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Iowa State University

Human development and family studies

Teacher Education and Professional Development

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson Jan 2006

Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore multiple methods of assessing early childhood programs and to investigate children's individual experiences and activities in inclusive early child care and education settings. Specifically, this research investigated if individual play/learning experiences in early childhood programs differed for children with and without disabilities and the relationship between global quality of early childhood care and education programs and individual play/learning experiences of individual children with or without disabilities;Early care and education quality is a complex phenomenon influenced by variables that exist on a number of levels including overall program quality ...


Early Childhood Education In Sudan Today , Azza Moawia Habib Jan 2005

Early Childhood Education In Sudan Today , Azza Moawia Habib

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to provide empirical data to describe the quality of early childhood education in Sudan. The study was specifically designed to address the following research questions: (1) To describe Sudanese kindergarten programs' administration, teacher characteristics, teachers' perceptions of the National Early Childhood Curriculum, and program quality. (2) To examine the relation between program quality and kindergarten administration (i.e., private and governmental kindergartens). (3) To examine the relations among kindergarten quality and the following factors: program type, teacher education, teacher specialization, teacher experience, teacher training, acceptance of the National Early Childhood Curriculum, adult-child ratio, group ...


What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore Jan 2005

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore preschool teachers' understanding of make-believe play in order to aid understanding and enhance further use of teachers as informants in research on children's play. Participants included preschool teachers (n = 10) and faculty members ( n = 3) who teach early childhood educators. Their descriptions of play and make-believe play were examined through qualitative research methods, including individual interviews. In-depth analysis of the emergent themes used to describe play and make-believe play were conducted. Preschool teachers defined make-believe play as representational play that is intrinsically motivated. This report includes examination of definitions, comparisons between ...


Understanding The Outdoor Play Environment For Preschool Children In Child Care: Should We Just Let 'Em Go? , Kelly Ross Kantz Jan 2004

Understanding The Outdoor Play Environment For Preschool Children In Child Care: Should We Just Let 'Em Go? , Kelly Ross Kantz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand the outdoor play environment provided for preschool children in an inclusive early care and education center. This qualitative examination sought to determine what children and teachers do when they are outside and how the indoor and outdoor curricula are integrated. Supports and barriers for a quality outdoor play environment were identified. In addition, opportunities for development of self-determination in the outdoor environment were studied. This research sought to determine the opportunities children are provided to make choices, practice overcoming challenges, and develop friendships during outdoor play and learning.;The importance of an ...


Longitudinal Relations Of Maternal Supportiveness And Child Task-Approach Behavior To Early Cognitive Development Of Children With Developmental Risks , Hyun-Joo Jeon Jan 2004

Longitudinal Relations Of Maternal Supportiveness And Child Task-Approach Behavior To Early Cognitive Development Of Children With Developmental Risks , Hyun-Joo Jeon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of study was to investigate the longitudinal relations among maternal supportiveness, child task-approach behavior, and cognitive development for children with developmental risks. The participants (N = 400) in this study were a subset of the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. The current study used structural equation modeling analyses including growth-curve models.;Findings are that maternal supportiveness was moderately stable from the time the children were 14 to 36 months of age, but stability of child task-approach behavior was weak between 14 and 24 months of age. Child task-approach behavior became stronger as children grew older. Earlier ...


Parenting And Child Care In Rural Environments , Delora Jespersen Hade Jan 2004

Parenting And Child Care In Rural Environments , Delora Jespersen Hade

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify parental beliefs, attitudes and values, parental perceptions of ideal child care, and decisions parents make about child care as described by rural, low-income parents in central Iowa. Data were gathered using information from three focus group interviews involving ten Early Head Start families. Parents were asked to describe their parenting beliefs and identify ideal child care and how they make decisions about child care. Focus group transcriptions were used to complete content analysis. The results were fitted to an ecological model describing levels and themes of influence these rural, low-income parents experienced ...


Distance Education From The Inside Out: Experiences Grounded In The Real World Contexts Of Participants , Sherry June Washburn Jan 2004

Distance Education From The Inside Out: Experiences Grounded In The Real World Contexts Of Participants , Sherry June Washburn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In order to understand the distance education learning experience of those individual and collective participants (remote site students, origination site students, and faculty), using Bronfenbrenner's human bioecological theory as a base, I sought answers to the question "What impact does a distance learning environment have on both students and faculty?" Methods I used to gather data included small group interviews and individual in-depth interviews with both students and faculty. The data I received was anecdotal, personal experience data from the participants. I analyzed the data using qualitative methods, specifically Tesch's Steps for Developing an Organizing System for Unstructured ...


