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Full-Text Articles in Education

Teaching And Assessing Engineering Design Thinking With Virtual Internships And Epistemic Network Analysis, Golnaz Arastoopour Irgens, David Williamson Shaffer, Zachari Swiecki, A. R. Ruis, Naomi C. Chesler Oct 2019

Teaching And Assessing Engineering Design Thinking With Virtual Internships And Epistemic Network Analysis, Golnaz Arastoopour Irgens, David Williamson Shaffer, Zachari Swiecki, A. R. Ruis, Naomi C. Chesler

Golnaz Arastoopour Irgens

An engineering workforce of sufficient size and quality is essential for addressing significant global challenges such as climate change, world hunger, and energy demand. Future generations of engineers will need to identify challenging issues and design innovative solutions. To prepare young people to solve big and increasingly global problems, researchers and educators need to understand how we can best educate young people to use engineering design thinking. In this paper, we explore virtual internships, online simulations of 21st-century engineering design practice, as one method for teaching engineering design thinking. To assess the engineering design thinking, we use epistemic network analysis ...


Faculty Development Considerations In Video-Based Lectures, Joyce Nutta, Melanie Gonzalez, Timothy Brown Oct 2019

Faculty Development Considerations In Video-Based Lectures, Joyce Nutta, Melanie Gonzalez, Timothy Brown

Melanie González

With the current trend of moving courses online, universities and colleges are seeking ways in which to provide authentic lectures online. One delivery method that has become popular is to use lecture capture systems (LCS). This presentation reports on an ongoing faculty development project at the University of Central Florida aimed to help faculty in all disciplines develop better video presence using LCS to inject a sense of connectivity between students and their instructor. An expert in broadcasting and an expert in instructional technology pedagogy collaborated to lead the faculty development sessions. As a follow-up, the facilitators also conducted several ...


Online Learning In Higher Education: Comparing Teacher And Learner Perspectives, Peter W. Kilgour, Maria T. Northcote Aug 2018

Online Learning In Higher Education: Comparing Teacher And Learner Perspectives, Peter W. Kilgour, Maria T. Northcote

Peter Kilgour

Higher education teachers’ and learners’ experiences of online teaching and online learning are tempered by their respective perceptions of their online educational environments. While much research has been undertaken in recent years to explore students’ or teachers’ perceptions of online education, less research has been conducted that investigates the perceptions of both groups in parallel contexts. Utilizing a mixed methods research approach, focus groups and questionnaires were administered to three cohorts of students and their teachers, across three institutions. Results are presented in terms of teachers’ and students’ perceptions of preferred online learning environments, including their most and least agreed ...


Online Learning In Higher Education: Comparing Teacher And Learner Perspectives, Peter W. Kilgour, Maria T. Northcote Aug 2018

Online Learning In Higher Education: Comparing Teacher And Learner Perspectives, Peter W. Kilgour, Maria T. Northcote

Maria Northcote

Higher education teachers’ and learners’ experiences of online teaching and online learning are tempered by their respective perceptions of their online educational environments. While much research has been undertaken in recent years to explore students’ or teachers’ perceptions of online education, less research has been conducted that investigates the perceptions of both groups in parallel contexts. Utilizing a mixed methods research approach, focus groups and questionnaires were administered to three cohorts of students and their teachers, across three institutions. Results are presented in terms of teachers’ and students’ perceptions of preferred online learning environments, including their most and least agreed ...


Exploring Online Interaction And Online Learner Participation In An Online Science Subject Through The Lens Of The Interaction Equivalence Theorem, Johanna Nieuwoudt Jun 2018

Exploring Online Interaction And Online Learner Participation In An Online Science Subject Through The Lens Of The Interaction Equivalence Theorem, Johanna Nieuwoudt

Dr Johanna E Nieuwoudt

While researchers agree that student participation is key to learning, it seems that the issue of interaction in online learning is not yet resolved. The current study investigated students’ online interaction and online learner participation in an online enabling science subject and compared this with their final grades. The data were analysed through the lens of Anderson’s (2003) interaction equivalence theorem. The findings from the current study provide support for the interaction equivalence theorem. Student-teacher interaction and student-content interaction were evident, but not student-student interaction. Significant relationships were found between student success and online learner participation, but not online ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Grades And Learning Mode In An English Composition Course, Debra T. Bourdeau, Kelly V. Griffith, John C. Griffith, John R. Griffith Dec 2017

