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Articles 1 - 30 of 1935

Full-Text Articles in Education

Implementing A Literary Text Extensive Reading Program Through Learning Logs, Elih Sutisna Yanto, Hilmansyah Saefullah, Deny Arnos Kwary May 2020

Implementing A Literary Text Extensive Reading Program Through Learning Logs, Elih Sutisna Yanto, Hilmansyah Saefullah, Deny Arnos Kwary

The Qualitative Report

This article reports the findings of action research on the implementation of extensive reading to literary text (henceforth ER) with learning logs (henceforth LL). The research question was: In what ways do the students engage in comprehending literary texts through ER with learning logs? And what are students’ reactions to these activities? The research was conducted in the English Language Education Study Program English Education Department of a state university in Indonesia in which twenty six students voluntarily participated in this study. The data of the research were collected from students’ reflective journals and semi-structured interviews. The empirical findings show ...


Combining Case Study Design And Constructivist Grounded Theory To Theorize Language Teacher Cognition, Eman I. M. Alzaanin Dr May 2020

Combining Case Study Design And Constructivist Grounded Theory To Theorize Language Teacher Cognition, Eman I. M. Alzaanin Dr

The Qualitative Report

Although second language (L2) teacher cognition has been a sustained area of research in the field of L2 teacher education for the last three decades, designing an appropriate methodology to investigate teacher cognition is still a key challenge due to the unobservable nature of cognition. Teacher cognition is defined as “what teachers know, believe, and think” (Borg, 2003, p. 81). This article seeks to enable researchers who are interested in exploring L2 teacher cognition to design qualitative multiple case study research and to use constructivist grounded theory to data analysis to build theoretical models that capture L2 teachers’ cognitions. I ...


Examining Factors Facilitating Career-Changing Teachers’ Adaptation To Change And The Challenges They Encounter, Abdullah Çetin, Fatma Sadik May 2020

Examining Factors Facilitating Career-Changing Teachers’ Adaptation To Change And The Challenges They Encounter, Abdullah Çetin, Fatma Sadik

The Qualitative Report

The present case study was designed to examine factors that facilitate the adaptation process of science teachers who were appointed or transferred to state schools, the challenges they encountered, and how they coped with these challenges. It was carried out with the participation of six science teachers (three males, three females) working at state middle schools in Turkey. The data were gathered through interviews with the teachers and analyzed through content analysis using the NVivo program. The research results reveal that the prominent factors that facilitate teachers’ adaptation to school environments are their professional love, interest in students, effective communication ...


Method As Method: A Play In Three Acts, Gabriel Huddleston, Samuel D. Rocha May 2020

Method As Method: A Play In Three Acts, Gabriel Huddleston, Samuel D. Rocha

The Qualitative Report

The authors present a play in three acts that we hope speaks for itself on some level. While we recognize that context is important, we do believe in the power in audience interpretation of a work of art. For more information, please refer to the prologue.


Factors Affecting Ict Integration During Teaching Practices: A Multiple Case Study Of Three Indonesian Universities, Akhmad Habibi, Rafiza Abdul Razak, Farrah Dina Yusop, Amirul Mukminin, Lalu N. Yaqin May 2020

Factors Affecting Ict Integration During Teaching Practices: A Multiple Case Study Of Three Indonesian Universities, Akhmad Habibi, Rafiza Abdul Razak, Farrah Dina Yusop, Amirul Mukminin, Lalu N. Yaqin

The Qualitative Report

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a strong force for economic, social, political, and educational reforms happening throughout the world including in developing countries. In this qualitative inquiry, we aimed at elaborating factors affecting ICT integration during teaching practices in pre-service teacher training programs (PTTPs) of three Indonesian universities from the perspectives of fifty-five pre-service teachers. The thematic analysis of this study revealed two major themes, barriers and enablers, which affected the integration of ICT during teaching practices. Based on the themes, this study led to the development of a conceptual model of factors affecting the ICT integration. Recommendations are ...