Assessing Quality In Family Child Care Homes Using An Index Derived From A Telephone Survey , Pui Khin Yong Jan 2003

Assessing Quality In Family Child Care Homes Using An Index Derived From A Telephone Survey , Pui Khin Yong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to learn whether an index derived from a telephone survey from the Midwest Child Care Research Consortium was as predictive of quality in family child care homes as assessed by the Family Day Care Rating Scale (FDCRS; Harms & Clifford, 1989) and the Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS; Arnett, 1989). The index was used to examine the relationships between the licensing status, regulatable characteristics, as well as non-regulatable characteristics and the family child care quality as measured by the FDCRS and the CIS. The function of characteristics that cannot be regulated was examined. Correlations revealed statistically significant relationships between the index and the FDCRS ...


Student Loan Debt: Insight Into Economic Well-Being Issues , Ann M. Perkins Jan 2003

Student Loan Debt: Insight Into Economic Well-Being Issues , Ann M. Perkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate economic well-being issues related to student loan debt. The sample used for this study was extracted from the Baccalaureate and Beyond survey. The focus of the study is the extent to which repayment of student loan debt is a financial hardship for graduates. Two debt-to-income ratios of (1) total monthly debt payments over total monthly household income and (2) total educational debt payments over total monthly household income are used as outcome variables. How students pay for a higher education is a critical component of family and public policy. The purpose is ...


Parent-Infant/Toddler Interactions And Early Literacy Skills , Beverly June Dodici Jan 2002

Parent-Infant/Toddler Interactions And Early Literacy Skills , Beverly June Dodici

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the relationship between parent-infant/toddler interactions and early literacy skills for families living in low-income households. Twenty-seven families participated in this longitudinal study. Videotapes of parent-infant/toddler interactions participating in "simulated" daily experiences were made when the child was 14-, 24-, and 36-months-old. These tapes were coded on a scale rating child language, parent language, emotional tone, joint attention, parental guidance, and parental responsivity, all behaviors that have been related previously to later skill development in children. These parent-infant/toddler scores were then compared with early literacy skills, measured the spring prior to kindergarten entry. Parent-infant ...


Knowledge Building Among Family Child Care Providers During A Training Using Problem-Based Learning And Computer Mediated Communication , Kathy Lynn Reschke Jan 2001

Knowledge Building Among Family Child Care Providers During A Training Using Problem-Based Learning And Computer Mediated Communication , Kathy Lynn Reschke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study, 17 family child care providers took part in a seven-week, online training that used problem-based learning to address guidance and discipline practices. A website and an e-mail list provided the context in which two groups of participants discussed causes and solutions for three real cases of preschoolers' challenging behavior. Based on social constructivist theory, this research addressed two aspects of cognitive change and group problem-solving: the process of knowledge building within a group and individual appropriation of knowledge generated by the group.;Transcripts of group discussions were analyzed for evidence of knowledge building using the Degrees of ...


Teacher-Child Verbal Interactions In Preschool Science Teaching , Tsung-Hui Tu Jan 2001

Teacher-Child Verbal Interactions In Preschool Science Teaching , Tsung-Hui Tu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine preschool teachers' verbal interactions with children during morning self-selection time. Naturalistic (Day 1) and experimental (Day 2) designs were used to provide empirical evidence of the availability of science activities and accessible science materials in preschool classrooms. The participants were 20 head teachers of 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers employed in central Iowa child care centers. Each teacher was videotaped for two consecutive days during morning self-selection time. The most frequent preschool teachers' verbal interaction for Day 1 and Day 2 combined was giving learning guidance, and they used more verbal statements than ...


Exploring The Beliefs Of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers , Angela Christi Baum Jan 2000

Exploring The Beliefs Of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers , Angela Christi Baum

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study of student beliefs can have important implications for teacher education programs. Few studies are available, however, related specifically to the beliefs of early childhood preservice teachers. The current study addresses the following research questions: What are the beliefs of preservice teachers at different levels in their early childhood education program? What influences the development of these beliefs? To explore these questions, 19 female undergraduate early childhood education preservice teachers participated in five focus groups to discuss their beliefs surrounding several issues in early childhood education (e.g., teacher role, inclusion, parent involvement). Students were divided into three groups ...


Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner Jan 2000

Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the longitudinal effects of maternal depression and stress on children's teacher-rated social skills (i.e., assertion, cooperation, and self-control) and playground observed behaviors (i.e., positive, negative, and nonsocial) in a community setting with low-income families. The current study consisted of 122 mothers and their kindergarten and/or first grade child who participated in a larger longitudinal study examining the transition of Head Start students into elementary school. Families were selected from the transition study if their incomes were less than or equal to 200% of the poverty threshold in ...