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Grades And Learning Mode In An English Composition Course, Debra T. Bourdeau, Kelly V. Griffith, John C. Griffith, John R. Griffith

John Griffith

The education community has conducted studies on failure rates and withdrawal rates between
learning modalities in the past, but few studies have evaluated grade distribution between learning
modes or focused specifically on English Composition. Using 2,919 student grades from the 2015 –
2016 academic year for an English Composition course, researchers examined failure rates, grade
distribution, and withdrawal rates between In-Person learning, Online learning, and Synchronous
video learning modes. In this study, learning modes and failure rates were related. Synchronous video
modes of instruction had higher failure rates than traditional In-Person classes. Synchronous video
classroom students failed at a higher ...


Perceptions Of Sport Science Students On The Potential Applications And Limitations Of Blended Learning In Their Education: A Qualitative Study, Justin Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle Mclean May 2017

Perceptions Of Sport Science Students On The Potential Applications And Limitations Of Blended Learning In Their Education: A Qualitative Study, Justin Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle Mclean

Justin Keogh

This study sought to gain insight into blended learning-naive sports science students' understanding and perceptions of the potential benefits and limitations of blended (hybrid) learning, which has been defined as the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online instructional approaches. Five focus groups, each comprising 3-4 students from either the undergraduate or postgraduate sports science programmes were conducted. The focus groups were facilitated by a researcher who was not involved in sports science. Audio recordings of the focus groups were transcribed verbatim. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts to identify the themes and subthemes. Students generally had little initial ...


Perceptions Of Sport Science Students On The Potential Applications And Limitations Of Blended Learning In Their Education: A Qualitative Study, Justin Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle Mclean May 2017

Perceptions Of Sport Science Students On The Potential Applications And Limitations Of Blended Learning In Their Education: A Qualitative Study, Justin Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle Mclean

Lisa Gowthorp

This study sought to gain insight into blended learning-naive sports science students' understanding and perceptions of the potential benefits and limitations of blended (hybrid) learning, which has been defined as the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online instructional approaches. Five focus groups, each comprising 3-4 students from either the undergraduate or postgraduate sports science programmes were conducted. The focus groups were facilitated by a researcher who was not involved in sports science. Audio recordings of the focus groups were transcribed verbatim. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts to identify the themes and subthemes. Students generally had little initial ...


Perceptions Of Sport Science Students On The Potential Applications And Limitations Of Blended Learning In Their Education: A Qualitative Study, Justin Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle Mclean May 2017

Perceptions Of Sport Science Students On The Potential Applications And Limitations Of Blended Learning In Their Education: A Qualitative Study, Justin Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle Mclean

Michelle McLean

This study sought to gain insight into blended learning-naive sports science students' understanding and perceptions of the potential benefits and limitations of blended (hybrid) learning, which has been defined as the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online instructional approaches. Five focus groups, each comprising 3-4 students from either the undergraduate or postgraduate sports science programmes were conducted. The focus groups were facilitated by a researcher who was not involved in sports science. Audio recordings of the focus groups were transcribed verbatim. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts to identify the themes and subthemes. Students generally had little initial ...


Lighting Up And Transforming Online Courses: Letting The Teacher’S Personality Shine, Maria T. Northcote Dec 2016

Lighting Up And Transforming Online Courses: Letting The Teacher’S Personality Shine, Maria T. Northcote

Maria Northcote

Affective aspects of learning have been shown to influence cognitive aspects of learning (Russo & Benson, 2005; Salmon, 2004) and online educators are increasingly aware of the role played by emotions in online learning. To encourage a well-rounded online learning experience for students, online course designers have long been encouraged to provide students with opportunities to express their own personality and identity (Palloff & Pratt, 1999). Such design features have been linked with improved learning outcomes and decreased attrition rates (McInnerney & Roberts, 2004). However, a comparable discussion about the value of teacher personality in online courses has yet to be comprehensively considered beyond definitions ...


