Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Northern Iowa

Journal

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 738

Full-Text Articles in Education

Arts Integration Into Elementary Science: Force And Motion And Natural Disasters, Eric C. Ooms, Tabitha M. Wu, Ashley R. Kokemuller, Sarah E. Montgomery, Audrey C. Rule Dec 2018

Arts Integration Into Elementary Science: Force And Motion And Natural Disasters, Eric C. Ooms, Tabitha M. Wu, Ashley R. Kokemuller, Sarah E. Montgomery, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This study explored the effect of arts integration into science during an instructional unit on force and motion and one addressing natural weather disasters. Seventy-eight elementary students in four classrooms (grade 5, grade 4, and two at grade 3) participated in the study. This study assessed content retention, student-made products (rollercoasters and hurricane shelters), and student attitudes. All students in each classroom experienced the two units of instruction, one unit in the experimental condition of arts integration and one unit in the control condition without arts integration. Both conditions involved students in constructing models of given materials. Each unit consisted ...


Second Grade Students Learn About Civil Engineers And Erosion, Andrea Earline Anderson, Jessica A. Meier Dec 2018

Second Grade Students Learn About Civil Engineers And Erosion, Andrea Earline Anderson, Jessica A. Meier

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The integration of art into curricula focused on teaching science is a new perspective in education designed to reach a broader range of students. The current study examined the process of second-grade students participating in science and art activities through qualitative content analysis. The subjects of science and art were not taught to the students separately, rather, students engaged in both subjects simultaneously, in an integrated manner. Participants were 23 second-grade students (11 female and 12 male; age range 7 to 8 years) who were learning about erosion through sketching and creative construction and the work of civil engineers through ...


Steam Implementations For Elementary School Students In Turkey, Nil Duban, Bülent Aydoğdu, Selçuk Kolsuz Dec 2018

Steam Implementations For Elementary School Students In Turkey, Nil Duban, Bülent Aydoğdu, Selçuk Kolsuz

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The main aim of the current research was to fill the absence of STEAM activities for primary school students in Turkey. Accordingly, a study in which STEAM activities were implemented was conducted with the primary school students. There were four activities during STEAM implementation. The activities were these: Students recognized circuit components of simple electric circuits, designed simple electric circuits using circuit components by the guidance of researchers, later designed an ecological village via STEAM using simple electric circuits, and presented their ecological village via STEAM. A quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest control group design was used in the current ...


Ecosystem Shake Up: An Environmental Change Adaptation Project, Hannah E. Morgan, Dana Atwood-Blaine, Audrey C. Rule Dec 2018

Ecosystem Shake Up: An Environmental Change Adaptation Project, Hannah E. Morgan, Dana Atwood-Blaine, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article reports an intriguing diorama project for third grade elementary students (ages 8-9 years). Students worked as partners to create dioramas of given ecosystems made in pizza boxes. Then, students rolled a die to determine a change in some environmental factor that affected the ecosystem. The students discussed how this change affected the ecosystem and made a second part of their diorama showing the ecosystem after the change. Finally, students made class presentations concerning their dioramas and ideas. A rubric for assessing the projects is included. Results of this science project indicate that students became deeply engrossed in ...


Exploring The Physics Of Sound With Steam-Azing Third Graders, Page L. Foss, Kyrie D. Borsay Dec 2018

Exploring The Physics Of Sound With Steam-Azing Third Graders, Page L. Foss, Kyrie D. Borsay

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article was based on a lesson conducted with third graders from an elementary school in the Midwest who were studying concepts about sound. The lesson activities address Next Generation Science Standards that include engineering concepts, along with integrating activities that support National Core Arts Standards. The students created instruments that made music but that were not the standard string, percussion or wind orchestral instruments that they had previously studied: string, percussion, or wind. Their instruments made of recycled materials included drum and shaker combinations, animal-shaped instruments, and instruments that combined three or more instruments.


