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Full-Text Articles in Education

Identity And Second Language Acquisition: Adult Puerto Rican Migrants Living In The United States, Marcio Rubens Soares Gomes May 2019

Identity And Second Language Acquisition: Adult Puerto Rican Migrants Living In The United States, Marcio Rubens Soares Gomes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Drawing on the poststructuralist construct of identity and on Norton's (1995) concept of investment, as well as on Bourdieu's (1977) notion of capital, this qualitative research study relies on data gathered through interviews conducted with two adult female participants from Puerto Rico, who migrated to Central Florida approximately ten years ago. It aims at answering the following questions: (i) what identity-related factors facilitate or hinder the acquisition of the target language by Puerto Rican migrants? (ii) what social forces or barriers impact learning ESL in the context of Puerto Rican migration to the United States? The findings indicate ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Public School Collective Bargaining Agreements In Florida, Aliza Berk May 2019

A Comparative Analysis Of Public School Collective Bargaining Agreements In Florida, Aliza Berk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the terms and conditions found in the 67 Florida public school collective bargaining agreements. Such collective bargaining agreements are negotiated between two parties, the teacher unions and their employers, under Florida Statute 447. The purpose of this mixed-methods study, conducted using both qualitative and quantitative research methods, is as follows: 1) to determine the extent to which CBA provisions exist within the master contracts of Florida teachers (2016-2017) and; 2) to determine the extent to which, if any, collective bargaining provisions vary among school districts (i.e. district size, district performance, district locale). The study finds that ...


Suspensions And Referrals To Law Enforcement Of African American Students Pre And Post Restorative Justice, Adrienne Brown May 2019

Suspensions And Referrals To Law Enforcement Of African American Students Pre And Post Restorative Justice, Adrienne Brown

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the number of suspensions and referrals to law enforcement from traditional consequences administered to students in a large urban school district in southeastern United States for the school year 2013 to 2014 to the number of suspensions and referrals to law enforcement from consequences rendered after the implementation of restorative justice practices in the 2015 to 2016 school year, as reported to the Civil Rights Office of Data Collection (CRDC, 2016). There was statistical evidence that schools had policies and/or practices in place that had a discriminatory bias towards racial groups ...


Gamification: Badges And Feedback, Brian Macon May 2019

Gamification: Badges And Feedback, Brian Macon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gamification, the implementation of game elements in a non-game context, is a rapidly growing field of research. One element of gamification that has experienced a rapid growth in popularity is the use of digital badges. Despite widespread adoption in educational settings, there are still gaps in the understanding of their effects on motivation, engagement, learning, and other factors. Furthermore, feedback delivered through badges can include a symbolic reward for successful completion of a task, providing a credential for gaining a skill, or acknowledging mastery of a particular piece of knowledge. This study implemented digital badges in online courses at a ...


Moving Towards A Dialogic Pedagogy: Using Video Feedback As A Teaching Tool To Respond To Writing Across Disciplines, Paul Martin May 2019

Moving Towards A Dialogic Pedagogy: Using Video Feedback As A Teaching Tool To Respond To Writing Across Disciplines, Paul Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the impact of video feedback (VF) as a teaching tool for responding to writing activities and assignments across disciplines and whether or not VF can help instructors facilitate dialogic exchanges between students and teachers. I conducted three case studies with three different instructors from three different disciplines: psychology, history, and nanoscience. To determine the potential of video feedback to facilitate dialogic pedagogies, this dissertation examined the presence of transformational leadership theory (Parkin, 2017), the voices of teaching and learning (Collison et al., 2001), and gesture theory (Bavelas et al., 2014; Peräkylä & Ruusuvuori, 2008) for the paralinguistic activity ...


