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Full-Text Articles in Education

Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands Nov 2018

Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands

Scott Smalley

Agricultural education programs are one component of Career and Technical Education (CTE). For CTE to be effective, educators teaching CTE courses must be able to make connections between the curriculum and real-life situations. This qualitative study explored self-reported perceptions of CTE by pre-service students. Wigfield and Eccles’ expectancy-value model of achievement was used as the framework for this study. Findings indicated that career and technical education provides benefits for everyone because it helps develop career skills. With the shortage of educators and budget cuts, career and technical education cannot continue to survive. Participants also describe characteristics of successful career and ...


Job Stress, Burnout, And Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers, Amy Smith, Scott Smalley Nov 2018

Job Stress, Burnout, And Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers, Amy Smith, Scott Smalley

Scott Smalley

Retaining high quality school-based agricultural education teachers is a growing concern across the United States. This study focused on mid-career agricultural education teachers’ perceptions of job stress, burnout, job satisfaction, and professional development needs related to National Quality Program Standards for Secondary Agriculture Education (The National Council for Agricultural Education, 2009). The target population for this study was participants in the 2013 NAAE eXcellence in Leadership for Retention (XLR8) professional development program. Overall, XLR8 participants indicated the highest levels of job stress related to Standard 2 – Experiential Learning and Standard 7 – Program Planning and Evaluation. Participants were least stressed over ...


Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Through An Initial Early Field Experience, Bryan D. Rank, Scott W. Smalley Nov 2018

Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Through An Initial Early Field Experience, Bryan D. Rank, Scott W. Smalley

Scott Smalley

The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of students enrolled in an initial early field experience (EFE) in relation to the components of the agricultural education model. The students enrolled in the initial field experience were freshmen and sophomore students. The initial field experience course consisted of four face-to-face class meetings and a 12-hour initial field experience observation. Students’ photographed their perceptions of each component in the agricultural education model (classroom, SAE, FFA). The coding of reflective captions led to themes in three areas of the agricultural education model: (a) classroom themes were active learning, collaboration and ...


Previous Experience Not Required: Contextualizing The Choice To Teach School-Based Agricultural Education, Adam A. Marx, Amy R. Smith, Scott W. Smalley, Courtney Miller Nov 2018

Previous Experience Not Required: Contextualizing The Choice To Teach School-Based Agricultural Education, Adam A. Marx, Amy R. Smith, Scott W. Smalley, Courtney Miller

Scott Smalley

The purpose of this study was to identify key career choice items which lead students without previous experience in school-based agricultural education (SBAE) to pursuing agricultural education. The Ag Ed FIT-Choice® model adapted by Lawver (2009) and developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) provided the investigative framework to design this study. Findings were organized around categories of the Ag Ed Fit-Choice Model (Lawver, 2009) with the exception of one additional category, believed unique to this group. Two focus groups were assembled to include ten participants. A myriad of experiences led participants to consider SBAE as a career. Certainly, it can ...


Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agriculture Teachers, Scott W. Smalley, Amy R. Smith Nov 2018

Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agriculture Teachers, Scott W. Smalley, Amy R. Smith

Scott Smalley

Nationwide, agricultural education faces a shortage of teachers (National Teach Ag Campaign, 2014; Foster, Lawver, & Smith, 2016). To remedy this, both recruitment and retention efforts are necessary. While extensive research in agricultural education has focused on needs of beginning teachers, less research has focused on needs of agriculture teachers at later career stages. As such, the purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore challenges, activities, and professional development needs of mid-career agriculture teachers, particularly those within the “Experimentation/Activism” and “Reassessment/Self-Doubt” stages identified by Huberman (1989). The study narrowly focused on a census of 35 teachers from ...


Early Field Experience Course Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Laboratory Environments, Trent Wells, Scott W. Smalley, Bryan D. Rank Nov 2018

Early Field Experience Course Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Laboratory Environments, Trent Wells, Scott W. Smalley, Bryan D. Rank

Scott Smalley

Laboratory instruction is an important component of school-based agricultural education (SBAE) programs (Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008). Early field experience (EFE) coursework can be an important component of agricultural teacher preparation programs (Retallick & Miller, 2007). Through the use of a modified photovoice technique, we sought to identify the perceptions of students (i.e., preservice teachers) enrolled in an EFE course in relation to the laboratory environment component of the SBAE model. Students enrolled in a 40-hour EFE course photographed a laboratory environment at their placement site and completed a 250-word descriptive/reflective summary of the laboratory. Through open coding of the summaries, three prominent themes emerged: 1) project-based learning is widely used for instructional purposes; 2) laboratory environments are set up and arranged in particular fashions based on needs; and 3) laboratory environments are arranged as settings for effective learning. Within the photographs, the agricultural mechanics laboratory was most commonly identified as a laboratory environment. The EFE students identified laboratory environments are not always traditional in their scope, and classrooms can serve as laboratory environments. We recommend photovoice be further used as a tool to explore students’ perceptions of the realities of modern SBAE programs.


Evaluating First Year Agriculture Teachers’ Use Of Reflection, Amanda Meder, Scott Smalley, Michael Retallick Nov 2018

Evaluating First Year Agriculture Teachers’ Use Of Reflection, Amanda Meder, Scott Smalley, Michael Retallick

Scott Smalley

Reflection is a useful tool which improves teaching approaches; however, many first-year teachers do not appear to reflect upon their instructional plans (McAlpine & Weston, 2000). Prior research has indicated preservice teachers are not utilizing the acquired reflective approaches learned throughout the teacher preparation program (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Kagan & Tippins, 1992; Reynolds, 1993). It is believed teachers fail to implement reflective practice in their professional practice because they have not acquired the pedagogical knowledge to effectively reflect (McAlpine & Weston, 2000). The primary purpose of this study was to determine if beginning agricultural education teachers employed a systematic approach of reflection, determine what components of the teacher preparation program aided in learning, how to reflect, and to examine first-year teachers’ gratification with the reflective approaches learned from Iowa ...