Science Through Art: Motivating Gifted And Talented Students, Ksenia Zhbanova Dec 2018

Science Through Art: Motivating Gifted And Talented Students, Ksenia Zhbanova

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Gifted and talented students have unique characteristics and needs. Arts Integration is an effective differentiation strategy that helps meeting these students’ needs. STEM subjects are easily and organically integrated with the Arts because scientific and artistic inquiry are very similar. This practical article describes an arts-integrated project that provided the gifted and talented participants with an increased level of challenge, an opportunity for self-expression and for building social skills, amplified motivation, and a chance to deepen and demonstrate their knowledge of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, social studies and English Language Arts. In this project, identified gifted students completed figural transformations ...


Editorial: Arts Integration Allows Students The Opportunity To Be Original, Ksenia S. Zhbanova, Audrey C. Rule Dec 2018

Editorial: Arts Integration Allows Students The Opportunity To Be Original, Ksenia S. Zhbanova, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This editorial explores the other six articles in this issue 2 of volume 3 of the Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions to examine how originality is displayed and supported by art projects. Originality, is a quality or a characteristic of an idea, approach or product. Originality can be defined as newness or novelty. To be classified as original, an idea must be new. It does not have to have a utilitarian value, which is a requirement for an idea to be categorized as creative. Helping students develop originality is important because it allows the freedom to make any ...


Integrating Affect And Advocacy: Suicide Prevention Education And Community-Based Performance, Sharon L. Green Sep 2018

Integrating Affect And Advocacy: Suicide Prevention Education And Community-Based Performance, Sharon L. Green

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

In this analysis of a performance-based collaboration, I argue that affect and relationship-building are vital tools in shifting cultures that stigmatize mental illness and social difference. I explain the context, logistics, and impact of a project which served as a community-based learning experience for college students. Embracing an ethics of care complemented the foundational principles of community-based performance to deepen the project's educational and affective impact on participants.


Skooz Be Hat’In: My Story Navigating And Negotiating Standard American English, Lisa M. Westbrooks Sep 2018

Skooz Be Hat’In: My Story Navigating And Negotiating Standard American English, Lisa M. Westbrooks

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

In most education systems, African American Vernacular English is not considered a language or variety of English and students who speak it are coerced into using Standard American English only. Using autoethnographic methodology I examine my personal language navigation and negotiation of Standard American English and the oppression of language and identity that accompanied it. I use storytelling to draw the reader into my childhood memories and the drifting away of my first language. As a young student and English as a Second Language teacher I have learned from these experiences and share strategies so that others may successfully reduce ...


Strategic Uses Of Essentialism In Boal’S Forum Theatre, Cameron N. Coulter Sep 2018

Strategic Uses Of Essentialism In Boal’S Forum Theatre, Cameron N. Coulter

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

Although Forum Theatre (FT) welcomes diverse perspectives to the stage, practitioners have often remarked that FT performances work best in communities that are in some way “homogeneous.” In this essay, I suggest that homogeneity is a recurrent theme in FT discussions because the structure of FT relies on consensus, and I propose that Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s paradigm of strategic uses of essentialism is a productive tool for understanding and evaluating moments of consensus in FT. Although Spivak eventually critiqued the term, I propose that strategic essentialism can nonetheless provide a useful model for understanding how consensus ideally operates within ...


Language Of Liberation? A Dialogue On Image Theatre Practice, Pavla Uppal, Wolfgang Vachon Sep 2018

Language Of Liberation? A Dialogue On Image Theatre Practice, Pavla Uppal, Wolfgang Vachon

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

Image work is a central and integral modality of Theatre of the Oppressed. This article examines liberatory, oppressive, and (at times) neglected aspects of Image work. Starting with the desire to know what the Image is really about, the authors invite the reader into a conversation by asking: why do we use Images, who are the Images for, how are Images experienced, and are they doing what is intended? Recognizing the inherent contradictions of using words alone to engage with Images, the authors employ a combination of text and photographs to facilitate this conversation.


