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University of Massachusetts Amherst

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 53

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Aid Debate: Beyond The Liberal/Conservative Divide, Sangeeta Kamat Oct 2010

The Aid Debate: Beyond The Liberal/Conservative Divide, Sangeeta Kamat

Center for International Education Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Teachers' Resistance: Japanese Teachers Stories From The 1960s, Reiko Kato Sep 2010

Teachers' Resistance: Japanese Teachers Stories From The 1960s, Reiko Kato

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to listen to teachers' stories and reconstruct their classrooms in the midst of the global upheaval of people's movements in the 1960s-70s through teachers' narratives. The primary research questions are: How did social movements in the 1960s-1970s influence their teaching practices? What was their intention and how did they carry out their daily teaching practice? In the educational research field, narrative inquirers explore teachers' stories, their life experiences and teaching practices, in order to understand how teachers view the world. I collected stories, through in-depth interviews, of ten Japanese teachers who taught in ...


Working Together: The Role Of Collaborations In Promoting The Use Of Academic Technologies In Higher Education, Kate Hudson Sep 2010

Working Together: The Role Of Collaborations In Promoting The Use Of Academic Technologies In Higher Education, Kate Hudson

Open Access Dissertations

Through the centuries, institutions of higher education, and the people who labor in those institutions, have helped countless millions to learn--to stretch their boundaries, to think creatively, to find joy in discovery, and to create new knowledge that benefits the world in a myriad of ways. Yet while the knowledge produced through our educational process has transformed the world, the process of teaching and learning within these institutions has remained largely unexplored and unchanged over the centuries (Bass, 2009; Duderstadt, Atkins, & Van Houweling, 2002; Woolsey, 2008). In recent years, the advent and rapid development of information technology has provided us with a previously ...


Item Parameter Drift As An Indication Of Differential Opportunity To Learn: An Exploration Of Item Flagging Methods & Accurate Classification Of Examinees, Tia M. Sukin Sep 2010

Item Parameter Drift As An Indication Of Differential Opportunity To Learn: An Exploration Of Item Flagging Methods & Accurate Classification Of Examinees, Tia M. Sukin

Open Access Dissertations

The presence of outlying anchor items is an issue faced by many testing agencies. The decision to retain or remove an item is a difficult one, especially when the content representation of the anchor set becomes questionable by item removal decisions. Additionally, the reason for the aberrancy is not always clear, and if the performance of the item has changed due to improvements in instruction, then removing the anchor item may not be appropriate and might produce misleading conclusions about the proficiency of the examinees. This study is conducted in two parts consisting of both a simulation and empirical data ...


Joy And Happiness In Education And Spirituality: Teachings Of Imam, Sheikh Iskender Ali Mihr, Ibrahim Taner Okatan Sep 2010

Joy And Happiness In Education And Spirituality: Teachings Of Imam, Sheikh Iskender Ali Mihr, Ibrahim Taner Okatan

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to bring more clarification to the concepts of spirituality and happiness, their meaning, attainability, and position in the field of Multicultural Education. In general, people think they will find joy and happiness if they graduate from a post-secondary educational institution with an undergraduate or graduate degree, find a good work environment, position, salary, living standards, status, etc. Yet, in the real world there may be a different way to find genuine happiness and joy which is fair, simple, easy and equal for all human beings even those who cannot afford higher levels of education ...


Relationship Of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Of Urban Public School Students To Performance On A High-Stakes Mathematics Test, Kolajo Akinbiyi Afolabi Sep 2010

Relationship Of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Of Urban Public School Students To Performance On A High-Stakes Mathematics Test, Kolajo Akinbiyi Afolabi

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of self-efficacy for Enlisting Social Resources, Self-Regulatory Efficacy, self-efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning, and self-efficacy for Academic Achievement (Bandura's Children's Self-Efficacy Scale, 2006) of urban public school students to performance on the high stakes Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) math test. A survey questionnaire was administered to eighty three participants and the data, analyzed using linear regression, conformed to the assumptions of Independence, Linearity, Normality, and Homoscedasticity. Self-Regulatory Efficacy, Academic Achievement, and Socio-economic Status were statistically significant bivariate predictors of performance on MCAS math test. Self-Regulatory Efficacy was the ...