Devising Strategies For Enhancing Quality Staff Development In Embedding Ict In Teaching And Learning, Charles Juwah, Maria T. Northcote Dec 2016

Devising Strategies For Enhancing Quality Staff Development In Embedding Ict In Teaching And Learning, Charles Juwah, Maria T. Northcote

Maria Northcote

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have huge potential and can add value to the quality of university teaching and learning. However, to fully exploit the potential of these innovative technologies, it is imperative that teaching staff are well informed about how to embed ICT in the curriculum in a way that is underpinned by sound pedagogy. Professional development programmes can enable staff to acquire appropriate skills to effectively facilitate technology-supported learning.The teaching staff from The Robert Gordon University and Edith Cowan University, are facing similar staff development challenges. Both universities provide online and distance education courses to their local ...


Dreams, Hiccups And Realities: What Happens When Lecturers And Students Co-Design An Online Module?, Maria T. Northcote, Beverly J. Christian Dec 2016

Dreams, Hiccups And Realities: What Happens When Lecturers And Students Co-Design An Online Module?, Maria T. Northcote, Beverly J. Christian

Maria Northcote

Negotiating curriculum design with students for students involves incorporating both the students’ needs and the lecturers’ requirements into the course structure, learning activities, resources and assessment tasks. In 2012, two lecturers and a group of first year undergraduate students worked together to design an online module within an on-campus course for a second year teacher education degree. During the semester when the online module was conducted, data were gathered from the lecturers and students in the course. Findings from analyses of these data are presented in this paper in terms of: 1) the lecturers’ and students’ initial dreams and plans ...


Bumpy Moments And Joyful Breakthroughs: The Place Of Threshold Concepts In Academic Staff Development Programs About Online Learning And Teaching, Maria T. Northcote, Daniel Reynaud, Peter Beamish, Tony Martin, Kevin P. Gosselin Dec 2016

Bumpy Moments And Joyful Breakthroughs: The Place Of Threshold Concepts In Academic Staff Development Programs About Online Learning And Teaching, Maria T. Northcote, Daniel Reynaud, Peter Beamish, Tony Martin, Kevin P. Gosselin

Maria Northcote

In this article the authors address the situation in higher education of academic staff facing what they conceptualise as “bumpy moments and joyful breakthroughs” as they work through the process of becoming teachers in online learning environments. The article comes from a research project, which gathered and analysed data from systematic observations and questionnaires. The authors base their study on the known fact that while many academics have grounded experience in on-campus teaching and learning situations they do not necessarily have the skills required today for extending learning through on-line environments. The authors discover that when academics start teaching in ...


Reactions, Reflections And Responsibility: A 'Responsive Evaluation' Of An Emerging Blended Elearning Subject, Peter W. Kilgour, Phil Fitzsimmons Nov 2016

Reactions, Reflections And Responsibility: A 'Responsive Evaluation' Of An Emerging Blended Elearning Subject, Peter W. Kilgour, Phil Fitzsimmons

Peter Kilgour

This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative investigation that sought to illuminate the perceived benefits of undertaking a blended learning subject at one tertiary institution. While there are several studies detailing the benefits of online learning, this study focussed on the student’s perceptions. What emerged from the analysis process were a series of themes related to the notion of authentic learning. Key processes of this perceived optimal learning site and space were the elements of group and individual reflection, and risk taking. Thus a heightened sense of ownership was developed. While the students believed that this form of ...


Bumpy Moments And Joyful Breakthroughs: The Place Of Threshold Concepts In Academic Staff Development Programs About Online Learning And Teaching, Maria T. Northcote, Daniel Reynaud, Peter Beamish, Tony Martin, Kevin P. Gosselin Oct 2016

Bumpy Moments And Joyful Breakthroughs: The Place Of Threshold Concepts In Academic Staff Development Programs About Online Learning And Teaching, Maria T. Northcote, Daniel Reynaud, Peter Beamish, Tony Martin, Kevin P. Gosselin

Daniel Reynaud

In this article the authors address the situation in higher education of academic staff facing what they conceptualise as “bumpy moments and joyful breakthroughs” as they work through the process of becoming teachers in online learning environments. The article comes from a research project, which gathered and analysed data from systematic observations and questionnaires. The authors base their study on the known fact that while many academics have grounded experience in on-campus teaching and learning situations they do not necessarily have the skills required today for extending learning through on-line environments. The authors discover that when academics start teaching in ...


