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University of Northern Iowa

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Counseling

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Divorce : Supporting Children And Adolescents, Shannon Griffiths Jan 2010

Divorce : Supporting Children And Adolescents, Shannon Griffiths

Graduate Research Papers

Divorce impacts millions of families each year. The experience of a divorce is a process rather than a single event. Children and adolescents experience the divorce process differently. Children often go through five grieving stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Divorce can be devastating to adolescents because they have a broader sense of reality and the world as it applies to their life. Older children are often seen as capable of handing the divorce process and asked to make difficult decisions regarding custody. All children and adolescents who experience their parent's divorce should try counseling. The children and ...


Social Development Of Children With Allergies & Asthma, Nicholas Mohwinkle Jan 2010

Social Development Of Children With Allergies & Asthma, Nicholas Mohwinkle

Graduate Research Papers

Every child needs special attention in order to develop to their fullest potential. Children struggle with problems big and small as their minds and bodies develop, whether it's a fear of reading aloud, or serious health concerns. There can be serious consequences if a child's parents and peers are not aware of their needs, including something as seemingly small as allergies and asthma. Consequences range from having a rash, to experiencing a fatal reaction if not dealt with (Maisa, 1998). In this paper, I'm discussing the importance of awareness and the issues that children with allergies and ...


Cyberbullying : A Literature Review, Natalie Nesbitt Jan 2010

Cyberbullying : A Literature Review, Natalie Nesbitt

Graduate Research Papers

Technology is becoming more prevalent each day, with that a new form of bullying is happening. The new form is cyberbullying. It is form of bullying that takes place over cell phones, email, websites, and chat rooms. While cyberbullying is a form of bullying, there are differences between cyberbullying and normal bullying. Cyberbullying makes it hard for some students to escape from the bullying, because cyberbullying is through technology, so it allows the bullying to continue outside of the school walls. This literature review is going to give students, teachers, administrators, and parents some helpful tips as to how to ...


Attachment And The Schools, Jennifer N. Allan Jan 2009

Attachment And The Schools, Jennifer N. Allan

Graduate Research Papers

In order to be effective workers in the schools, school staff members must be able to form some sort of relationship with individual students. The ability of students to form relationships depends upon the attachments they have formed with their caretakers. The purpose of this literature review was to explore different types of attachment, interventions that can be used with students who have attachment issues, and how attachment can affect schools all of which are given from. the perspective of a school counselor. The literature review investigates and summarizes the impact both healthy and unhealthy attachment has on a student ...


Applications For Parent-Child Relationship Concerns, Christy A. F. Jenkins Jan 2009

Applications For Parent-Child Relationship Concerns, Christy A. F. Jenkins

Graduate Research Papers

The parent-child relationship is the foundation for formative life experiences and is a common diagnosable concern in the professional counseling and human service field. This work briefly addresses the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis V 61.20 Parent Child Relational Problem, providing prevalence rates, and related risks as well as two specific intervention strategics. Intervention strategies include the use of temperament traits and the communication of love between individuals. A handout follows the text of this work which may be used with clients.


Cinematherapy And Bibliotherapy : Counseling Lgbt Clients In The Coming Out Process, Stephanie A. Germann Jan 2009

Cinematherapy And Bibliotherapy : Counseling Lgbt Clients In The Coming Out Process, Stephanie A. Germann

Graduate Research Papers

Research indicates lesbians and gay men report higher rates of therapy than heterosexuals, of which 20% sought counseling during the coming out process (Murphy et al., 2002). This implies the need for counselors to be aware of the challenges and concerns involved in the coming out process, as well as counselors being knowledgeable with appropriate counseling interventions for the LGBT population. Current literature purports the effectiveness of using cinematherapy and bibliotherapy for LGBT clients. This paper includes various movie and book recommendations and how to use them to promote personal growth in clients during the coming out process.