Exploring Possible Humanoids On Mars: A Lesson Designed For Twice-Exceptional Gifted Students, Younis Al-Hassan, Marie Adebiyi, Shehreen Iqtadar, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine Mar 2018

Exploring Possible Humanoids On Mars: A Lesson Designed For Twice-Exceptional Gifted Students, Younis Al-Hassan, Marie Adebiyi, Shehreen Iqtadar, Dana L. Atwood-Blaine

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article presents a classroom-tested pedagogical plan to assist instructors in teaching thinking skills to gifted students with disabilities in the context of science. The lesson, which focused on using Edward de Bono thinking skills to explore humanoid images that appear in NASA photos, provided accommodations for students with hearing impairment, along with disabilities associated with short and long-term memory. The instructional design team presented the arts-integrated activity of drawing scenes showing possible ways the anomalies could have been generated, and an interactive electronic game using iPads that asked participants to gather needed items for a trip to Mars ...


Faces On Mars Lesson: Incorporating Art, Thinking Skills, And Disability Differentiation Strategies For Twice-Exceptional Gifted Students, Marine Pepanyan, Mike Fisher, Audrey Wallican-Green Mar 2018

Faces On Mars Lesson: Incorporating Art, Thinking Skills, And Disability Differentiation Strategies For Twice-Exceptional Gifted Students, Marine Pepanyan, Mike Fisher, Audrey Wallican-Green

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article provides an example art-integrated lesson designed to serve gifted students with the exceptionalities of deficits in executive functioning and in impulse control. The lesson used the mysterious science problem of possible life on Mars as evidenced by anomalous faces in NASA photographs as a stimulus for practice in processing information through three Edward de Bono CoRT Thinking Skills. This lesson demonstrated differentiating instruction for gifted students with disabilities that included hands-on and peer-involved exercises. Examples of student work showing comic book-like stories about the famous Face on Mars are included, along with student responses to the thinking ...


Exploring Mars Mysteries In Nasa Photographs: Could Some Images Be Animal Skeletons?, Laura Meyer, Rob Griffin, Dan Butler Mar 2018

Exploring Mars Mysteries In Nasa Photographs: Could Some Images Be Animal Skeletons?, Laura Meyer, Rob Griffin, Dan Butler

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The NASA photographs containing what appear to be animal skeletons have created a mystery that remains unsolved today. Because they generate questions and inquiries in many arenas, the animal skeleton pictures were used to help gifted students critically think about how these structures were created. Several additional exceptionalities common in most groups of students, including attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity and difficulties in executive functioning, were addressed through the lesson design. The exceptionalities were addressed through methods that could be used in any classroom while using the Mars Animal Skeletons to motivate and engage students. Incorporation of teaching ...


Is There Water On Mars? A De Bono Skills Mystery For Twice-Exceptional Gifted Students, Christopher Cox, Megan Sova-Tower, Nathan Wear Mar 2018

Is There Water On Mars? A De Bono Skills Mystery For Twice-Exceptional Gifted Students, Christopher Cox, Megan Sova-Tower, Nathan Wear

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Is there water on Mars? Gifted adult graduate students, some of whom represented the learner exceptionalities of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Slow Information Processing Speed, were asked to explore this mystery by applying Edward de Bono’s CoRT thinking skills of “Aims, Goals, and Objectives,” “Select,” and “Planning” to photographs of Mars landforms. Once they had determined the likelihood that the pictures depicted water on Mars, students were asked to develop three-dimensional models with recycled materials. Analysis of the findings revealed that in utilizing the de Bono CoRT thinking skills, students were able to identify sixteen different categories. Student responses ...