Factors Influencing Transition And Persistence In The First Year For Community College Students With Disabilities, Lori A. Corcoran Sep 2010

Factors Influencing Transition And Persistence In The First Year For Community College Students With Disabilities, Lori A. Corcoran

Open Access Dissertations

Community colleges have always played a crucial role in providing access to college, especially for students with disabilities. At the same time the rate of completion is exceptionally low for this particular population (Belch, 2004). In order to improve persistence and achievement measurably, colleges may seek clues in successful transitions by students with disabilities. This project presents a qualitative research study to illuminate factors that contribute to semester-by-semester success of community college students with disabilities during their first year. A conceptual model of successful transitional processes was developed from theoretical constructs reported in the literature and was expanded by data ...


Using Item Mapping To Evaluate Alignment Between Curriculum And Assessment, Leah Tepelunde Kaira Sep 2010

Using Item Mapping To Evaluate Alignment Between Curriculum And Assessment, Leah Tepelunde Kaira

Open Access Dissertations

There is growing interest in alignment between state's standards and test content partly due to accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Among other problems, current alignment methods almost entirely rely on subjective judgment to assess curriculum-assessment alignment. In addition none of the current alignment models accounts for student actual performance on the assessment and there are no consistent criteria for assessing alignment across the various models. Due to these problems, alignment results employing different models cannot be compared. This study applied item mapping to student response data for the Massachusetts Adult Proficiency Test ...


Creating Classroom Relationships That Allow Students To Feel Known, Kent Alan Divoll Sep 2010

Creating Classroom Relationships That Allow Students To Feel Known, Kent Alan Divoll

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to use grounded theory and case study methodology to identify and describe the ways that an upper elementary school teacher makes students feel known and respected for who they are by creating a relationship-driven classroom community. Analyzing how a teacher uses a relationship-driven classroom community has the potential to improve upon existing classroom community models. Data were collected from a teacher questionnaire, student questionnaire, samples of student work, document collection, two formal interviews with ten students, two formal interviews the teacher, and descriptive field notes from observations. Results indicated creating teacher-student relationships that ...


Gender And Incongruity Between Educational Expectations And College Enrollment: The Roles Of Race, Social Class, And Significant Others, Ryan S. Wells, Tricia A. Seifert, Daniel B. Saunders May 2010

Gender And Incongruity Between Educational Expectations And College Enrollment: The Roles Of Race, Social Class, And Significant Others, Ryan S. Wells, Tricia A. Seifert, Daniel B. Saunders

Ryan S. Wells

Gender gaps in educational expectations and postsecondary enrollment are well studied, but few scholars have investigated the incongruity between expectations and enrollment decisions and even fewer have examined this incongruity by gender. Using thirty-five years of data, this study examines the differential influences of social origin and significant others on this incongruity for men and women. It also investigates how differences in these characteristics contribute to the overall incongruity gender gap—the difference between the proportion of men and proportion of women who do not enroll in ways that match their expectations. Results show trends in the incongruity gender gap ...


Actualizing Social Justice: An Exploratory Case Study Of A Public Middle School, Camille Lee May 2010

Actualizing Social Justice: An Exploratory Case Study Of A Public Middle School, Camille Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Researchers and k-12 practitioners have been struggling with inequity and diversity issues for the past four decades. These struggles have produced multiple philosophies, theoretical perspectives and educational approaches—each with strengths and limitations. The various approaches to addressing diversity indirectly and implicitly address, but have not managed, the systemic changes necessary for education to be socially just. Ideally, all diversity approaches should result in academic achievement and social change—the goals of social justice education. Past research has mainly focused on crisis intervention strategies or on meeting individually-based needs rather than on systemic practices and strategies at the school or ...


Latino/A Students And Faculty Interaction: Las Voces De Persistencia, Joyce L. Hampton May 2010

Latino/A Students And Faculty Interaction: Las Voces De Persistencia, Joyce L. Hampton

Open Access Dissertations

Latinos consistently have the lowest degree completion rate throughout the United States (Kurlaender & Flores, 2005). At the same time, Latinos are the fastest growing sector of the U.S. population. Taken together, these facts demonstrate an ongoing and growing inequity in educational opportunities and outcomes for a significant portion of the nation's population. The findings of this study provide additional knowledge regarding how Latino students perceive interaction with faculty and how affirming relationships with faculty can develop Latino students' sense of belonging. In addition, the study identifies three main support sources for Latino student persistence, which include family support ...


Latinas In The Pipeline To Baccalaureate -Prepared Nursing: Challenges And Supports In Persistence To Degree And Professional Licensure, Cheryl Ann Sheils May 2010

Latinas In The Pipeline To Baccalaureate -Prepared Nursing: Challenges And Supports In Persistence To Degree And Professional Licensure, Cheryl Ann Sheils

Open Access Dissertations

The United States is rapidly becoming a more racially diverse nation. Racial minority groups are projected to make up 47% of the total population in 2050 and if current population trends continue, they are projected to surpass the non-minority population by the end of the twenty-first century. Furthermore, the Latino population, already the nation's largest minority group, is expected to triple in size and is projected to account for 29% of the total U.S. population by 2050. Unfortunately, the educational pipeline has created a shortage of Latinos in higher education. At the same time, the United States is ...