The Mathematics Achievement Gap In Virtual Education, Sara Glover May 2019

The Mathematics Achievement Gap In Virtual Education, Sara Glover

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of online Algebra I teachers as they relate to the instruction of minority students. There is an academic achievement gap that exists between minority students and their non-minority peers in United States public education (Sousa & Armor, 2016). Although national educational policy has sought to narrow the academic achievement gap, it is persistent and must be addressed because public education affects the future of our nation (Fullan & Quinn, 2016). Virtual education is a growing platform for learning, with nearly 300,000 students enrolled across the United States. Achievement data demonstrates the existence of an academic achievement gap in this learning environment as well (Miron, Shank, & Davidson, 2018). Yet, there is not a great deal of high-quality research surrounding aspects of virtual education (Molnar et al., 2017). A phenomenological research method was used to examine the lived experiences of Algebra I teachers in a virtual learning environment. Interviews were conducted with five participants (N = 5). Data analysis resulted in eight overarching themes and twenty-seven tertiary themes. The major themes include: (a) teachers believe that student characteristics are a primary determinant of their success in virtual education; (b) teachers believe they have a strong impact upon student success in a virtual learning environment; (c) teachers believe Algebra I is a challenging content area for student achievement; (d) teachers believe family involvement impacts student learning in virtual education; (e) teachers believe frequent and consistent communication is vital in virtual education; (f) teachers believe there are challenges ...


Faculty Perceptions And Use Of Web 2.0 Tools In Saudi Arabian Higher Education, May Alashwal May 2019

Faculty Perceptions And Use Of Web 2.0 Tools In Saudi Arabian Higher Education, May Alashwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated factors that predict Saudi Arabian faculty members' intentions to adopt and use Web 2.0 tools and to assess faculty's awareness of the educational benefits of Web 2.0 tools to supplement classroom instructions in higher education. One hundred and three faculty members (34 male and 69 female) from a large university in the Western region of Saudi Arabia participated in the web survey. The framework and model for explaining and predicting the contributing factors towards the decision to adopt and use of Web 2.0 tools was the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (DTPB). The ...


The Impact Of The Community Partnership Schools Model Community School On Graduation And Attendance Rates In One Florida High School., Amy Ellis May 2019

The Impact Of The Community Partnership Schools Model Community School On Graduation And Attendance Rates In One Florida High School., Amy Ellis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify and describe the nature and extent of the relationships, if any, that existed between a Community Partnership Schools™ (CPS) model community school and the outcomes of graduation and attendance rates at one public high school in Florida. An evaluation study utilizing an interrupted time series (ITS) design addressed this problem by identifying and describing the relationship between the CPS model and the key outcome measures using visual analysis and descriptive statistics. Graduation and attendance rates for seven years before the CPS model was introduced (2003-2010) and seven years after the CPS ...


A Phenomenological Study Of High School Assistant Principals Who Supervise Special Education, Erin Vacchio Jan 2019

A Phenomenological Study Of High School Assistant Principals Who Supervise Special Education, Erin Vacchio

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of high school assistant principals who lead the Exceptional Student Education (ESE) departments at their respective schools. The role of the school leader is critical and complex. Second to only the classroom teachers, school leaders have the ability to shape the school wide attitude and vision for students with disabilities. Knowing that in the past 30 years, the number of students with disabilities has nearly doubled in size, the expertise of school leaders in special education must also increase. Research on the experiences of high school administrators who serve students with intellectual disabilities ...


An Ethnographic Study Examining The Effect Of Teachers' Socio-Political Bias On Latinx Students And School Culture, Jessica Mcmaster Jan 2019

An Ethnographic Study Examining The Effect Of Teachers' Socio-Political Bias On Latinx Students And School Culture, Jessica Mcmaster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Academics such as Geneva Gay, Christine Sleeter, Samy Alim, and Django Paris have conducted research that illustrates the importance of educators being not only aware of the culture of their students but implementing curriculum that supports the diverse cultures of their students. A common finding among this research is that a culturally sustaining pedagogy is essential to the inclusion of all students in the classroom and the level of academic success they have in schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of teacher beliefs on the academic performance of Latinx students and on the culture and atmosphere of the ...