Exploring Animal-Like Images In Nasa Photos Of Mars Using De Bono’S Cort Thinking Skills: Alternatives, Possibilities, And Choices, Compare, And Decisions, Kurt M. J. Devore, Allyson Rafanello, Nicholas Rafanello Mar 2018

Exploring Animal-Like Images In Nasa Photos Of Mars Using De Bono’S Cort Thinking Skills: Alternatives, Possibilities, And Choices, Compare, And Decisions, Kurt M. J. Devore, Allyson Rafanello, Nicholas Rafanello

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The use of de Bono’s CoRT Thinking Skills of “Alternatives, Possibilities, and Choices,” “Compare,” and “Decisions” create opportunities for students to critically think about ideas using a new lens of thinking. The lesson was designed to accommodate twice-exceptional students, gifted students with the disabilities of dyslexia and/or dyscalculia, through three of the de Bono’s strategies integrated with activities. Gifted graduate students in this lesson were presented with an opportunity to explore and analyze the animal-like images from Mars using the three CoRT thinking skills. The photographs used in this lesson were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory ...


Mars Mysteries: Landform Pictograms, James Zabel, Mathieu Castello, Fiddelis Blessings Makaula Mar 2018

Mars Mysteries: Landform Pictograms, James Zabel, Mathieu Castello, Fiddelis Blessings Makaula

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Graphic organizers are a way for teachers to accommodate students with disabilities such as poor memory or emotional disorders. This technique allows organization of thoughts and visual representation of relationships between ideas and facts. Indeed, poor memory affects students’ reflection and retention of information while emotional disorders can cause a lack of focus in the classroom. Accommodations for students with these disabilities is important because students with emotional disorders may experience social isolation, which in turn may negatively affect their levels of academic achievement. Twenty high-achieving doctoral students participated in a teaching experience designed to introduce gifted students with learning ...


Exploring Mars Glass Tube Anomalies, Kimberly S. Mccoy-Parker, Gary Benda, Stanley Ebede Mar 2018

Exploring Mars Glass Tube Anomalies, Kimberly S. Mccoy-Parker, Gary Benda, Stanley Ebede

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical article provides information regarding the use of Edward de Bono CoRT thinking skills to broaden and enhance critical and creative thinking skills in twice exceptional students using the Mars Glass Tube Mystery as a vehicle to explore possibilities and spark creative thinking. The exceptionalities addressed in this lesson plan are gifted learners who have one or more additional exceptionalities of slow processing speed and / or poor fine motor skills. Throughout the lesson, the Mars Mystery photos leveraged both prior knowledge and student curiosity to create an engaging activity for the participants. CoRT thinking skills provided a robust structure ...


How Did Those Get There? Exploring Structures And Pyramids On Mars, Abby Rau, Brooke Becker Mar 2018

How Did Those Get There? Exploring Structures And Pyramids On Mars, Abby Rau, Brooke Becker

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

The makeup of students in our classrooms is becoming more diverse. With this change comes the need for educators to provide accommodations for students and to employ a range of instructional strategies. Arts integration in the content areas is one way to engage students and to encourage individual expression. The purpose of this practical article is to highlight a lesson incorporating the arts and Edward de Bono’s CoRT Thinking Skills to support twice exceptional learners, specifically English Language Learners and students with Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Doctoral students considered the formation of pyramids and structures on ...


Spotlight On Edward De Bono Thinking Skills And Twice-Exceptional Gifted Learners Applied To Mars Mysteries In Nasa Photographs, Ksenia S. Zhbanova, Audrey C. Rule Mar 2018

Spotlight On Edward De Bono Thinking Skills And Twice-Exceptional Gifted Learners Applied To Mars Mysteries In Nasa Photographs, Ksenia S. Zhbanova, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This editorial provides background information concerning the lessons presented in the eight practical articles of this issue. All of these lessons address Mars Mysteries, anomalous features found in NASA photographs of the Martian surface. These unusual and thought-provoking features are explored by using Edward de Bono CoRT thinking skills to broaden perceptions enhancing critical and creative thinking. The lessons are intended to explore possibilities, but not to provide a definite final answer as to what the anomalies represent. These lessons were designed as enrichment lessons for gifted learners and support Renzulli’s Type I general exploratory experiences that expose students ...