Maintenance Of Vertical Scales Under Conditions Of Item Parameter Drift And Rasch Model-Data Misfit, Timothy Paul O'Neil May 2010

Maintenance Of Vertical Scales Under Conditions Of Item Parameter Drift And Rasch Model-Data Misfit, Timothy Paul O'Neil

Open Access Dissertations

With scant research to draw upon with respect to the maintenance of vertical scales over time, decisions around the creation and performance of vertical scales over time necessarily suffers due to the lack of information. Undetected item parameter drift (IPD) presents one of the greatest threats to scale maintenance within an item response theory (IRT) framework. There is also still an outstanding question as to the utility of the Rasch model as an underlying viable framework for establishing and maintaining vertical scales. Even so, this model is currently used for scaling many state assessment systems. Most criticisms of the Rasch ...


The Tactical Games Model Sport Experience: An Examination Of Student Motivation And Game Performance During An Ultimate Frisbee Unit, Eric John Carpenter May 2010

The Tactical Games Model Sport Experience: An Examination Of Student Motivation And Game Performance During An Ultimate Frisbee Unit, Eric John Carpenter

Open Access Dissertations

Students benefit from positive sport experiences in physical education. If designed well, sport provides a social avenue for physical activity and strengthens student achievement in psychomotor (e.g., motor skill), cognitive (e.g., decision-making), and affective (e.g., personal and social responsibility) learning domains. Unfortunately, not all students receive quality sport instruction and many students fail to have positive sport experiences in physical education. The Tactical Games Model (TGM, Griffin, Mitchell, & Oslin, 1997) is an instructional model focused on improving student sport experiences. As a constructivist approach to teaching and learning sport, TGM reshapes sport lessons to allow students to experience small-sided games (Game 1), think critically about games playing (Q & A), practice aspects of playing (Situated Practice), and show improvement in games playing (Game 2). TGM literature includes practitioner reports about involvement (Berkowitz, 1996) and findings that show measures of game performance (e.g., skill execution, decision-making) during a TGM sport unit (Allison & Thorpe, 1997; Turner & Martinek, 1999). Limited data is available to explain how the constructivist nature of TGM influences motivation (Griffin & Patton, 2005; Rink, 2001). The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine motivation using situational interest theory (Chen, Darst, & Pangrazi, 1999; Mitchell, 1993) to interpret participant – learning situation (Game 1, Q ...


The Voice Of Elementary School Principals On School Climate, Suzanne Elayne Scallion May 2010

The Voice Of Elementary School Principals On School Climate, Suzanne Elayne Scallion

Open Access Dissertations

School climate has been described as "the set of internal characteristics that distinguish one school from another and influence the behaviors of each school's members" (Hoy, Smith & Sweetland, 2005). In the landmark study by Brookover, Schneider, Beady, Flood and Wisebaker (1978), school climate was found to be a more significant factor in student achievement than the variables of race and socioeconomic status. Principals need training in the phenomena of school climate and to develop the skills needed to alter it as needed for the benefit of students. This phenomenological study explored the conceptual understanding of school climate by experienced ...


International Study Tours And The Development Of Sociocultural Consciousness In K-12 Teachers, Raymond Yu-Kuang Young May 2010

International Study Tours And The Development Of Sociocultural Consciousness In K-12 Teachers, Raymond Yu-Kuang Young

Open Access Dissertations

This research study examined the long-term effects of a professional development study tour to Southeast Asia that took place in 2001. Participants included ten public school teachers from Western Massachusetts, which has a significant population of people of Vietnamese and Cambodian descent. Funded by a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad grant, the purpose of the study tour was to increase teacher awareness, knowledge and understanding of contemporary Southeast Asia so that they could more effectively address the educational needs of students representing diverse cultural backgrounds, particularly immigrant and refugee youth, through the development of culturally relevant curricula and lesson plans. From ...


Scholarship In Occupational Therapy Faculty: The Interaction Of Cultural Forces In Academic Departments, Cathy A. Dow-Royer May 2010

Scholarship In Occupational Therapy Faculty: The Interaction Of Cultural Forces In Academic Departments, Cathy A. Dow-Royer

Open Access Dissertations

Over the last two decades there has been heightened interest in redefining faculty scholarship in higher education (Boyer, 1990). Trends have included the development of cultural frameworks for understanding how disciplines and institutions influence faculty work and how socialization processes impact academic career development. Despite the fact that the number of occupational therapy practitioners who have pursued doctoral training in pursuit of an academic career has failed to keep up with the need for qualified faculty, academic interest in developing disciplinary scholars to build the knowledge base of professional practice has been slow to develop. Furthermore, leadership interest in guiding ...


