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2019 Icrcc Proceedings Table Of Contents, Conference Organizers Jan 2019

2019 Icrcc Proceedings Table Of Contents, Conference Organizers

International Crisis and Risk Communication Conference

These proceedings are a representative sample of the presentations given by professional practitioners and academic scholars at the 2019 International Crisis and Risk Communication Conference (ICRCC) held March 11-13, 2019. The ICRCC is an annual event that takes place the second week in March in beautiful sunny Orlando, Florida. The conference hosts are faculty and staff from the Nicholson School of Communication. The goal of the ICRCC is to bring together prominent professional practitioners and academic scholars that work directly with crisis and risk communication on a daily basis. We define crisis and risk broadly to include, for example, natural ...


Undergraduate Student Research Practices At Fgcu, Examples From Various Disciplines, Hulya Julie Yazici, Peter Reuter Oct 2017

Undergraduate Student Research Practices At Fgcu, Examples From Various Disciplines, Hulya Julie Yazici, Peter Reuter

Florida Statewide Symposium: Best Practices in Undergraduate Research

The purpose of this presentation is to show examples of undergraduate student involvement with research/scholarship, either via course-embedded research practices, or research activities outside the classroom. Examples from health profession, business, STEM disciplines, and humanities will demonstrate how research is implemented and which outcomes for students have been achieved. The presenters will share the challenges and opportunities faced, and probe the audience for their experiences and future directions.


Mentoring Undergraduate Research In Education And Business: Transformation In Global And Local Communities, Hulya Julie Yazici, Tunde Szecsi Oct 2016

Mentoring Undergraduate Research In Education And Business: Transformation In Global And Local Communities, Hulya Julie Yazici, Tunde Szecsi

Florida Statewide Symposium: Best Practices in Undergraduate Research

The purpose of this presentation is to highlight avenues toward undergraduate scholarship in education and business. The common theme of these initiatives is the transformative learning which students experienced in local and global communities. In education, the examples include a course-embedded action research with community service, and autoethnography in which students analyzed their experiences abroad to uncover the process of transformation. In business, students worked on a semester long project in quality management collaborating with a local health equipment manufacturer. The systematic guidance of the business and continuous feedback of the instruction, resulted in full transformation of student learning.


Making Scholarly Activity Available To The Masses: The Scaffolding Of Scholarship Throughout The Undergraduate Curriculum, Michael Savarese, Trent R. Brown, Carolyn Culbertson, Anna Carlin Oct 2016

Making Scholarly Activity Available To The Masses: The Scaffolding Of Scholarship Throughout The Undergraduate Curriculum, Michael Savarese, Trent R. Brown, Carolyn Culbertson, Anna Carlin

Florida Statewide Symposium: Best Practices in Undergraduate Research

Florida Gulf Coast University’s Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) focuses on improving student critical thinking, information literacy, and written communication. Rather than developing these skills through traditional methods (e.g., through senior-level, independent research), these learning outcomes are practiced through scholarly experiences. Traditional undergraduate scholarship manifests itself through terminal, senior capstone or research experiences. These, because of the economy of scale, typically reach a minority of students, often just honors students or those approached by faculty mentors. At FGCU, however, scholarly experiences are a part of the curriculum throughout the program of study, and scaffolded to build greater depth and ...


Building A Pathway To Engineering For Our Daughters – Brick By Brick, Ali P. Gordon Aug 2016

Building A Pathway To Engineering For Our Daughters – Brick By Brick, Ali P. Gordon

UCF Forum

As a father of young elementary and middle school-aged kids, I’m also curious to know exactly how my undergrad students came to be interested in mechanical engineering. An exchange with a UCF student might go like this: “You did a great job on the exam. Congrats! By the way, how did you get interested in mechanical engineering, anyway?” I mentally log the answers for my kids’ future benefit.