The Life Experiences Of Women With An Intellectual Disability Who Were Sexually Assaulted, Jillian Schreffler Jan 2019

The Life Experiences Of Women With An Intellectual Disability Who Were Sexually Assaulted, Jillian Schreffler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The views of those with an intellectual disability (ID) on sexuality is not a topic many are willing to broach. Many challenges exist for those identified with ID when it comes to sexual education, including a lack of appropriate curricula; a lack of trained school personnel; the inability of school, state, and national stakeholders to agree on policy or curriculum content; and the generalizability of the content. These challenges are heightened by an increase in sexual assault of women with ID. To improve sexual assault prevention skills, the researcher conducted a phenomenological study to identify the current status of sexual ...


The Stories Of Transition: A Qualitative Exploration Of International Undegraduate Students' Academic Experiences In First-Year Seminar Courses In The United States, Masa Krsmanovic Jan 2019

The Stories Of Transition: A Qualitative Exploration Of International Undegraduate Students' Academic Experiences In First-Year Seminar Courses In The United States, Masa Krsmanovic

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore how international undergraduate students enrolled in a first-year seminar (FYS) course perceived and described their academic experiences in a large, public university in the southeastern region of the United States. Guided by Schlossberg's (1984) 4 S Transition Model, this qualitative investigation was conducted through in-depth interviews with 10 international undergraduate students representing different countries and academic majors. The participants' narratives revealed that the academic experiences of international first-year students enrolled in the FYS course can be described as challenging, especially in terms of a) understanding U.S. higher education, b ...


A Mixed-Method Examination Of The Impact Of Academic, Social, And Personal-Emotional Adjustment On The English Performance Of Arabian Gulf Students Studying In American Intensive English Programs, Mais Flaieh Hasan Al Jabbawi Jan 2019

A Mixed-Method Examination Of The Impact Of Academic, Social, And Personal-Emotional Adjustment On The English Performance Of Arabian Gulf Students Studying In American Intensive English Programs, Mais Flaieh Hasan Al Jabbawi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The current study identifies and discusses the adjustment challenges facing Arabian Gulf Students (AGSs) that may affect their English performance (EP) in intensive English programs (IEPs) in the United States. The current study uses student departure theory to lead the theoretical framework and incorporates Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) and Social Integration Questionnaire (SIQ) to lead the methodology of this study. The mixed-method investigation with multi-location sampling examined 160 AGSs, enrolled full-time in different IEPs in the U.S. during the spring semester of 2019. The AGSs participants were from Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, the United Arab ...


A Comparison Of Sixth-Grade English Language Arts And Mathematics Achievement Between Middle Schools And K-8 Schools, Brennan Asplen Jan 2019

A Comparison Of Sixth-Grade English Language Arts And Mathematics Achievement Between Middle Schools And K-8 Schools, Brennan Asplen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the academic achievement of sixth grade students enrolled in a traditional middle school model versus those enrolled in a K-8 school model by analyzing English Language Arts (ELA) and mathematics scores. Developmental Scale Score (DSS) data from the 2017 Florida Standards Assessment (FSA) were collected from three K-8 schools and three middle schools in one high-performing Florida school district. Results from an independent samples t-test revealed that middle school student scores were slightly higher in overall ELA and mathematics proficiency, but the differences were not substantive. Cross-tabulation was utilized to compute the ...


Preservice Teachers And Perceived Stress: A Comparative Study, Kelsey Evans Jan 2019

Preservice Teachers And Perceived Stress: A Comparative Study, Kelsey Evans

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers are being pushed to the brink of burnout and leaving the profession, placing teachers' health and wellness in jeopardy (Daniels & Strauss, 2009; Maslach & Leiter, 2008; Stephenson, 2012; Vladut & Kallay, 2010; Wilkerson, 2009). Yet, it has become increasingly clear teacher stress may start prior to entering the profession (Brown & Ryan, 2003, Darling-Hammond, 2006). The researcher used a non-experimental design to evaluate the perceived stress among pre-service teachers enrolled in internship, and if the coping style of mindfulness had any correlation on self-reported stress levels. The quantitative study surveyed 332 student interns using the Perceived Stress Survey (Cohen & Williams, 1988) to depict perceived stress levels of pre-service ...