“Listen And Let It Flow”: A Researcher And Participant Reflect On The Qualitative Research Experience, Charity Anderson, Monique Henry May 2020

“Listen And Let It Flow”: A Researcher And Participant Reflect On The Qualitative Research Experience, Charity Anderson, Monique Henry

The Qualitative Report

Ethnographic research involves prolonged and often personal interaction between the researcher and research participants. This paper is a collaboration between a social work researcher and a research participant who became acquainted through the researcher’s ethnographic fieldwork for her dissertation. Despite differing in numerous and significant ways, not the least of which are age, class, education, and race, the two women developed a quasi-friendship after the researcher exited the field–a time when many researcher-participant relationships wane or terminate entirely. The two recorded and transcribed a series of informal conversations wherein they reflected on their experiences in the research process ...


Creative Pedagogy And Praxis With Social Media: Applications In And Out Of The Qualitative Research Classroom, Anna Cohenmiller, Nurlygul Smat, Aisulu Yenikeyeva, Kuralay Yassinova May 2020

Creative Pedagogy And Praxis With Social Media: Applications In And Out Of The Qualitative Research Classroom, Anna Cohenmiller, Nurlygul Smat, Aisulu Yenikeyeva, Kuralay Yassinova

The Qualitative Report

Research methods courses can provide essential opportunities for graduate students to develop themselves as researchers. This article offers insights into the application of creative pedagogy and praxis for a graduate-level qualitative research methods class. Students learned and applied the innovative research method—gender audit as process and method—to understand the gendered nature of University social media accounts. Applying principles of collaborative learning and hands-on practice, students gained confidence in themselves as researchers while examining a contemporary issue affecting higher education institutions.


Loose Coupling In Curriculum Reforms: Rural Teachers´ Perceptions Of Peace Education In Post-Conflict Colombia, Pedro Pineda, Markus D. Meier May 2020

Loose Coupling In Curriculum Reforms: Rural Teachers´ Perceptions Of Peace Education In Post-Conflict Colombia, Pedro Pineda, Markus D. Meier

Peace and Conflict Studies

Previous research has shown how peace education (PE) mutates according to socio-political and curricular/didactic traditions, but we still need to know how PE disseminates at the school level. We surveyed teachers from 12 rural schools of the violent Amazon region of Colombia where a national Law made PE mandatory in schools and universities. Teachers working on schools affected by the armed conflict have high expectations about PE. Respondents identified PE with 21 didactic elements: (a) Approaches: values education, citizenship education, critical pedagogy; (b) Pedagogical principles: diversity and pluralism. (c) Learning processes: peaceful conflict resolution, promotion of a “life project ...


Digital Urban Ethnography: A Book Review Of The Digital Street, Katherine L. Walters, Enid Truong Apr 2020

Digital Urban Ethnography: A Book Review Of The Digital Street, Katherine L. Walters, Enid Truong

The Qualitative Report

Jeffery Lane explores the social worlds of youth in Harlem during the digital era through his unique approach, digital urban ethnography. Researchers use this ethnographic method to understand how social lives and meanings are co-constructed within digital and physical spaces. The digital and physical do not neatly represent each other but each provides specific ways to engage that both shape and are shaped by youth’s social lives. As novice researchers, we read this work with an eye towards methodological choices and techniques. In particular, we hoped this work would provide us with an understanding of how to conduct research ...


Teaching And Learning Qualitative Inquiry Online And Impacts On Family Life, James A. Bernauer, Rebecca L. Rook, Jenifer A. Swab, Mary P. Bernauer, Patrick Bernauer Apr 2020

Teaching And Learning Qualitative Inquiry Online And Impacts On Family Life, James A. Bernauer, Rebecca L. Rook, Jenifer A. Swab, Mary P. Bernauer, Patrick Bernauer

The Qualitative Report

This study uses letters-to-self and a group interview to integrate the experiences of two groups of participant-researchers—(1) a professor of qualitative inquiry and two of his doctoral students in an online qualitative research class and (2) this same professor and his family. The specific purpose of this study for the first group, comprised of the professor and his two former doctoral students, was to jointly explore perceptions of teaching and learning qualitative inquiry in a formal university setting as well as these students’ perceptions of the impacts that their entry into full-time doctoral study has had on their family ...