Fgcuscholars: Using Undergraduate Research As A Tool To Enhance Student Writing, Critical Thinking, And Information Literacy, Mary Crone-Romanovski, Hulya Julie Yazici, Rita Rubin, Charles W. Gunnels Oct 2015

Fgcuscholars: Using Undergraduate Research As A Tool To Enhance Student Writing, Critical Thinking, And Information Literacy, Mary Crone-Romanovski, Hulya Julie Yazici, Rita Rubin, Charles W. Gunnels

Florida Statewide Symposium: Best Practices in Undergraduate Research

This presentation will overview FGCUScholars, a university-wide program at Florida Gulf Coast University that integrates undergraduate research across the university as a means of teaching and assessing writing, critical thinking, and information literacy. We will overview the development and learning outcomes of FGCUScholars and the implementation across the campus, highlighting examples of curricular changes in engineering that engage students throughout their career at FGCU, the role of problem/project-based learning (PBL) in business classes, the development of research assignments that use digital media in literature courses, and the creation of disciplinary-specific sections of Composition II.


Conditions Associated With Increased Risk Of Fraud: A Model For Publicly Traded Restaurant Companies, Elizabeth Yost Jan 2015

Conditions Associated With Increased Risk Of Fraud: A Model For Publicly Traded Restaurant Companies, Elizabeth Yost

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The central focus of this dissertation study is to understand the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the factors that contribute to increased risk of fraud in order to determine why fraud may occur despite the imposed regulation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The main premise of the study tests the application of the fraud triangle framework constructs to publicly traded restaurant companies during the time period of 2002-2014, using proxy variables defined through literature. Essentially, the study seeks to identify the factors that may provide the optimal criteria to engage in fraudulent or opportunistic behavior. The fraud triangle theoretical framework ...


Lessons Learned From Archery: How To Focus And Hit The Bull’S-Eye In Life, Bob Porter Feb 2014

Lessons Learned From Archery: How To Focus And Hit The Bull’S-Eye In Life, Bob Porter

UCF Forum

My grandfather started teaching me how to use a bow and arrow when I was about 6 years old. He taught me using a longbow made out of yew, which is a very specific type of wood used to make these bows.


Antecedents And Consequences Of Customer Experience In Beverage Establishments, Milos Bujisic Jan 2014

Antecedents And Consequences Of Customer Experience In Beverage Establishments, Milos Bujisic

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is estimated that there are approximately 42,000 beverage establishments in the U.S. whose annual revenue surpasses $20 billion (First Research, 2014). To facilitate discussion of beverage establishments, it is essential to recognize beverage establishments as businesses whose majority of sales come from alcoholic drinks (Moss, 2010a). In this research, beverage establishments are divided into beverage-only bars, bar/entertainment combinations, and food and beverage combinations. Even though they are a well-established industry, beverage establishments have received little academic attention (Moss, 2010b). For example, previous studies have given little attention to the development of the model that examines the ...


Website Interactivity As A Branding Tool For Hotel Websites, Albert Barred Davila Jan 2014

Website Interactivity As A Branding Tool For Hotel Websites, Albert Barred Davila

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation explored the relationships among Website interactivity, brand knowledge, consumer-based brand equity and behavioral intentions in the context of hotel Websites. Based on an in-depth literature review, a theory-driven model was proposed and ten hypotheses were developed. The dissertation employed an empirical study based on a survey design, and collected data via a marketing company. Respondents who booked a hotel room online using hotel branded Websites in the last 12 months were approached to complete the online questionnaire. Four hundred ninety six (496) respondents completed the online questionnaire by answering to questions related to their last hotel booking experience ...


Managerial Process Of Discount Decision-Making In The Lodging Industry: The Role Of Human Agency, Seung Hyun Lee Jan 2014

Managerial Process Of Discount Decision-Making In The Lodging Industry: The Role Of Human Agency, Seung Hyun Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Management faces a paradox in managing discrepancies between actual demand and expected demand in daily operations, thereby requiring constant adjustments in pricing under the supervision of management in the short term. The purpose of this study is to determine how discount choices are created and to understand information processing related to the pricing and discounting decision-making process as well as narrating the events, stages, and cycles of choices made by hotel managers. This study also determines the role of human judgment based on contextual factors in the decision-making process. This mixed methods research design consists of three steps: observation, classification ...