Grief And Loss : The Effects On Children And The School Counselor's Role, Hope Nicole Bleckwehl Jan 2008

Grief And Loss : The Effects On Children And The School Counselor's Role, Hope Nicole Bleckwehl

Graduate Research Papers

School counselors may play a major role in the lives of grieving children. It is inevitable counselors will work with children having grieving issues. Children do grieve and their grieving process may look the same or different than adults. Children's experiences with death, developmental level, and individual differences all effect how a child will react to the loss of a loved one or a pet. The grieving process, developmental considerations, gender differences and common sources of loss are discussed in the following paper. Interventions a school counselor may use with children in classroom guidance, group counseling, and individual counseling ...


How Poverty Affects Social Development, Behavior, And Academics Of Children : How Can School Personnel Help?, Jessica Holm-Blackburn Jan 2008

How Poverty Affects Social Development, Behavior, And Academics Of Children : How Can School Personnel Help?, Jessica Holm-Blackburn

Graduate Research Papers

This paper discusses how poverty affects the social development, behavior, and academics of children. It also provides information to professionals who work with children to explain how children in poverty may demonstrate increased behavioral and emotional problems. Additionally, it explores what school personnel can do to help improve outcomes for students in poverty. A case example of a partnership created in Georgia is utilized to help articulate these concepts. The sources cited are all from recent published literature.


Cyberbullying : A Preventative Method, Kristen A. Hoelscher Jan 2008

Cyberbullying : A Preventative Method, Kristen A. Hoelscher

Graduate Research Papers

A new means of bullying has been created through the usage of cell phones, pagers, and the internet. Cyberbullying is an aggressive act intended to harm another and is repeated over a duration of time. It involves using digital communication devices to target victims. As a newer phenomenon, the research on cyberbullying is limited. However, the research that has been conducted suggests that cyberbullying is a great cause of concern among our youth today and is an issue that needs to be addressed. A four lesson guidance unit addressing cyberbullying was developed. This unit focuses on creating awareness and educating ...


Understanding Gender Stereotypes And Their Impact On Clients, Stacey Hurt Jan 2008

Understanding Gender Stereotypes And Their Impact On Clients, Stacey Hurt

Graduate Research Papers

Gender stereotyping has a complex and enduring history in our society, and it is an underlying factor in many issues – clients bring to counseling, including – among other things-women's and men's experience of depression (Nugent & Jones, 2005). A complicating aspect of gender stereotyping is that both males and females in our culture have been socially conditioned to fulfill many of the stereotypes imposed on them, and following stereotypical gender roles excessively can be harmful to their mental health, self-image, and interpersonal relationships (Nugent & Jones).

Counselors can use gender-role analysis and other interventions to help clients gain insight into the ...


Online Counseling : Risks, Benefits, And Future Development, Lindsey J. Kenison-Severson Jan 2008

Online Counseling : Risks, Benefits, And Future Development, Lindsey J. Kenison-Severson

Graduate Research Papers

Online counseling started becoming popular in the mid-1990's and is a popular source of debate right now. There are a number of risks and benefits that need to be evaluated by both the counselor and client when determining the appropriateness of online counseling. There seems to be a lack of research regarding how effective online counseling is, but preliminary research seems positive in supporting the argument that relationships can be formed when using online counseling. Some individuals may be more appropriate for online counseling and some problems may be helped more effectively. Clients and counselors need to be educated ...


Counselor-Client Connection, Sarah Larsen-Kos Jan 2008

Counselor-Client Connection, Sarah Larsen-Kos

Graduate Research Papers

In counseling profession, numerous techniques exist to assist counselors in helping clients with challenges. Although several types of strategies can be implemented by counselors, few strategies exist that are useful for majority of clients. Discussed in this text is one possible strategy that can be used with numerous types of clients and circumstances. This tool is the development of a supportive counselor-client connection, specifically used in a school setting. Benefits of this strategy include clients' feelings of support and encouragement, easing of student transitions and difficulties, increased self-esteem and general well-being, and academic and social progress. Additional considerations also noted ...


