result, youth who grow up in this environment are exposed to violence, substance abuse, inadequate education, and poverty. Although some youth become a part of the cycle that produces these unfortunate events, some are able to make it out and become assets to society. This occurrence has been termed resilience. The study of resilience continues to grow as researchers attempt to provide information for school officials, communities, and mental health practitioners about how to promote resilience in inner city youth.