Reading Autoethnography: The Impact Of Writing Through The Body, Katarina Tuinamuana, Joanne Yoo Apr 2020

Reading Autoethnography: The Impact Of Writing Through The Body, Katarina Tuinamuana, Joanne Yoo

The Qualitative Report

In this paper, we explore alternative ways in which academic writing can have impact, specifically in how it can move from the clearly measured to the deeply felt. We do this by writing a creative nonfiction narrative of our experimentation with autoethnography, detailing our responses to four published autoethnographic articles. We found that reading and engaging with these papers meant that we also had to listen and reconnect to our bodies in ways that initially seemed foreign to us as academics. But we persevered, and this project strengthened our resolve to create time/space to engage writing/research that deeply ...


Transforming Difficulties Into Possibilities: Family Training As An Action For Educational Success In Contexts Of Poverty, Blas Segovia-Aguilar, M. Del Mar García-Cabrera, Eva F. Hinojosa-Pareja Apr 2020

Transforming Difficulties Into Possibilities: Family Training As An Action For Educational Success In Contexts Of Poverty, Blas Segovia-Aguilar, M. Del Mar García-Cabrera, Eva F. Hinojosa-Pareja

The Qualitative Report

This research focuses on the implementation of a series of actions and training workshops with families of a school located in a socially excluded area in the city of Cordoba, Spain. The study explores how the participants perceived the experience and the educational and social benefits of this formative process. The research methodology was based on a participatory action research approach, which involved successive cycles of research and action in different phases: planning and analysis of the problem, action, observation and reflection. Five key informants, selected according to the criterion of structural heterogeneity, participated in the research. Semi-structured interviews and ...


Confronting Shifting Identities: Reflections On Subjectivity In Transnational Research, Jiyoung Kang Apr 2020

Confronting Shifting Identities: Reflections On Subjectivity In Transnational Research, Jiyoung Kang

The Qualitative Report

As researchers’ identities impact the research process, researchers need to take a reflexive stance toward their positionality in the research. The issue of positionality is especially important for research focusing on multicultural issues, which necessarily involves dynamic power relations among different racial/ethnic groups. Drawing from reflections on my research focusing on South Korean adolescents’ understandings of migrants, this paper illustrates when and how I confronted my positionality. My positionality as a racial/ethnic minority in the United States affected the process of selecting the research topic and the theoretical framework as well as analyzing interview data while my positionality ...


Outcome Mapping: Documenting Process In The Métis Settlements Life Skills Journey Project, Brent Hammer, Fay Fletcher, Rebecca Shortt, Mandy Macrae, Alicia Hibbert Apr 2020

Outcome Mapping: Documenting Process In The Métis Settlements Life Skills Journey Project, Brent Hammer, Fay Fletcher, Rebecca Shortt, Mandy Macrae, Alicia Hibbert

The Qualitative Report

Mapping serves as a metaphor for where we are now, where we have been, and where we are going. In this paper the authors illustrate the use of outcome mapping as a methodological framework for documenting the planning, monitoring, and evaluation process for the Métis Settlements Life Skills Journey (MSLSJ) project. The MSLSJ is a multi-year, multi-site, multi-method research project. It is centered on building relationships and facilitating knowledge exchange between the University of Alberta team, Métis Settlement Councils and administrators, and Settlement members. We highlight how the outcome mapping framework enables us to document project processes through the identification ...


Parents Of Students With Disabilities Views In Learning Physical Education In Special Needs School, Dena Widyawan, Amung Ma'mun, Berliana Rahely, Yudy Hendrayana Apr 2020

Parents Of Students With Disabilities Views In Learning Physical Education In Special Needs School, Dena Widyawan, Amung Ma'mun, Berliana Rahely, Yudy Hendrayana

The Qualitative Report

The objective of this study was to find out the experience and parents’ participation in Physical Education from the view of the parents of students with disabilities. This study applied a hermeneutic phenomenological qualitative method. The sample of this study was parents of students with disabilities in Special Needs School. 5 people (3 men, 2 women) who were selected as a sample using the purposeful sampling technique. The instrument was used from a previous study which used Seidman’s interviewing guidelines (Seidman, 1998). The findings show that that parents were actively involved in students’ learning in the various environments: at ...