A Narrative Research Study Of Self-Selected Tracking On Motivation In 10th Grade English Language Arts Classes, Audra Greuel Jan 2019

A Narrative Research Study Of Self-Selected Tracking On Motivation In 10th Grade English Language Arts Classes, Audra Greuel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The practice of tracking has had longstanding negative impacts on students, especially students in lower academic tracks. This research suggests that tracking develops the themes of a narrative of deficit through inequality and exclusion and impedes student motivation due to the negative implications. A common finding of outside research studies was that of disapproval for the current school organizational structure of tracking due to the negative consequences on students. Furthermore, several research studies developed an outline of positive ways to advocate for a unifying system of educational change. Educational leaders should heed the suggestions of researchers to promote changes within ...


Using Argument As A Bridge Between Literacy And Science: An Intervention Study In A Science Methods Course For Elementary Preservice Teachers, Rebeca Grysko Jan 2019

Using Argument As A Bridge Between Literacy And Science: An Intervention Study In A Science Methods Course For Elementary Preservice Teachers, Rebeca Grysko

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an intervention on teaching science as argument within a science methods course on elementary preservice teachers' (PSTs') (a) understandings of the nature of science (NOS), (b) knowledge about argumentation, (c) complexity of their written explanations, and (d) ability to incorporate components of the framework for teaching science as argument to support students' literacy and science learning. This mixed-methods study utilized an embedded quasi-experimental design with a treatment (n = 20) and control group (n = 25). The treatment group instructor, who completed an eight-week professional development course, implemented the intervention protocol ...


How Do After-School Staff Use Social Networks To Support At-Risk Youth? A Social Capital Analysis, Katherine Philp Jan 2019

How Do After-School Staff Use Social Networks To Support At-Risk Youth? A Social Capital Analysis, Katherine Philp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Little is known about the social capital of adults in after-school settings or the ways in which they use social contacts to support youth success, particularly for at-risk youth. Their effectiveness as brokers for learning opportunities may depend on aspects of their social capital: both the quantity and quality of their social networks as well as their attitudes and beliefs related to seeking help from social contacts. This mixed-methods study surveyed 50 after-school program staff serving teens in high-poverty neighborhoods to examine the characteristics of adult social capital and to explore attitudes towards mobilizing social resources to support youth. Surveys ...


Cultural Responsiveness And K-12 English Learners: Exploring Policy And Implementation Fidelity, Lauren Raubaugh Jan 2019

Cultural Responsiveness And K-12 English Learners: Exploring Policy And Implementation Fidelity, Lauren Raubaugh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This critical policy analysis and collective case study, informed by ethnographic techniques, involved reviews of twelve Florida school district ESOL policies (included within the 2016-2019 District English Language Learner Plans, required of all Florida districts to complete) whose English learner (EL) populations met or exceeded ten percent (10%) of their total enrollment. A priori coding of these policy documents was conducted using nine criteria pulled from the literature on culturally responsive practice (CRP), which served as the theoretical framework for the study. Subsequent observations and practitioner interviews within two schools from the same district were conducted in order to ascertain ...


An Investigation Of The Appropriateness Of The English Language Learner Accountability Mark Established By The Every Student Succeeds Act Of 2015, Francisco Rivera Jan 2019

An Investigation Of The Appropriateness Of The English Language Learner Accountability Mark Established By The Every Student Succeeds Act Of 2015, Francisco Rivera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study sought to disclose and describe differences in academic performance between English language learners (ELLs) and non-English language learners (non-ELLs) in grades sixth, seventh, and eighth during the two-year period of 2016 – 2018. A two-year period was utilized because of the two-year ELL accountability mark established by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015. The study used i-Ready diagnostic data, in both mathematics and reading, as the performance measures, and used ACCESS for ELLs (WIDA) tier scores (i.e., WIDA Tier A, WIDA Tier B, and WIDA Tier C) to identify the level of English language acquisition ...