Lgb Students And The School Environment, Molly C. Juhl Jan 2008

Lgb Students And The School Environment, Molly C. Juhl

Graduate Research Papers

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) students often face negative school environments. This literature review examines the current school environments encountered by LGB students and the risk factors associated with these experiences. These risk factors include suicide, substance abuse, academic issues, and struggles with identity development. After examining these risk factors, recommendations for improving the school environment are explored. Further recommendations for school counselors working with LGB students are then discussed. This literature review examines the use of client-centered therapy, bibliotherapy, group counseling, and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy as approaches to working with LGB youth.


The Roles Of Coaches And Teachers : Fostering A Climate For Motivation In An Age Of Accountability, Jocelyn Hays Jan 2008

The Roles Of Coaches And Teachers : Fostering A Climate For Motivation In An Age Of Accountability, Jocelyn Hays

Graduate Research Papers

This paper examines the difference between how a coach motivates an athlete or fosters a climate for motivation versus how a teacher motivates a student or fosters a climate for motivation. One way to examine how coaches and teachers motivate their athletes and students is to examine the roles of coaches and teachers as motivators. Examining the roles of coaches and teachers as motivators and the subsequent discussion of how the roles of coaches as motivators could inform the roles of teachers as motivators seeks to satisfy society's call for teacher accountability.


Sandplay With Children In The School Setting, Sophie I. Banwarth Jan 2007

Sandplay With Children In The School Setting, Sophie I. Banwarth

Graduate Research Papers

Sandplay therapy, developed by Margaret Lowenfeld, is a technique where children choose miniature objects to place in a sand tray to create a concrete representation of their internal struggles. The counselor's role is to create a safe and protected environment and does not impose personal suggestions or ideas. The counselor can choose to facilitate different types of sandplay with a child: directed, nondirected, static, moving, or interactive. Sandplay therapy offers techniques such as hide and seek, family sand trays, mazes, and self-figures. Sandplay therapy is effective with children in the school setting. Teachers report that students return to class ...


"Feelin' Blue, Oh What To Do?": Coping With Negative Emotions, Jana L. Brinkman Jan 2007

"Feelin' Blue, Oh What To Do?": Coping With Negative Emotions, Jana L. Brinkman

Graduate Research Papers

Over the past five years I have had the opportunity to work with children and youth, ages birth to eighteen, in a variety of environments. The settings in which I have interacted with children include nonprofit agency environments, after school programs, church environments, parks and recreation programs, individual and small group counseling sessions, classroom guidance settings, and home environments. My own observations and experiences along with those of parents, school staff, university faculty, fellow undergraduate and graduate students, and co-workers have supported my conclusion that children from early childhood to high school youth struggle with knowing how to appropriately respond ...


Impacts Of Cyberbullying, Kelly Burns Jan 2007

Impacts Of Cyberbullying, Kelly Burns

Graduate Research Papers

With the recent change in technology, bullying has taken on a new form called cyberbullying. Due to how new cyberbullying is, parents and educators may be unaware of what it is and how it takes place. There are many different forms of cyberbullying that can take place twenty-four hours a day, seven days week. Cyberbullying can take place at schools and at home while leaving an everlasting impact on an individual. This paper will discuss what cyberbullying is and the different forms it can take on. It will also address how students spend their time on the internet and why ...


Adolescent Dating Abuse, Becky Krieg Jan 2007

Adolescent Dating Abuse, Becky Krieg

Graduate Research Papers

Abuse can take on many forms. Many adolescents have not developed a full understanding of what a healthy relationship is. Dating abuse is becoming problematic within the adolescent population and a growing concern for those in the field of school counseling. School counselors need to be able to recognize signs of both potential abusers and their victims, and provide prevention and intervention strategies involved with adolescent dating abuse. Through education and involvement of the school and community, counselors will be effective in helping to diminish the cycle of dating abuse among adolescents.