Understanding Copyright & Transformative Fair Use, Andrée Rathemacher, Angel Ferria, Julia Lovett Oct 2016

Understanding Copyright & Transformative Fair Use, Andrée Rathemacher, Angel Ferria, Julia Lovett

Julia Lovett

Slides and workshop examples from a session, "Understanding Copyright & Transformative Fair Use," given at the Rhode Island Library Association Annual Conference, "RILA 2015," on May 28, 2015 in Newport, Rhode Island. "This interactive workshop will outline the basics of copyright and fair use, emphasizing the notion of transformative fair use as highlighted in recent court decisions. The majority of the session will be devoted to real-life scenarios, and audience members will be able to analyze texts, images, video, and sound recordings to determine whether the proposed use is fair. You’ll also learn about handy alternatives for situations when fair ...


Copyright, Fair Use, And Education: Your Rights As A Student, Faculty Member, And Researcher, Julia Lovett, Andrée Rathemacher, Angel Ferria Oct 2016

Copyright, Fair Use, And Education: Your Rights As A Student, Faculty Member, And Researcher, Julia Lovett, Andrée Rathemacher, Angel Ferria

Julia Lovett

Slides, handouts, and classroom examples from a presentation, "Copyright, Fair Use, and Education: Your Rights as a Student, Faculty Member, and Researcher," offered at the University of Rhode Island Libraries on February 24 and February 25, 2014. "Learn how Fair Use can help you incorporate copyrighted works (written material, images, video, etc.) into your research, teaching, and academic projects. Have questions about Fair Use and Copyright? Please bring them to these interactive sessions!" Part of the University Libraries' Search Savvy Seminar series.


The Cu Online Handbook 2011, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Kathleen Pounders, Joanna C. Dunlap, Elizabeth Conner, Howard Cook, David Thomas, Jeffrey R. Nystrom, Rodney Muth, Kelly Bergman, Margarita Bianco, Dan Mccollom, Sherri Clemens, Melissa Kreider, Barbara J. Dray, Stephanie Townsend, Storm Gloor, Tod Duncan, Jozianne Mestas, David Paul, Connie L. Fulmer, Anna Thai, Brian Yuhnke, J. Dobrovolny Sep 2016

The Cu Online Handbook 2011, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Kathleen Pounders, Joanna C. Dunlap, Elizabeth Conner, Howard Cook, David Thomas, Jeffrey R. Nystrom, Rodney Muth, Kelly Bergman, Margarita Bianco, Dan Mccollom, Sherri Clemens, Melissa Kreider, Barbara J. Dray, Stephanie Townsend, Storm Gloor, Tod Duncan, Jozianne Mestas, David Paul, Connie L. Fulmer, Anna Thai, Brian Yuhnke, J. Dobrovolny

Margarita Bianco

No abstract provided.


The Cu Online Handbook: Teaching Differently, Create And Collaborate, Patrick R. Lowenthal, David Thomas, Anna Thai, Brian Yuhnke, Susan Giullian, Donna Sobel, Connie L. Fulmer, Phil Antonelli, Laura Summers, Joanna C. Dunlap, Ellen Stevens, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Brent G. Wilson, Farah A. Ibrahim Mar 2016

The Cu Online Handbook: Teaching Differently, Create And Collaborate, Patrick R. Lowenthal, David Thomas, Anna Thai, Brian Yuhnke, Susan Giullian, Donna Sobel, Connie L. Fulmer, Phil Antonelli, Laura Summers, Joanna C. Dunlap, Ellen Stevens, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Brent G. Wilson, Farah A. Ibrahim

Joanna Dunlap

No abstract provided.