Digital Education: The Impact Of Change, Acceleration, And Student Achievement Improvement, Sarah Walsh Jan 2019

Digital Education: The Impact Of Change, Acceleration, And Student Achievement Improvement, Sarah Walsh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The aim is to understand if the implementation plan in place by the public school system is exceeding the expectations of the stakeholders or if it is falling below what is expected. This quantitative research examines the English Language Arts (ELA), Florida Standard Assessment (FSA) scores for the state of Florida with a closer inspection of Orange County Public Schools (OCPS) with relation to their digital implementation plan. With an increase in digital technology and amplified emphasis on technology-based learning, the objective of this research was to determine what impact students and schools are experiencing in regards to test scores ...


Kindergarten Is Not Child's Play: An Exploration Of Pedagogical Approaches Related To Learning In A Play-Based And A Contemporary Classroom At A Title I Elementary School, Karyn Allee-Herndon Jan 2019

Kindergarten Is Not Child's Play: An Exploration Of Pedagogical Approaches Related To Learning In A Play-Based And A Contemporary Classroom At A Title I Elementary School, Karyn Allee-Herndon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is divided into three separate, related, naturalistic, quasi-experimental research studies, all using data from two kindergarten classes at Gator Elementary, a public Title I elementary school in Sunshine District in Central Florida. Each of these studies tested hypotheses that kindergarten children, especially those from low socioeconomic backgrounds, will show greater gains in receptive vocabulary, executive function, and academic achievement when purposeful play is used as a pedagogical approach than similar children in typical, contemporary kindergarten classrooms. The first study explored the effects of play-based and contemporary pedagogical approaches on students' receptive vocabulary using the PPVT-4, the second explored ...


An Examination Of A College And Career Preparation Program For Low Socioeconomic And First-Generation Students In An Urban School District, Lucille Gillam Jan 2019

An Examination Of A College And Career Preparation Program For Low Socioeconomic And First-Generation Students In An Urban School District, Lucille Gillam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if the college and career program, in one urban high school setting, was being implemented as intended by the school district. A mixed methods analysis was conducted using student PSAT/SAT scores, interviews, surveys, focus groups, classroom observations and anecdotal notes from the program director. The results were coded to show emerging trends and themes. The results of the analysis showed that portions of the program were being conducted as designed by the school district; however, of the four criteria required to be invited to bet admitted into the program, one was ...


Health Literacy Intervention To Influence Choices Made By Students In A Title I School Who Receive Free Lunch, Melissa Kent Jan 2019

Health Literacy Intervention To Influence Choices Made By Students In A Title I School Who Receive Free Lunch, Melissa Kent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to influence choices made by Kindergarten students in a Title I school who receive free breakfast and lunch through a health literacy intervention with the intent of decreasing daily added sugar consumption. Fruit and milk choices, either with naturally occurring sugar (NOS) or added sugar (AS), were recorded for 70 Kindergarten students among six classes in a Title I school for ten days before a four-week health literacy intervention. Three of the classes were randomly selected to learn about 'sometimes' and 'anytime' choices through the Healthy Habits for Life curriculum delivered by representatives from Nemours Children's ...


Selecting Methods To Teach Controversial Topics: A Grounded Theory Study, Sean Loomis Jan 2019

Selecting Methods To Teach Controversial Topics: A Grounded Theory Study, Sean Loomis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This grounded theory study examined the perceptions of 14 high school social studies teachers from three school districts in the Central Florida area. They were interviewed to uncover the decision-making process that high school social studies teachers use to choose methodologies when teaching controversial public issues (CPIs). The result was a three-phase model, the CPI Decision-Making Model, in which teachers move through three conceptual phases to decide on a particular methodology. By working through this process, teachers analyze the benefits and drawbacks of different methods for teaching controversial public issues. Significant results from this study included: (a) teachers were choosing ...