Art As Meditation: A Mindful Inquiry Into Educator Well-Being, Rachael Crowder, Jennifer Lock, Evelyn Hickey, Mairi Mcdermott, Marlon Simmons, Katrina Wilson, Rebecca Leong, Noeleen De Silva Apr 2020

Art As Meditation: A Mindful Inquiry Into Educator Well-Being, Rachael Crowder, Jennifer Lock, Evelyn Hickey, Mairi Mcdermott, Marlon Simmons, Katrina Wilson, Rebecca Leong, Noeleen De Silva

The Qualitative Report

Being prepared for the intensity and complexities that educators face in their work means building strategies for managing well-being. This qualitative study explored educators’ conceptualizations about their well-being using an arts-based, community-based participatory research (AB-CBPR) methodology. After a brief mindfulness meditation and contemplation of prompting questions, educators were invited to participate in drawing and writing reflections. The artifacts were coded to determine themes. Themes suggested the importance of human connectedness and interconnection, self care and nurturance, the healing qualities of the natural word, and the recognition that institutions need to provide space and resources to support educator well-being. The mindfulness-based ...


Exploring The Mentoring Needs Of Early- And Mid-Career Urm Engineering Faculty: A Phenomenological Study, Sylvia Mendez, Jennifer A. Tygret, Valerie Martin Conley, Comas Haynes, Rosario Gerhardt Apr 2020

Exploring The Mentoring Needs Of Early- And Mid-Career Urm Engineering Faculty: A Phenomenological Study, Sylvia Mendez, Jennifer A. Tygret, Valerie Martin Conley, Comas Haynes, Rosario Gerhardt

The Qualitative Report

While mentoring has been identified as a valuable resource in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) faculty, little research has examined the difference in mentoring needs of early- and mid-career engineering URM faculty members. As these needs can change as they navigate academia and the tenure process, mentors can effectively provide guidance and support only when they have been identified. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the mentoring needs and activities of early- and mid-career URM engineering faculty who participated in the IMPACT mentoring program and how their needs were met (Moustakas, 1994). The IMPACT program and ...


Magic And Hocus Pocus: Teaching For Social Justice In A Qualitative Methods Course, Carey E. Andrzejewski, Hannah Carson Baggett Mar 2020

Magic And Hocus Pocus: Teaching For Social Justice In A Qualitative Methods Course, Carey E. Andrzejewski, Hannah Carson Baggett

The Qualitative Report

In this manuscript, we work to define and unpack what teaching for social justice means for us as instructors of an introductory qualitative methods course at an ultraconservative institution. We focus on our intentionality in curating readings, designing specific fieldwork assignments, and prompting reflective work for adult graduate students in the course. This intentionality provides various inroads to develop and support student learning around qualitative methods, to reveal meta narratives and dominant ideologies, to critically think and “trouble” those narratives, and opportunities to name lived experiences and observations in systems of oppression and privilege.


A Model Of Research Article Writing Sociolinguistic Competence (Rawsc): Evidence From Qualitative Meta-Synthesis And Follow-Up Interviews, Reza Khany, Saeedeh Mohammadi Mar 2020

A Model Of Research Article Writing Sociolinguistic Competence (Rawsc): Evidence From Qualitative Meta-Synthesis And Follow-Up Interviews, Reza Khany, Saeedeh Mohammadi

The Qualitative Report

The knowledge of sociolinguistic factors can be a remarkable component of competence in research article writing for learners’ successful handling of scholarly writing tasks in English for academic purposes (EAP) programs. This study aimed to present a model of Sociolinguistics Competence (SC) in writing EAP research articles. Give this, two stages were followed. Firstly, a meta-synthesis approach was adopted to investigate the available literature on various aspects of SC and extract the latent themes and concepts in the target model. As a result, two categories emerged from the combination of five concepts and 258 codes. Secondly, an introspective stage was ...


A Research Tapestry: Stories Woven Into Stories, Laura Colket Mar 2020

A Research Tapestry: Stories Woven Into Stories, Laura Colket

The Qualitative Report

This autoethnography highlights the subjective nature of narrative research and illustrates the ways in which both micro and macro forces impact the research process. Through this article, I present a research tapestry in which the experiences, perspectives and stories of the participants weave together with my own experiences, perspectives and stories. I draw from my dissertation research, a narrative inquiry focused on the experiences of Haitian educational leaders working to create systemic change after the 2010 earthquake.