The Cu Online Handbook 2011, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Kathleen Pounders, Joanna C. Dunlap, Elizabeth Conner, Howard Cook, David Thomas, Jeffrey R. Nystrom, Rodney Muth, Kelly Bergman, Margarita Bianco, Dan Mccollom, Sherri Clemens, Melissa Kreider, Barbara J. Dray, Stephanie Townsend, Storm Gloor, Tod Duncan, Jozianne Mestas, David Paul, Connie L. Fulmer, Anna Thai, Brian Yuhnke, J. Dobrovolny Mar 2016

The Cu Online Handbook 2011, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Kathleen Pounders, Joanna C. Dunlap, Elizabeth Conner, Howard Cook, David Thomas, Jeffrey R. Nystrom, Rodney Muth, Kelly Bergman, Margarita Bianco, Dan Mccollom, Sherri Clemens, Melissa Kreider, Barbara J. Dray, Stephanie Townsend, Storm Gloor, Tod Duncan, Jozianne Mestas, David Paul, Connie L. Fulmer, Anna Thai, Brian Yuhnke, J. Dobrovolny

Joanna Dunlap

No abstract provided.


Learning Assessments: Designing The Future, Geoff N. Masters Aug 2015

Learning Assessments: Designing The Future, Geoff N. Masters

Prof Geoff Masters AO

Processes for assessing student learning are undergoing fundamental transformation.This presentation will consider three developments which can be expected to shape how student learning is assessed in the future. First is fundamental change in how assessment is conceptualised and approached, with a focus on monitoring learning. Second is growing interest in the assessment of a broader range of skills and attributes than those addressed in most current assessment efforts. Third is advances in technology which are opening the door to new ways of gathering information about student learning, including through records of real-time interactions in online learning environments. In ACER ...


Case Study Of Using A Social Annotation Tool To Support Collaboratively Learning, Fei Gao May 2015

Case Study Of Using A Social Annotation Tool To Support Collaboratively Learning, Fei Gao

Fei Gao

The purpose of the study was to understand student interaction and learning supported by a collaboratively social annotation tool — Diigo. The researcher examined through a case study how students participated and interacted when learning an online text with the social annotation tool — Diigo, and how they perceived their experience. The findings suggested that students participated actively in the collaborative learning activity and were engaged in a variety of behaviors including self-reflection, elaboration, internalization, and showing support. Although students generally had a moderately positive attitude toward using the social annotation tool for collaborative learning, a few problems were identified. In particular ...


New Model Of Productive Online Discussion And Its Implications For Research And Instruction, Fei Gao, Charles Xiaoxue Wang, Yanling Sun May 2015

New Model Of Productive Online Discussion And Its Implications For Research And Instruction, Fei Gao, Charles Xiaoxue Wang, Yanling Sun

Fei Gao

We develop a new model of productive online discussion based on a brief review of research literature on online discussion. As compared to previous discussion models, the new model provides a more systematic and comprehensive framework to understand how learning occurs through online discussion. Based on the new model, we propose several directions for research on improving the quality of online discussion and learning.


A Socratic Café For Critical Inquiry, Jody Piro, Gina Anderson Sep 2014

A Socratic Café For Critical Inquiry, Jody Piro, Gina Anderson

Jody Piro

This presentation will explore the completed research inquiry that developed from our overt attempt to promote critical thinking in an online forum. The implications for advancing critical inquiry in online formats for interdisciplinary university content areas will be addressed. The objectives of this session are twofold: 1) to introduce participants to the nine intellectual standards (Elder & Paul, 2007) used to analyze the critical thinking and Socratic questioning in our research, and 2) to discuss the structuring of critical analysis in participants' own classrooms. Participants can expect to participate in a cooperative learning activity to practice the use of Intellectual Standards ...


The Effect Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Participation On Students' Performance In Online Accounting Courses, Keith Duncan, A. L. Kenworthy, Ray Mcnamara Jul 2014

The Effect Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Participation On Students' Performance In Online Accounting Courses, Keith Duncan, A. L. Kenworthy, Ray Mcnamara

Ray McNamara

This article examines the relationship between MBA students' performance and participation in two online environments: a synchronous forum (chat room) and an asynchronous forum (discussion board) at an Australian university. The quality and quantity of students' participation is used to predict their final examination and course grade performance outcomes. We find that the total quality of students' participation is positively related to final examination performance but the total quantity of students' participation is related to overall course performance. We also find that synchronous engagement with the course (combined quality and quantity) drives these results and has twice the examination and ...