The Complexities Of The Work Experiences Of Urban Middle School Teachers On Interdisciplinary Teams: An In-Depth Phenomenological Interview Study, Barbara Anne Choiniere May 2010

The Complexities Of The Work Experiences Of Urban Middle School Teachers On Interdisciplinary Teams: An In-Depth Phenomenological Interview Study, Barbara Anne Choiniere

Open Access Dissertations

There are about 16,000 middle schools in the United States; the half million teachers who teach in them affect the academic and emotional lives of about a hundred students while working cooperatively with an array of adult personalities and endeavoring to cover the curriculum. Although research has been conducted on many components of the middle school, an in-depth look at teachers’ experiences with the concept is missing. The purposes of this study were to explore three ideas: the complexities of the work experiences of teachers who participate on interdisciplinary teams in urban middle schools, the possible interactions of the ...


Score Reporting In Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, And Interview/Focus Group Study, Heather Susan Klesch May 2010

Score Reporting In Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, And Interview/Focus Group Study, Heather Susan Klesch

Open Access Dissertations

The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a certain level, the communication of scores to the public needs to be examined. Although public school student testing often is placed in the spotlight, this study examines score reporting in teacher certification, which may not have the same complexities of student test score reporting, but does have ...


Teaching For Social Justice With Standards-Based Secondary English Language Arts Curriculum, Alison George Dover Feb 2010

Teaching For Social Justice With Standards-Based Secondary English Language Arts Curriculum, Alison George Dover

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

Teaching for social justice is the attempt by classroom teachers to use their position in the classroom to promote social and educational reform within and despite current educational conditions and mandates. However, while a growing number of K-12 teachers have published anecdotal reports of their attempts to teach for social justice in secondary classrooms (e.g., Bender-Slack, 2007; Christensen, 2000; Singer, 2005), there is great variability among these accounts, and scant evaluation of their impact on specific academic, behavioral/motivational, and attitudinal outcomes (see Grant & Agosto, 2008; Kelly & Brandes, 2008; Poplin & Rivera, 2005).

This qualitative study addresses this research gap by offering a concrete ...


From Tri-Cultural Conflict To Tri-Cultural Connection: How Successful Urban Science Educators Become Culturally Connected, Marlina Nicole Duncan Feb 2010

From Tri-Cultural Conflict To Tri-Cultural Connection: How Successful Urban Science Educators Become Culturally Connected, Marlina Nicole Duncan

Open Access Dissertations

Urban districts suffer from a severe shortage of qualified science teachers. Therefore, many new science teachers will need to take positions in urban districts with little or no exposure to urban communities. As a result, prospective teachers find it difficult to learn how to negotiate the cultural contexts of urban teaching. Consequently, it is essential for teacher preparation programs to begin to examine the cultural contexts of urban science teaching to understand how to support the personal and professional well being of novice urban science educators. Through in-depth phenomenological interviews this research documents the experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of veteran ...


The Impact Of Disciplinarity On The Organizational Leadership Styles Of Academic Deans, Lauren J. Way Feb 2010

The Impact Of Disciplinarity On The Organizational Leadership Styles Of Academic Deans, Lauren J. Way

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of disciplinary background on the leadership styles of academic deans. The researcher conducted a nation-wide survey of academic deans from a wide range of disciplines. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether the disciplinary backgrounds of university deans are reflected in their self-reported actions, decision-making, and role perceptions. Subjects’ disciplines were categorized according to high-consensus and low-consensus fields as well as the pure/applied dichotomy. Four dimensions of organizational leadership (bureaucratic, collegial, political and symbolic) were utilized to define the subjects’ potential cognitive frames. The subjects’ use of cognitive frames ...


A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Helping Professionals With Learning Disabilities, Madeline Lorraine Peters Feb 2010

A Phenomenological Study Of The Experiences Of Helping Professionals With Learning Disabilities, Madeline Lorraine Peters

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent, to which professionals in helping professions (PHPS) with learning disabilities are able to name the support, services, and assistance that they require to successfully engage in the full range of activities for their daily living. Additionally, the study explores how PHPS describe their experiences with support, services, and assistance available to them. The study was conducted using a qualitative, phenomenological in-depth interview methodology. The study sample consisted of 10 helping professionals with learning disabilities that work in helping professions. Data was collected using audiotaping of interviews and field notes. Audio ...