'To Change Is To Learn And To Learn Is To Change', Bob Porter Dec 2013

'To Change Is To Learn And To Learn Is To Change', Bob Porter

UCF Forum

“To change is to learn and to learn is to change.” That was often the advice given to me by my mentor in life, Lew Treen, a war veteran, semi-pro baseball player, high school principal and coach.


The Economic Footprint Of The Rosen College Of Hospitality Management In The Metro Orlando Area, Robertico R. Croes, Tadayuki Hara Nov 2013

The Economic Footprint Of The Rosen College Of Hospitality Management In The Metro Orlando Area, Robertico R. Croes, Tadayuki Hara

Dick Pope Sr. Institute Publications

The report documents the economic value of the Rosen College of Hospitality Management (RCHM) to the Metro Orlando area. The purpose of estimating the economic value of the program is to calculate the increased economic activities in the Metro Orlando area as generated by college degree attainment through the RCHM. The report is the result of an assignment commissioned by the Dean of the RCHM. The report assessed the economic impact of the alumni of the College during the period from 2000 to 2012. In that period, more than 5,000 students earned a degree either at the undergraduate or ...


Run Toward Your Next Job, Not Away From Current One, Bob Porter Oct 2013

Run Toward Your Next Job, Not Away From Current One, Bob Porter

UCF Forum

If you are considering a job change or are looking for your first job, how do you know what direction to take?


Finding The Sweet Spot In Your Life Can Be More Than Just A Dream, Bob Porter Jul 2013

Finding The Sweet Spot In Your Life Can Be More Than Just A Dream, Bob Porter

UCF Forum

When I was a small child, I had a recurring dream that I ran and jumped out of my second-story bedroom window and began to fly. I would fly around the neighborhood to see my friends and help people, and I had a lot of fun doing it. I can’t exactly recall how I learned to fly, but it was instinctive, and I just inherently knew it was a gift. I can still remember how my stomach would get jittery in the moments right before I took the jump in order to fly.


An Exploratory Study Of Customer Vulnerability: A Cross-Segment Approach, Taryn Aiello Jan 2013

An Exploratory Study Of Customer Vulnerability: A Cross-Segment Approach, Taryn Aiello

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of customer vulnerability across varying service industries. While the concept of customer vulnerability has been debated in business, marketing, sociology, and psychology scholarly literature, there has been little research conducted that specifically investigates consumers’ perceptions of vulnerability during the service exchange. Specific to this research, customer vulnerability is defined as experiences in which consumers participate in a service exchange with a firm during a time of individual or shared medical, physical, emotional, or spiritual necessity, whether the vulnerability is experienced during the course of the transaction or whether consumers arrive ...


Consumer Engagement In Travel-Related Social Media, Xu Li Jan 2013

Consumer Engagement In Travel-Related Social Media, Xu Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The term of "consumer engagement" is extensively used in the digital era. It is believed that engaged consumers play an important role in products/services referral and recommendation, new product/service development and experience/value co-creation. Although the notion of consumer engagement sounds compelling, it is not fully developed in theory. Different interpretations coexist, resulting in confusion and misuse of the concept. This study attempts to define consumer engagement and develop a conceptual framework of consumer engagement, addressing antecedents of consumer engagement in online context. Moreover, some situational and social media usage-related factors are incorporated into the framework. A set ...


The Development Of An Eco-Gastronomic Tourism (Egt) Supply Chain-Analyzing Linkages Between Farmer, Restaurants, And Tourists In Aruba., Marcelino Kock Jan 2013

The Development Of An Eco-Gastronomic Tourism (Egt) Supply Chain-Analyzing Linkages Between Farmer, Restaurants, And Tourists In Aruba., Marcelino Kock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose of this study is to holistically analyze existing linkages between Aruba’s tourism industry, restaurants and local farmers, by examining strategies that constrain the development of linkages between these stakeholders. Previous research indicated that tourism development is often accompanied with increased demand for imported food, which results in foreign exchange leakages, inflation and competition with local production. This phenomenon is very common in the Caribbean, where Aruba, with its heavy reliance on imported goods and services, is no exception to this occurrence. To comprehend potential problems associated with linking both sectors, these in-depth case study addresses three fundamental questions ...