Fifth Graders’ Creativity In Inventions With And Without Creative Articulation Instruction, Darcie K. Kress, Audrey C. Rule Nov 2017

Fifth Graders’ Creativity In Inventions With And Without Creative Articulation Instruction, Darcie K. Kress, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Industry and authors of 21st Century Skill Frameworks are calling for student proficiency in creativity, problem-solving, innovation, collaboration, and communication skills. This project involved 13 fifth grade gifted students in inventing products for a specified audience with a set of given materials, time limit, and topic constraints. The complex, challenging project supports Next Generation Science Engineering Process Standard 3-5-ETS1-2 and applies concepts of plant and animal adaptations. The study had a counterbalanced, repeated measures design in which student made an initial invention during the pretest, then participated in two trials with one in the control condition and the other ...


Challenging Elementary Learners With Programmable Robots During Free Play And Direct Instruction, Kimberly S. Mccoy-Parker, Lindsey N. Paull, Audrey C. Rule, Sarah E. Montgomery Nov 2017

Challenging Elementary Learners With Programmable Robots During Free Play And Direct Instruction, Kimberly S. Mccoy-Parker, Lindsey N. Paull, Audrey C. Rule, Sarah E. Montgomery

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Computer programming skills are important to many current careers; teaching robot coding to elementary students can start a positive foundation for technological careers, develop problem-solving skills, and growth mindsets. This study, through a repeated measures design involving students in two classrooms at two widelyseparated grade levels (first graders aged 6-7 years and fifth graders aged 10-11 years), determined if allowing students to challenge themselves with coding exercises in the experimental condition resulted in greater learning and more positive attitudes than a more structured set of exercises provided by the teacher in the control condition. Background instruction in coding and using ...


Reading Nonfiction Science Literature With And Without Arts Integration Activities, Elizabeth Mccartney, Catherine Mochal, Victoria Boyd, Audrey C. Rule, Sarah E. Montgomery Nov 2017

Reading Nonfiction Science Literature With And Without Arts Integration Activities, Elizabeth Mccartney, Catherine Mochal, Victoria Boyd, Audrey C. Rule, Sarah E. Montgomery

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This study explores the integration of the arts into the teaching of science nonfiction texts during literacy instruction. Sixty-one elementary students (15 second graders, 25 third graders, and 21 fifth graders) attending schools of differing socio-economic levels participated in this study. The study examined the effects of artsintegration on student content knowledge, engagement level, and attitudes toward learning regarding science nonfiction texts. Throughout the eight-week study, students experienced both the traditional no-arts control condition and the experimental arts-integration condition in two-week segments for different science topics. Both conditions employed literacy strategies to teach comprehension of science nonfiction texts. The resulting ...


Examining Natural Selection By Sketching And Making Models Of The Finches Of The Galapagos Islands, Phoebe J. Z. Pittman, Jolene K. Teske Nov 2017

Examining Natural Selection By Sketching And Making Models Of The Finches Of The Galapagos Islands, Phoebe J. Z. Pittman, Jolene K. Teske

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This practical lesson describes how students in six eighth grade science classes participated in a lesson combining the National Core Arts Standards with the Next Generation Science Standards. The goal of the lesson was to provide visual representations of finch beak form and function so students could better understand genetic variation and how environmental pressures influence natural selection. Students sketched a finch with a large, medium, or small beak, corresponding to an experiment they had conducted with picking up different sizes of seeds with different sizes of binder clips. Using modeling with a variety of media, students created bird beaks ...