Use Of Video-Enhanced Debriefing In Clinical Nursing Skill Acquisition: Indwelling Urinary Catheterization As An Exemplar, Erica Hoyt Jan 2019

Use Of Video-Enhanced Debriefing In Clinical Nursing Skill Acquisition: Indwelling Urinary Catheterization As An Exemplar, Erica Hoyt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nursing students struggle to acquire and maintain clinical psychomotor skills. Hiring agencies bear the cost of retraining graduate nurses inept with skills learned early in their nursing curriculum. Improperly performed clinical skills pose a risk to patient safety, resulting in pain and suffering for the patient. This empirical study aimed to determine if video-enhanced debriefing (VED) improved initial skill validation scores, skill feedback, satisfaction with learning, and reduced skill decay among first-semester, pre-licensure BSN students performing female indwelling urinary catheterization (IUC) in a simulated clinical setting compared to no debriefing. Participants received standard instruction, then video-recorded their IUC skill. Participants ...


An Analysis Of The Relationships Between Homework Frequency And Homework Grading Procedures Of Algebra 1 Teachers On Student Outcomes As Measured On The Algebra 1 End-Of-Course Examination, Jonathan Taylor Jan 2019

An Analysis Of The Relationships Between Homework Frequency And Homework Grading Procedures Of Algebra 1 Teachers On Student Outcomes As Measured On The Algebra 1 End-Of-Course Examination, Jonathan Taylor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship, if any, between homework practices of Algebra 1 teachers and student outcomes as measured by the state of Florida's Algebra 1 End of Course assessment (EOC). Algebra 1 EOC scores were collected from the study district's central office. Data on teacher homework practices was collected through a researcher-created survey. Cross-tabulation tables were used to identify variations in homework assignment, homework frequency, homework type, and homework grading practice associated with school (middle or high) and teacher (educational attainment and experience teaching Algebra 1) characteristics. A two-way ANOVA was used ...


Defining Effective Teacher Practices Among Students With Emotional Behavioral Disabilities, Zerek Mayes Jan 2019

Defining Effective Teacher Practices Among Students With Emotional Behavioral Disabilities, Zerek Mayes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of special education teachers who worked with students with emotional behavioral disabilities (EBD) across various urban settings and educative environments. Given that the overall percentage of students receiving special education services has increased, the overall percentage of students with EBD served among all school-aged children and youth has remained below 1% (U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2018). The current failings of reform efforts to improve the academic achievement of students with EBD brings the roles, responsibilities and practices of teachers and their preparation into view. This study examined ...


A Trauma-Informed School-Based Mental Health Counseling Intervention To Promote The Social-Emotional And Academic Functionality Of Children Living In Poverty, Mary Perleoni Jan 2019

A Trauma-Informed School-Based Mental Health Counseling Intervention To Promote The Social-Emotional And Academic Functionality Of Children Living In Poverty, Mary Perleoni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a trauma-informed school-based mental health counseling intervention (TI-SBMHCI) on students enrolled in three Title I elementary schools. This study aimed to examine the impact of a TI-SBMHCI on participants' social-emotional functionality, trauma symptomology, and academic behavior. Counselors-in-training provided a 10-week TI-SBMHCI based off of Bath's (2008) The three Pillars of Trauma-informed Care and data was collected at pretest (first session), mid (fifth session), and posttest (tenth session). In addition, this investigation examined if participants showed greater improvement in academic behavior in comparison to students who did not receive ...


Electing Or Appointing School District Superintendents In The State Of Florida: A Comparison Of Characteristics And Performance Of Districts Led By Elected Superintendents Versus Districts Led By Appointed Superintendents, Timothy Smith Jan 2019

Electing Or Appointing School District Superintendents In The State Of Florida: A Comparison Of Characteristics And Performance Of Districts Led By Elected Superintendents Versus Districts Led By Appointed Superintendents, Timothy Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Florida and Alabama are the only two states in the United States of America with school districts led by either elected superintendents or appointed superintendents. The other 48 states only have appointed superintendent-led school districts. The current study was conducted to examine the impact of the superintendent governance structure on student learning by analyzing differences in student achievement between Florida school districts led by elected superintendents and Florida school districts led by appointed superintendents. The conceptual framework of the study was the tension between democratic localism and professionalism. Dynamics associated with the conceptual framework are relevant to the current debate ...