What Factors Influence Chinese Students To Choose Master Program In Jmc: A Phenomenological Study, Zhiwei Wang Dr., Zhenbiao He Prof., Zhengke Fu Dr. Mar 2020

What Factors Influence Chinese Students To Choose Master Program In Jmc: A Phenomenological Study, Zhiwei Wang Dr., Zhenbiao He Prof., Zhengke Fu Dr.

The Qualitative Report

The number of Chinese postgraduates in JMC has steadily increased with the growing number of JCC master’s programs in in China. Little is known about key factors that influence Chinese students’ decisions in choosing which program attend. In order to fill a gap in the academic field, a qualitative phenomenological approach was applied to examine the experiences of seven Chinese master’s students in JMC from three different universities in Zhejiang province, China. Three important themes have been created including (1) geographical advantages; (2) recommendation of peers and professors; and (3) course design and curriculum. These findings have important ...


The Lived Experiences Of First-Generation College Students Of Color Integrating Into The Institutional Culture Of A Predominantly White Institution, Talisha Lawson Adams, Juliann Sergi Mcbrayer Mar 2020

The Lived Experiences Of First-Generation College Students Of Color Integrating Into The Institutional Culture Of A Predominantly White Institution, Talisha Lawson Adams, Juliann Sergi Mcbrayer

The Qualitative Report

As many colleges and universities continue to increase their enrollment and diversification of their student body, the number of first-generation college students of color will continue to rise. Colleges have been charged with the challenge of not only enrolling this student population but also ensuring that they are connected to the university and persist to graduation. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of first-generation college students of color at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). This study utilized individual in-depth interviews and a focus group to examine how first-generation students of color experienced college ...


Feasibility Of A Readiness Exam For Predicting Radiography Program Success: A Pilot Study, Tammy L. Webster, Sarah B. Mcbrien, Gregory M. Mehrer, Harlan R. Sayles Mar 2020

Feasibility Of A Readiness Exam For Predicting Radiography Program Success: A Pilot Study, Tammy L. Webster, Sarah B. Mcbrien, Gregory M. Mehrer, Harlan R. Sayles

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

ABSTRACT

Background: Research investigating predictors of academic success in rigorous health science education is valuable for curricular intervention for identified at-risk students. Various predictors of success have been investigated, but the literature is insufficient when examining anatomy and physiology readiness scores as they correlate to radiography curricular success. This pilot study assessed the correlation between readiness exam scores and programmatic course GPA to determine if the scores could be used as a metric for identifying academic success resources for incoming students. Cohorts of the radiography program at a midwestern health sciences center demonstrated a longitudinal trend of difficulty with anatomy ...


The Relationship Between Physician Assistant School Admissions Exam (Pa-Cat) And Undergraduate Performance Measured By Science Gpa And Cumulative Gpa", Scott Massey, Johnna Yealy, Rajat Chadha, David Beck Mar 2020

The Relationship Between Physician Assistant School Admissions Exam (Pa-Cat) And Undergraduate Performance Measured By Science Gpa And Cumulative Gpa", Scott Massey, Johnna Yealy, Rajat Chadha, David Beck

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Physician Assistant (PA) programs often set minimum GPA and graduate record examination (GRE) requirements for admission, citing that candidates with higher admission scores will perform better in the PA program. However, to date, there are limited published studies with inconsistent results that have investigated the validity of using these preadmission characteristics to predict performance in PA programs or on the Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE). The development of a physician assistant college admission test (PA-CAT) that has predictive validity to determine PANCE success would give PA admissions committees an additional resource to make decisions. This study was ...


Impact Of An Interprofessional Education Quality Of Life Forum On Students’ Perceptions And Commitment To Addressing Local Health Disparities And The Social Determinants Of Health, Jamie Bayliss, Erin Hofmeyer, Bc Charles-Liscombe, Kristin Clephane, Sandra Matthias, Donna Glankler, Nicole Harshbarger Mar 2020

Impact Of An Interprofessional Education Quality Of Life Forum On Students’ Perceptions And Commitment To Addressing Local Health Disparities And The Social Determinants Of Health, Jamie Bayliss, Erin Hofmeyer, Bc Charles-Liscombe, Kristin Clephane, Sandra Matthias, Donna Glankler, Nicole Harshbarger

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Healthcare providers and educational programs share a challenge where limited resources make interprofessional education (IPE) and collaboration difficult. The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of IPE, specifically The Greater Cincinnati Quality of Life Forum within the School of Health Science at Mount St. Joseph University, on students’ perceptions of communication skills, collaboration, and values of interprofessional practice as they relate to emergent topics within the community and healthcare. Methods: Consenting participants completed an electronic survey with five reflection questions. Qualitative assessment included analysis of text for emergent themes. Results: Four themes evolved impacting future ...