An Assessment Of The Nonparametric Approach For Evaluating The Fit Of Item Response Models, Tie Liang Feb 2010

An Assessment Of The Nonparametric Approach For Evaluating The Fit Of Item Response Models, Tie Liang

Open Access Dissertations

As item response theory (IRT) has developed and is widely applied, investigating the fit of a parametric model becomes an important part of the measurement process when implementing IRT. The usefulness and successes of IRT applications rely heavily on the extent to which the model reflects the data, so it is necessary to evaluate model-data fit by gathering sufficient evidence before any model application. There is a lack of promising solutions on the detection of model misfit in IRT. In addition, commonly used fit statistics are not satisfactory in that they often do not possess desirable statistical properties and lack ...


What Is The Cost Of An Adequate Vermont High School Education?, Frank D. Rucker Feb 2010

What Is The Cost Of An Adequate Vermont High School Education?, Frank D. Rucker

Open Access Dissertations

Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that “Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments…it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education” (Brown vs. Board of Education, 1954). State constitutions establish rights to public education. State legislatures define expected outcomes and funding mechanisms to operate schools. Over the past sixteen years, plaintiffs have overwhelmingly prevailed in court cases where they have claimed that children ...


Engaging Students In Mathematics Conversations: Discourse Practices And The Development Of Social And Socialmathematical Norms In Three Novice Teachers' Classrooms, Mary T. Grassetti Feb 2010

Engaging Students In Mathematics Conversations: Discourse Practices And The Development Of Social And Socialmathematical Norms In Three Novice Teachers' Classrooms, Mary T. Grassetti

Open Access Dissertations

Research on learning to teach mathematics reveals that mathematics teaching is a complex process (Lerman, 2000) and classroom teaching and learning is a “multifaceted, extraordinarily complex phenomenon” (O’Connor, 1998, p. 43). Moreover, research reveals that the mathematics reform agenda has had an impact on what happens in the mathematics classroom, however, the impact has been superficial (Kazemi & Stipek, 2001) with teachers often retaining their pre-reform habits and attitudes in regards to mathematics teaching and learning (O’Connor, 1998). This study examined the reform discourse practices that three novice teachers, who had been enrolled in a reform based methods course ...


Integrating Music, Drama, And The Visual Arts In The Early Childhood Curriculum: A Study Of Early Childhood Teachers In A Metropolitan Area Of Puerto Rico, Mayra Almodovar Feb 2010

Integrating Music, Drama, And The Visual Arts In The Early Childhood Curriculum: A Study Of Early Childhood Teachers In A Metropolitan Area Of Puerto Rico, Mayra Almodovar

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore, describe and examine how early childhood teachers utilize and integrate the arts (music, drama, and visual arts) in teaching children ages 3 to 5. It also examined the formal and informal arts education background of early childhood teachers, the relationship between teacher training and educational practice and the role it plays in teachers’ use of music, drama and visual arts in their curriculum. Data was collected through the use of the Arts Integration Questionnaire (AIQ) and by observations, Arts Integration observation Protocol (AIOP). A total of 91 early childhood teachers completed the ...


Insights Into The Complexities Of Identity In Persisting Latina College Students, Irene Rodriguez Martin Feb 2010

Insights Into The Complexities Of Identity In Persisting Latina College Students, Irene Rodriguez Martin

Open Access Dissertations

This study explored the educational journeys of 17 academically achieving, low income and first generation college attending Latinas at three different selective institutions. While many studies have been dedicated to the reasons for the low graduation rates of Hispanics, this strength-based study focused on resiliency and on the relationships and strategies Latinas used to achieve success in the most unlikely of environments. The interviews considered: the ways in which Latina students persist and whether their pathways were consistent with Tinto’s traditional model of persistence; how students developed the scholastic capital required for persistence; and the ways in which culture ...


An Examination Of Teacher-Student Trust In Middle School Classrooms, Virginia Louise Durnford Feb 2010

An Examination Of Teacher-Student Trust In Middle School Classrooms, Virginia Louise Durnford

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore: (a)how and to what extent teachers experience and express trust in relation to individual students and groups of students (b)how and to what extent teachers value and focus on specific attributes of trust over others and (c) how and to what extent the levels of teacher trust in students and the various attributes of trust impact the teachers’ behaviors and choices in the classroom. Data were collected from teacher interviews, teacher questionnaires, classroom and school artifacts, and descriptive field notes from observations. Data were analyzed using content analysis and open ...