Abuse And Dissociation Disorder, Myrtle Godfrey Jan 2007

Abuse And Dissociation Disorder, Myrtle Godfrey

Graduate Research Papers

Child sexual abuse is widely regarded as a cause of mental problems in adult life. The damage inflicted by child sexual abuse.has an affect on the child's capacity to develop trust, intimacy and sexuality. Sexually abused children not only encounter assaults on their developing sense of sexual identity, but a blow to their interpretation of the world as a safe environment, and their developing sense of others as trustworthy. In addition, childhood sexual abuse is correlated with higher levels of dissociation. (Fleming, J. & Mullen, P. E., 1998). Of the victims that were abused by someone with whom he ...


Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Adolescent Populations : Implications And Implementation Of Lgbt Guidance Programs, Adam L. Karsten Jan 2007

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Adolescent Populations : Implications And Implementation Of Lgbt Guidance Programs, Adam L. Karsten

Graduate Research Papers

Adolescence is a trying time for all youth, especially lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents. Although they experience the same physical and emotional changes as others their age, as sexual minorities, LGBT students deal with many additional situations and conflicts brought on by societal systems, specifically in school settings.

School counselors play a unique role in the development of LGBT adolescents. Counselors must maintain open lines of communication with all students,specifically LGBT populations, for their own safety and concerns. LGBT students need proper resources and support to increase self-growth and self-identity. LGBT guidance programs provide an environment that ...


When To Refer : Religiosity And Counseling Students' Decision To Refer Glbt Clients, Cynthia R. Boyle Jan 2007

When To Refer : Religiosity And Counseling Students' Decision To Refer Glbt Clients, Cynthia R. Boyle

Graduate Research Papers

This paper sought to investigate how religious beliefs affect counseling students' thoughts about referring gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) clients. A thorough review of the research literature examined: attitudes toward sexual minorities, religiosity and attitudes toward sexual minorities, and GLBT issues in counselor education. Findings suggest religious attitudes are often related to negative, or at least, non-affirming beliefs/behaviors towards members of sexual minority groups. There are serious legal and ethical implications for counselors who refuse to treat GLBT clients. The research also suggests education can be a means of moderating discriminatory tendencies in counseling students who struggle with ...


Crisis Management In Education, Jamie L. Cusick Jan 2007

Crisis Management In Education, Jamie L. Cusick

Graduate Research Papers

A crisis management team and crisis management plan is essential when a traumatic event or crisis occurs. The roles of professionals, including superintendent, principal, school counselor, and teacher should be outlined within the crisis management plan. A crisis management team helps the school community remain calm and exert appropriate activities. A crisis management plan allows the crisis management team to effectively help students, faculty and staff, and the community.


Advisory Programs : Organization And Implementation, Angela Ruth Black Jan 2007

Advisory Programs : Organization And Implementation, Angela Ruth Black

Graduate Research Papers

This literature review examined how to implement an advisory program into middle schools. This review looked at the pros and cons of advisory programs, and what needed to be considered before implementing an advisory program.

The topic of advisory programs was chosen after having discussions during my graduate program, as well as with work colleagues. During class discussions, advisory programs sounded like a wonderful concept. But when I went to work, my coworkers made advisory programs sound like a waste of time. I decided I needed to learn more about advisory programs, so I could make my own decision about ...


The Effects Of Emotional Intelligence In Everyday Life : What Counselors Can Do To Reinforce E.I. In Couples Counselings, Bridget M. Bencke Jan 2006

The Effects Of Emotional Intelligence In Everyday Life : What Counselors Can Do To Reinforce E.I. In Couples Counselings, Bridget M. Bencke

Graduate Research Papers

This paper will explore the aspects that make up emotional intelligence, compare IQ to EQ, and explain how emotional intelligence plays a role in the schools and in the workplace. This paper will identify how counselors can guide and support couples to recognize their feelings and develop healthy relationships with their spouses. Although techniques involving emotional intelligence skills are important for clients in individual sessions, there has been further research done with couples regarding therapy work and EI (Goleman, 1995). Therefore, this paper will focus on "emotional intelligence in couples" counselors, but will touch on EI in the schools and ...