"It Is What It Is:" Literacy Studies And Phenomenology, Jason D. Dehart Mar 2020

"It Is What It Is:" Literacy Studies And Phenomenology, Jason D. Dehart

The Qualitative Report

This investigation of the tenets of phenomenology is based on work completed using this methodology in educational studies. Specifically, the author writes about the way that phenomenology can be used when completing studies in the field of literacy. The author highlights foundational thinkers, along with major elements of methods and data collection that form the working parts of phenomenology. The author frames this article as a partially reflective account, looking at work that has been completed already, while also attempting to compose a descriptive investigation that other researchers can adopt for their own work in other fields.


Finding A Good Book To Live In: A Reflective Autoethnography On Childhood Sexual Abuse, Literature And The Epiphany, Karen D. Barley Ms Feb 2020

Finding A Good Book To Live In: A Reflective Autoethnography On Childhood Sexual Abuse, Literature And The Epiphany, Karen D. Barley Ms

The Qualitative Report

The topic of Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA) remains a prevalent issue globally and despite the best efforts of welfare organisations, it would seem that as a society we are no closer to a resolution. CSA is a topic that is discussed in vague terms, but the real impact of CSA on the child is rarely divulged, except behind closed doors. This autoethnographic study traces the life and experiences of CSA of the author and how she used literature and writing as a coping mechanism. Using this powerful methodological tool, the author has been able to expose the implications of the ...


Life Is Like A Box Of Derwents - An Autoethnography Colouring In The Life Of Child Sexual Abuse, Karen D. Barley Ms Feb 2020

Life Is Like A Box Of Derwents - An Autoethnography Colouring In The Life Of Child Sexual Abuse, Karen D. Barley Ms

The Qualitative Report

This autoethnographic study contains vignettes from my life of unrelated but interconnected experiences of sexual abuse which profoundly impacted my life through moments of epiphanous transformation. I am using my voice as the researcher and researched to write authentically and evocatively as a way of truth telling about a difficult subject. This autoethnography invites you to walk in the shoes of myself as the storyteller and for that reason the vignettes are deliberately provocative and expose aspects of my life that have previously been hidden. The vignettes weave together stories that have had a profound impact on me which eventually ...


Language Socialization Through An Oral Academic Presentation In An Efl Environment: A Qualitative Study, Remart Padua Dumlao Feb 2020

Language Socialization Through An Oral Academic Presentation In An Efl Environment: A Qualitative Study, Remart Padua Dumlao

The Qualitative Report

This article reports on a qualitative study that explored language socialization through an oral academic presentation in an EFL environment. Drawing from the notions of language socialization (Ochs & Schieffelin, 2011) and Community of Practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991), this paper sought to understand how learners negotiate their competence, as well as their identity in the oral academic activity. The participants were twenty-five student-teachers majoring in the English language at one Thai public university. Data were collected from classroom oral academic presentation transcript, multiple semi-structured interviews, classroom video-taped, and field notes. Results of data analyses pointed out that participants negotiated and constructed ...


Arranged Marriages: An Inappropriate Fabrication, Karika Sethi, Michael D. Reiter Feb 2020

Arranged Marriages: An Inappropriate Fabrication, Karika Sethi, Michael D. Reiter

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

This paper explores what an inappropriate relationship is and the taxonomy scale used to evaluate different relationships, specifically, arranged marriages. Arranged marriage is a topic that is considered taboo depending on global location. It is more prevalent in Eastern nations such as India, China, Oriental countries, and the Middle East. However, Western influence plays a significant role on what is and is not acceptable, as societal norms differ from place to place. What is defined as normal by culture is what helps to define if a relationship is or is not viewed as inappropriate. This paper is designed to explore ...