A Sustainability "Green" Certification Audit Of Food Service Operations And The Development Of A Restaurant Sustainability Instrument, Hans Hagglund Jan 2013

A Sustainability "Green" Certification Audit Of Food Service Operations And The Development Of A Restaurant Sustainability Instrument, Hans Hagglund

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates current green restaurant certifications as well as developing a new more user certification. First, a fact finding investigation to find the most established and commonly utilized green restaurant certifications were compared. Second, a new green certification was developed. Third, chosen green restaurant certifications were compared. Lastly, the new green certification analyzed whether restaurants in the central Florida area utilized green practices. Data were collected in face to face sessions with restaurant managers during nonpeak hours of operation. There were numerous surveys utilized in this research study. The statistical methodology utilized in this study was average means and ...


“Don't Call Me A Student-Athlete”: The Effect Of Identity Priming On Stereotype Threat For Academically Engaged African American College Athletes, Keith Harrison Jan 2012

“Don't Call Me A Student-Athlete”: The Effect Of Identity Priming On Stereotype Threat For Academically Engaged African American College Athletes, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

Academically engaged African American college athletes are most susceptible to stereotype threat in the classroom when the context links their unique status as both scholar and athlete. After completing a measure of academic engagement, African American and White college athletes completed a test of verbal reasoning. To vary stereotype threat, they first indicated their status as a scholar-athlete, an athlete, or as a research participant on the cover page. Compared to the other groups, academically engaged African American college athletes performed poorly on the difficult test items when primed for their athletic identity, but they performed worse on both the ...


The Influence Of An Annual Meeting On The Sense Of Community Of Association Members, Their Satisfaction, And Future Intentions, Jee Yeon Hahm Jan 2012

The Influence Of An Annual Meeting On The Sense Of Community Of Association Members, Their Satisfaction, And Future Intentions, Jee Yeon Hahm

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, many studies have provided some understanding on what influences association members‟ decision to attend a meeting; however, more systematic and theoretical research is necessary. The decision making process of attendees is a complicated human behavior practice. The major contribution of this study is adopting the sense of community (SOC) model from psychology to gain a better understanding of the attendee behavior. By doing so, this study will add a theoretical foundation to the existing research in the meeting industry. Also, this study will contribute to the SOC research in psychology by applying the concept to a ...


The Role Of Flow In Creating E-Loyalty: The Case Of Online Hotel Booking Websites, Anil Bilgihan Jan 2012

The Role Of Flow In Creating E-Loyalty: The Case Of Online Hotel Booking Websites, Anil Bilgihan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation aims to examine the concept of ―online customer experience‖, ―flow‖, and its role in influencing online customers‘ loyalty to a hotel booking website. To achieve this aim, a model was developed, which proposed that online flow is generated by both hedonic and utilitarian website features. A model was developed based on literature review to measure the relationships between the constructs. To initiate this research, a survey approach was taken. After conducting a pilot study, a marketing company was contacted to distribute the link for the online questionnaire. Five hundred and eleven (511) questionnaires were completed by guests who ...


The Relationship Between Perceived Personal Fairness, Social Fairness, Hotel Cancellation Policies And Consumer Patronage, Scott J. Smith Jan 2012

The Relationship Between Perceived Personal Fairness, Social Fairness, Hotel Cancellation Policies And Consumer Patronage, Scott J. Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between the concepts of personal fairness and social fairness and hotel cancellation policies. These relationships will be explored using the framework of Prospect Theory in terms of consumer patronage (willingnessto-purchase and word-of-mouth). This study begins with a brief history of the development of the lodging industry in the United States from inns and taverns to the modern hotel industry that is a critical sector of the hospitality and tourism economy. Current statistics are provided regarding the U.S. and Central Florida hotel industry in order to provide both a national ...