Cinematherapy In Gifted Education Identity Development: Integrating The Arts Through Stem-Themed Movies, Timothy C. Kangas, Michelle Cook, Audrey C. Rule Nov 2017

Cinematherapy In Gifted Education Identity Development: Integrating The Arts Through Stem-Themed Movies, Timothy C. Kangas, Michelle Cook, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Gifted students, because of their advanced development compared to peers, have emotional needs that require differentiated education programs. Asynchronous social and emotional development of gifted students often leads to identity issues. Cinematherapy can be used to help gifted students explore their identities through analysis of the actions of gifted characters in films. This practical article suggests STEM-themed movies with characters facing challenges useful for gifted student identity development. The Autonomous Learners Model is used to classify gifted learners in the movies to assist teachers in matching movies to the needs of gifted learners. Tables of STEM-themed movies with gifted characters ...


Middle Level Preservice Teachers Experience A Natural History Arts-Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit, Carolyn A. Weber, Audrey C. Rule Nov 2017

Middle Level Preservice Teachers Experience A Natural History Arts-Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit, Carolyn A. Weber, Audrey C. Rule

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

Curricular demands and best practices for middle school require interdisciplinary units. Arts integration can provide motivation and a new pathway to learning. This unit focused on inquiry into the natural history of artifacts and rocks recovered from the exposed subsoil of an area near Cedar Falls, Iowa that had been bulldozed as part of subdivision development. The described unit involved preservice teachers in exploration of all subject areas (language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies) with arts-integrated projects (agate watercolor painting, stone tool graphing, acrylic polymer clay agate keyring making, and stone tool drawings). The content area activities for social ...


How The Arts Standards Support Stem Concepts: A Journey From Stem To Steam, Ksenia S. Zhbanova Nov 2017

How The Arts Standards Support Stem Concepts: A Journey From Stem To Steam, Ksenia S. Zhbanova

Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions

This issue of the Journal of STEM Arts, Crafts, and Constructions is focused on the effects of integrating arts with STEM areas, an important and widely-considered topic in education today. This editorial provides an overview of the current state of the arts and STEM areas integration paradigm, an analysis of the benefits of the arts integration with the STEM subjects, and an overview of the history of the arts anchor standards. Comparison and connections between the National Arts Core anchor arts standards, the scientific method, engineering design process, and the 5E learning cycle are also illuminated. Summaries of the practical ...


The Medical Student Manifesto, Ye Kyung Song Sep 2017

The Medical Student Manifesto, Ye Kyung Song

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

Under neoliberal education systems, medical students are unable to critically engage and develop a critical consciousness because they are forced to master standardized test-taking skills and memorize medical minutiae. As insider-outsiders, medical humanists and bioethicists can shed light on the culture and power dynamics inherent in medical education. Furthermore, the medical humanities could teach medical students to critically reflect on their own human values, and to become ethical and humanistic physicians in the face of the hierarchical culture of biomedicine and neoliberal university administrations. Medical educators, through critical pedagogy, can liberate the medical student and create the potential for changing ...


“On Your Feet!”: Addressing Ableism In Theatre Of The Oppressed Facilitation, Caitlin E. Ray Sep 2017

“On Your Feet!”: Addressing Ableism In Theatre Of The Oppressed Facilitation, Caitlin E. Ray

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

Theatre of the Oppressed workshops strive to be inclusive and democratic; however, the facilitation of such workshops may actually limit inclusiveness when facilitators assume a certain level of physical ability in its participants. By considering disability scholarship and Universal Design pedagogy, I introduce specific ways in which facilitators can be more inclusive to the diversity of bodies in our workshops. I also include an example Image Theatre activity that applies my disability-conscious suggestions.


Social Movement Literacy: A Conceptual Overview, Jason Del Gandio Sep 2017

Social Movement Literacy: A Conceptual Overview, Jason Del Gandio

Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Journal

This article provides a conceptual overview of social movement literacy (SML). The purpose of SML is to help the general public become more proficient at reading and understanding the nature and function of social movements. Social movements are invaluable contributors to our collective lives, but very few people—outside of activists and specialized academics—consciously educate themselves about movement activity. SML is envisioned as an interdisciplinary, public pedagogy endeavor that brings together both scholars and activists in the attempt to establish core skills and knowledges that enable people to recognize, discuss, perhaps participate in and, if need be, intelligently critique ...