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The Role Of Gender Identities And Stereotype Salience With The Academic Performance Of Male And Female College Athletes, Keith Harrison Feb 2009

The Role Of Gender Identities And Stereotype Salience With The Academic Performance Of Male And Female College Athletes, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

An experiment was conducted to examine factors that moderate the experience of academic identity threat among college athletes who represent a stigmatized group on most college campuses (Yopyk & Prentice, 2005). It was hypothesized that because they are more engaged in academics, female college athletes would be especially threatened by the prospect of confirming the “dumb-jock” stereotype. As predicted, female college athletes performed more poorly when their athletic and academic identities were explicitly linked, but only on moderately difficult test items. The results also revealed that male college athletes performed significantly better (see stereotype reactance and self-affirmation) on more difficult test ...


Stereotypes And Stigmas Of College Athletes In Tank Mcnamara's Cartoon Strip: Fact Or Fiction?, Keith Harrison Jan 2009

Stereotypes And Stigmas Of College Athletes In Tank Mcnamara's Cartoon Strip: Fact Or Fiction?, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student-athletes (N= 43) regarding stereotypical cartoons about athletes. A qualitative approach, which included a visual elicitation technique, was utilized by administering the Lifestyle Association & Representation of Athletes Scale (LARAS). The LARAS explored participants’ perceptions of the following six specific concepts: a) academic support issues; b) academic progress; c) coaches as educators; d) professional sport aspirations; e) media identities, advertising, and representation; and f) cultural issues and recruiting. Five major themes emerged from participants’ perceptions: Big Sport Business, Athletic Image, College Athlete Mindset, Realistic/False Representation, and Institutional Focus. Goffman’s (1959) theory of social stigma and Loury’s (2002) theory on racial ...


An Investigation Of Scholar-Baller And Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation And Athletic Identity, Janet Rasmussen Jan 2009

An Investigation Of Scholar-Baller And Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation And Athletic Identity, Janet Rasmussen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As less than 3 % of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance. One unique program, Scholar-Baller, utilizes popular culture within its curriculum to bridge the gap between academics and athletics. This dissertation examined the differences between Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I football student-athletes' motivation (academic, athletic, intrinsic) and athletic identity using expectancy-value theory and self-affirmation theory as its framework. In addition, the effect of race/ethnicity (African-American, White American and Other race/ethnicity) and Scholar-Baller participation on Division I football student-athletes' motivation (academic, athletic, intrinsic) and athletic identity was examined. Expectancy-value theory defines motivation as both the expectation of the student's belief about the final outcome of a task, and the values the student gives to the task. A student either has a positive, negative, or neutral expectation of the completed task's outcome (Williams, Anderson & Winett, 2005; Xiang, McBRide & Bruene, 2006). This framework allows for exploration of student athletes' academic expectations and values. Self-affirmation theory explains that when students focus on important identities and values, they can become less defensive towards threatening information. Therefore, when receiving negative academic feedback, student-athletes using self-affirmation techniques may be more confident, open-minded and receptive towards the threatening information. Three instruments were used to collect data. The Student-athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire SAMSAQ) was used to assess academic and athletic motivation, while the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was used to assess intrinsic motivation towards academics. Lastly, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) was used to investigate athletic identity. Four universities (two Scholar-Baller and two Non Scholar-Baller) were chosen for their similar academic and athletic performance. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences: Graduate Pack 16 for Windows, a Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) were run to determine if significant differences exist between the Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller football student-athletes' academic, athletic, intrinsic motivation and athletic identity. These tests revealed that Scholar-Baller football student-athletes had significantly lower academic and athletic motivation than Non Scholar-Baller football student-athletes. Having low academic expectations and little value for academics is consistent with student-athlete subculture. However, these findings were in contrast to what was expected. In addition, Scholar-Baller football student-athletes had significantly higher athletic identity than Non Scholar-Baller football student-athletes.This finding is also consistent with the literature on student-athletes. As student-athletes must be motivated athletically to perform at intercollegiate sports, it is not surprising to find high athletic identity among the Scholar-Baller football student-athletes. In fact, studies have suggested that high athletic identity correlates with high academic performance (Harrison, Stone, Shapiro, Yee, Boyd & Rullan, 2009; Sellers, Chavous & Brown, 2001). One Scholar-Baller university in this study reported higher grade point averages since the inception of the Scholar-Baller program (2.37 in Fall 2004 to 2.68 in Spring 2006). Scholar-Baller curriculum utilizes self-affirmation exercises to affirm student- athletes athletically and influence more acceptance of academic criticism. Scholar-Baller football student-athletes are more affirmed in their athletic role which may lead to academic success. This dissertation also investigated differences between Scholar-Baller ...