Purposeful Engagement Of First-Year Division I Student-Athletes, Keith Harrison Jan 2011

Purposeful Engagement Of First-Year Division I Student-Athletes, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

This study examined the extent to which transitioning, first-year student-athletes engage in educationally sound activities in college. The sample included 147 revenue and nonrevenue first-year student-athletes who were surveyed at four large Division 1-A universities. Findings revealed that revenue and nonrevenue first-year student athletes differed regarding their academic and athletic identities. Transitioning revenue student-athletes rated themselves as having slightly higher athletic identities, yet lower academic identities compared to their nonrevenue counterparts. The findings from this study also indicated that the kinds of effective educational practices that first-year student-athletes engage in have a positive influence on their academic self-concept. These findings ...


The Synergies Between Tourism Expansion And Development An Analysis Of Economic Growth, Poverty And Human Development In Ecuador, Manuel Antonio Rivera Jan 2011

The Synergies Between Tourism Expansion And Development An Analysis Of Economic Growth, Poverty And Human Development In Ecuador, Manuel Antonio Rivera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation attempts to answer the question of what has been the effect of tourism expansion and development in Ecuador. We attempt to analyze, both theoretically and empirically, the relationship between tourism and development. There have been an enormous number of studies explaining how tourism can affect the various dimensions of development. However, no research has been undertaken to simultaneously empirically examine the impact that changes in tourism expansion has on poverty, human development, and economic growth. To this end, we propose a cointergation methodology with an error correction model to estimate the impact of tourism expansion on poverty, human ...


Customer Relationship Marketing By Destination Marketing Organizations Does It Lead To Favorable Behavioral Intentions To Meeting Planners?, Jumyong Lee Jan 2011

Customer Relationship Marketing By Destination Marketing Organizations Does It Lead To Favorable Behavioral Intentions To Meeting Planners?, Jumyong Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In convention market, one of the fastest growing sectors in hospitality industry, meeting planners play an important role to select a destination for their event. Therefore, a good relationship with them can be a competitive advantage for a convention destination considering a fierce competition among the destinations. The objective of this study is to develop an empirically valid relationship marketing (RM) model that would verify the antecedents, mediators, and consequence of the relationship between the destination marketing organization (DMO) and meeting planners. This study found three antecedents (i.e., customer orientation, familiarity, and reputation) of the RM mediating constructs that ...


Athletic Voices And Academic Victories: African American Male Student-Athlete Experiences In The Pac-Ten, Keith Harrison May 2010

Athletic Voices And Academic Victories: African American Male Student-Athlete Experiences In The Pac-Ten, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

The purpose of this study was to explore participants’ academic experiences and confidence about their academic achievement. Participants (N = 27) consisted of high-achieving African American male student—athletes from four academically rigorous American universities in the Pac-Ten conference. Most of the participants competed in revenue-generating sports and were interviewed to obtain a deeper understanding of their successful academic experiences. Utilizing a phenomenological approach four major themes emerged: “I Had to Prove I’m Worthy,” “I’m a Perceived Threat to Society,” “It’s About Time Management,” and “It’s About Pride and Hard Work.” Stereotype threat and stereotype reactance are ...


The Role Of Gender Identities And Stereotype Salience With The Academic Performance Of Male And Female College Athletes, Keith Harrison Feb 2009

The Role Of Gender Identities And Stereotype Salience With The Academic Performance Of Male And Female College Athletes, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

An experiment was conducted to examine factors that moderate the experience of academic identity threat among college athletes who represent a stigmatized group on most college campuses (Yopyk & Prentice, 2005). It was hypothesized that because they are more engaged in academics, female college athletes would be especially threatened by the prospect of confirming the “dumb-jock” stereotype. As predicted, female college athletes performed more poorly when their athletic and academic identities were explicitly linked, but only on moderately difficult test items. The results also revealed that male college athletes performed significantly better (see stereotype reactance and self-affirmation) on more difficult test ...