Electronic Reading And Digital Library Technologies: Understanding Learner Expectation And Usage Intent For Mobile Learning, Jack A. Hyman, Mary T. Moser Jan 2014

Electronic Reading And Digital Library Technologies: Understanding Learner Expectation And Usage Intent For Mobile Learning, Jack A. Hyman, Mary T. Moser

Mary T. Moser

Mobile information technology is changing the education landscape by offering learners the opportunity to engage in asynchronous, ubiquitous instruction. While there is a proliferation of mobile content management systems being developed for the mobile Web and stand-alone mobile applications, few studies have addressed learner expectations and usage intent in consuming digital documents from online content providers and digital libraries with specific emphasis on formal instruction. Understanding usage intent and actual usage of a mobile learning agent as a result of ease of use and usefulness of mobile devices will be addressed in this study. A research framework for Instructional Technology ...


Implications Of Implementing A Hybrid Learning Approach At The University Of Guyana, Kerwin A. Livingstone Nov 2013

Implications Of Implementing A Hybrid Learning Approach At The University Of Guyana, Kerwin A. Livingstone

Kerwin A. Livingstone

Online learning and teaching is pervading higher education (HE) and many Universities are faced with the challenge of incorporating technology in education to meet the needs of students. The objective of this paper is to examine the implications of introducing a hybrid learning approach at the University of Guyana. A rationale has been established as to why this need is so germane. Literature has been reviewed and discussed, concerning face to face (F2F), online and blended instruction and the pertinence of these in current HE pedagogies. Special emphasis is paid to the transformative potential of blended learning to confront HE ...


The Effect Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Participation On Students' Performance In Online Accounting Courses, Keith Duncan, A. L. Kenworthy, Ray Mcnamara Jun 2013

The Effect Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Participation On Students' Performance In Online Accounting Courses, Keith Duncan, A. L. Kenworthy, Ray Mcnamara

Keith Duncan

This article examines the relationship between MBA students' performance and participation in two online environments: a synchronous forum (chat room) and an asynchronous forum (discussion board) at an Australian university. The quality and quantity of students' participation is used to predict their final examination and course grade performance outcomes. We find that the total quality of students' participation is positively related to final examination performance but the total quantity of students' participation is related to overall course performance. We also find that synchronous engagement with the course (combined quality and quantity) drives these results and has twice the examination and ...


The Effect Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Participation On Students' Performance In Online Accounting Courses, Keith Duncan, A. L. Kenworthy, Ray Mcnamara Jun 2013

The Effect Of Synchronous And Asynchronous Participation On Students' Performance In Online Accounting Courses, Keith Duncan, A. L. Kenworthy, Ray Mcnamara

Amy L. Kenworthy

This article examines the relationship between MBA students' performance and participation in two online environments: a synchronous forum (chat room) and an asynchronous forum (discussion board) at an Australian university. The quality and quantity of students' participation is used to predict their final examination and course grade performance outcomes. We find that the total quality of students' participation is positively related to final examination performance but the total quantity of students' participation is related to overall course performance. We also find that synchronous engagement with the course (combined quality and quantity) drives these results and has twice the examination and ...


Learning Designs: Bridging The Gap Between Theory And Practice, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho, Lori Lockyer, Lisa Kosta, J. Jones, R. Koper, Barry Harper May 2012

Learning Designs: Bridging The Gap Between Theory And Practice, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho, Lori Lockyer, Lisa Kosta, J. Jones, R. Koper, Barry Harper

Professor Lori Lockyer

This paper summarises the work being conducted in an ongoing research agenda focused on exploring how the ‘learning design’ construct can be used to support university educators to create both pedagogically sound and interoperable e-learning experiences. The premise of this work is that a learning design can be used to support the pedagogical design process and the integration of international e-learning standards, such as learning object metadata and IMS-LD, enabling resources and tools to be technically interoperable across different standards-compliant systems. The paper presents the rationale guiding this research focus, describes the features of the research that is underway, and ...