Understanding The Mind-Body Connection For Optimal Health And Healing, Molly M. Cretsinger Jan 2006

Understanding The Mind-Body Connection For Optimal Health And Healing, Molly M. Cretsinger

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of the research paper is to understand how a person's attitudes and beliefs shape their life and influence their health and healing. It is fundamental for someone in the helping profession to gain insight into the role of love, faith, hope, and forgiveness in overall health and healing. The key to health and healing is to understand, accept, and believe in the notion of control over one's thinking and the ability to be who one chooses to be. Every day and every thought is a choice. It is crucial for health and overall wellness that individuals ...


The Effects Of Divorce In A Society With Ever-Changing Family Structures, Rebecca L. Ahlstrom Jan 2006

The Effects Of Divorce In A Society With Ever-Changing Family Structures, Rebecca L. Ahlstrom

Graduate Research Papers

Divorce rates have doubled since the 1970s, this has influenced both the structure and the impact of the family. It is imperative not to overlook the large and growing population of children affected by divorce. This paper will discuss the differences of important variables involved, such as age, gender and cultural background. In addition, it will discuss in detail outreach ideas and intervention strategies including small groups, mentoring programs, and bibliotherapy that have all been effective in supporting these children and their families in this crucial change of family structure. Children in single parent and blended families are considered "at-risk ...


The Effects Of Bullying On Elementary Students, Renee E. Bullerman Jan 2006

The Effects Of Bullying On Elementary Students, Renee E. Bullerman

Graduate Research Papers

Bullying is an ever-present problem occurring within elementary schools across the world. Bullying creates personal, social and emotional, as well as academic problems for the victim. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the various interventions that are implemented in elementary schools in order to combat the effects of bullying. Internal and external characteristics of victims, bullies, and bystanders will be identified. Gender differences related to bullying will be described, as well the effects bullying has on elementary students. Finally, numerous interventions aimed at reducing the effects of bullying will be discussed.


Play Therapy With Victims Of Child Abuse, Annie E. Jessen Jan 2006

Play Therapy With Victims Of Child Abuse, Annie E. Jessen

Graduate Research Papers

Child abuse is a very serious issue around the world. An estimated 906,000 children were determined to be victims of child abuse or neglect in the United States in 2003. Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. Play therapy provides children with the ideal environment where they feel safe and they may experience their feelings without restriction.

Oftentimes play allows children to distance themselves from experiences that are quite painful if expressed directly to a therapist. When assessing the needs of children, it is important for play therapists to assess the phenomenological impact of the abuse, the ...


Working With Children Suffering From Abuse And Neglect, Shalon L. Frye Jan 2006

Working With Children Suffering From Abuse And Neglect, Shalon L. Frye

Graduate Research Papers

This paper examines the history of advocacy for the rights and safety of children suffering from abuse and neglect in the United States and more specifically in the state of Iowa. It looks at statistical data concerning the incidence of child abuse and its correlation to age and ability level. It addresses the developmental, psychological, emotional, and physical effects of child abuse. This paper also outlines the role of the school counselor in helping children who are victims of abuse and neglect, as well as gives interventions that may be used to assist this population.


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Children And Adolescents, Mary R. Driscoll Jan 2006

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Children And Adolescents, Mary R. Driscoll

Graduate Research Papers

Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents has only been researched for the past fifteen to twenty years. Despite the estimates from state and local child protective services that approximately 896,000 children were victims of child abuse or neglect in 2002 (National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, 2002), the vast majority of research and techniques used in the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents has stemmed from research focused on adults. This report will provide a summary of current perspectives on the definition, assessment, and treatment of PTSD in adolescents.