Stereotypes And Stigmas Of College Athletes In Tank Mcnamara's Cartoon Strip: Fact Or Fiction?, Keith Harrison Jan 2009

Stereotypes And Stigmas Of College Athletes In Tank Mcnamara's Cartoon Strip: Fact Or Fiction?, Keith Harrison

Dr. C. Keith Harrison

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student-athletes (N= 43) regarding stereotypical cartoons about athletes. A qualitative approach, which included a visual elicitation technique, was utilized by administering the Lifestyle Association & Representation of Athletes Scale (LARAS). The LARAS explored participants’ perceptions of the following six specific concepts: a) academic support issues; b) academic progress; c) coaches as educators; d) professional sport aspirations; e) media identities, advertising, and representation; and f) cultural issues and recruiting. Five major themes emerged from participants’ perceptions: Big Sport Business, Athletic Image, College Athlete Mindset, Realistic/False Representation, and Institutional Focus. Goffman’s (1959) theory of social stigma and Loury’s (2002) theory on racial ...


An Investigation Of Scholar-Baller And Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation And Athletic Identity, Janet Rasmussen Jan 2009

An Investigation Of Scholar-Baller And Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation And Athletic Identity, Janet Rasmussen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As less than 3 % of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance. One unique program, Scholar-Baller, utilizes popular culture within its curriculum to bridge the gap between academics and athletics. This dissertation examined the differences between Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I football student-athletes' motivation (academic, athletic, intrinsic) and athletic identity using expectancy-value theory and self-affirmation theory as its framework. In addition, the effect of race/ethnicity (African-American, White American and Other race/ethnicity) and Scholar-Baller participation on Division I football student-athletes' motivation (academic, athletic, intrinsic) and athletic identity was examined. Expectancy-value theory defines motivation as both the expectation of the student's belief about the final outcome of a task, and the values the student gives to the task. A student either has a positive, negative, or neutral expectation of the completed task's outcome (Williams, Anderson & Winett, 2005; Xiang, McBRide & Bruene, 2006). This framework allows for exploration of student athletes' academic expectations and values. Self-affirmation theory explains that when students focus on important identities and values, they can become less defensive towards threatening information. Therefore, when receiving negative academic feedback, student-athletes using self-affirmation techniques may be more confident, open-minded and receptive towards the threatening information. Three instruments were used to collect data. The Student-athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire SAMSAQ) was used to assess academic and athletic motivation, while the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was used to assess intrinsic motivation towards academics. Lastly, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) was used to investigate athletic identity. Four universities (two Scholar-Baller and two Non Scholar-Baller) were chosen for their similar academic and athletic performance. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences: Graduate Pack 16 for Windows, a Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) were run to determine if significant differences exist between the Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller football student-athletes' academic, athletic, intrinsic motivation and athletic identity. These tests revealed that Scholar-Baller football student-athletes had significantly lower academic and athletic motivation than Non Scholar-Baller football student-athletes. Having low academic expectations and little value for academics is consistent with student-athlete subculture. However, these findings were in contrast to what was expected. In addition, Scholar-Baller football student-athletes had significantly higher athletic identity than Non Scholar-Baller football student-athletes.This finding is also consistent with the literature on student-athletes. As student-athletes must be motivated athletically to perform at intercollegiate sports, it is not surprising to find high athletic identity among the Scholar-Baller football student-athletes. In fact, studies have suggested that high athletic identity correlates with high academic performance (Harrison, Stone, Shapiro, Yee, Boyd & Rullan, 2009; Sellers, Chavous & Brown, 2001). One Scholar-Baller university in this study reported higher grade point averages since the inception of the Scholar-Baller program (2.37 in Fall 2004 to 2.68 in Spring 2006). Scholar-Baller curriculum utilizes self-affirmation exercises to affirm student- athletes athletically and influence more acceptance of academic criticism. Scholar-Baller football student-athletes are more affirmed in their athletic role which may lead to academic success. This dissertation also investigated differences between Scholar-Baller ...