The Battleground In Kindergarten: A Contrast Between Pretend Aggression And Real Aggression In A Full-Day Kindergarten Classroom , Heidi Lin Malloy Jan 2000

The Battleground In Kindergarten: A Contrast Between Pretend Aggression And Real Aggression In A Full-Day Kindergarten Classroom , Heidi Lin Malloy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe the real and pretend aggression exhibited by 20 middle-class children in a full-day kindergarten. A qualitative analysis was used to discover the sequence of aggressive episodes and how children executed aggressive acts within the episodes. Boys displayed the majority of aggressive behaviors, but only a small group of boys consistently participated in both real and pretend aggression. In episodes of pretend aggression, the aggressor was most likely to shoot, threaten, hit, or blow up a person, object, or imaginary character. In contrast, the aggressor was most likely to grab, taunt, name-call, push ...


Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees Jan 1998

Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, parents have been considered the primary source of influence on development in children. However many preschoolers spend substantial portions of their day in child care surrounded by peers. This study surveyed mothers', fathers', (n = 112) and early childhood educators' (n = 30) beliefs regarding their influence relative to other developmental agents (genetics, peers, siblings, and the child's own effort) on six cognitively and socially oriented child competencies. The parents' child (M = 49 months) served as the target child. All children received 30+ hours a week of nonparental care. Mother, father, and child lived within the same household. Ile child ...


Play Behaviors And Peer Interactions Of Preschoolers In Classroom And Playground Settings , Sook-Young Shim Jan 1997

Play Behaviors And Peer Interactions Of Preschoolers In Classroom And Playground Settings , Sook-Young Shim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship among different settings for young children's play behaviors and peer interactions was examined. The participants were forty-one children from 2 to 5 years of age (21 2- and 3-year-olds and 20 4- and 5-year-olds) enrolled in three child care programs. The children were videotaped for 5 minutes each on 4 different days both indoors and outdoors. Program measures described the quality of the child care program (the Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Programs) and additional measures described the playground setting. Children's play behaviors were categorized using the Parten-Smilansky Scale, which combines social play categories and cognitive ...


Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong Jan 1997

Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine an exploratory model to explain the interactive relationships among parents' number and monetary practices, and their kindergartners' number concepts, monetary concepts, and monetary skills. The 207 kindergartners participated in three number and monetary tasks during clinical interviews. Each child's father or mother completed two kinds of home practices questionnaires. By using path analysis through LISREL 8.12, the results showed that kindergartners' use of money was significantly influenced by their number concepts (i.e., cardinality) and knowledge of coins (i.e., knowing the coin names and coin values). Kindergartners' cardinality benefited ...


Foster Parent Licensing: Personal Characteristics, Parenting Attitudes, And Training Experiences , Amy Moeller Yates Jan 1996

Foster Parent Licensing: Personal Characteristics, Parenting Attitudes, And Training Experiences , Amy Moeller Yates

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing foster parent licensing. Data collected on survey questionnaires and telephone interviews included personal characteristics, altitudes toward parenting, attitudes toward foster parenting, and perceptions of foster parent training. Data were collected prior to foster parent preservice training, immediately after training, and 6 months following training. Participants included 113 persons (77 females and 36 males) who attended foster parent training in Iowa. Logistic regressions were performed and indicated that attitudes toward parenting and perceptions of foster parent training had significant (p <.01) effects on foster parent licensing. Permutations were performed to ensure results were not artifactual. The model explained 23% of the total variance and correctly predicted 79% of all cases. Persons with more appropriate parenting attitudes were more likely to become licensed foster parents. Perceived usefulness of 2 of the 7 training objectives were found to have an effect on foster parent licensing. The significant (p <.05) training objectives were "preparing for the role of foster parent" and "understanding the foster care system." Neither personal characteristics (such as age, gender, and income) nor attitudes toward foster parenting influenced foster parent licensing;Persons with more education were less likely to perceive foster parent training as useful in meeting several training objectives. Furthermore, more educated participants were less likely to perceive foster parent training as useful overall. T-tests indicated significant differences (p <.01) in parenting and foster parenting attitudes between white and nonwhite participants. While both whites and nonwhites held appropriate attitudes toward parenting, white participants scored significantly lower (p <.01) than nonwhite participants. Lower scores indicated more appropriate parenting attitudes. Female participants identified with the role of foster parent significantly more than their male cohorts. These results suggest that foster parent preservice training must take into account the various needs of persons from diverse backgrounds.


The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff Jan 1995

The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although play and toys have been shown in the literature to benefit children in a variety of domains, relatively little is known about the effects of specific types of toys on the behavior and attitudes of children. Chapter 1 consolidates research that has attempted to discover the relationship between children's attitudes/behaviors and war toys. Research concerning the benefits of play and toys to children is presented, followed by the opposing viewpoints of aggression theorists regarding this issue. Research supporting each side of the debate is presented. Finally, variables that are likely to affect the war toy-child aggression relationship ...


Young Children's Acquisition Of Mathematical Knowledge And Mathematics Education In Kindergarten , Kuei-Er Chung Jan 1994

Young Children's Acquisition Of Mathematical Knowledge And Mathematics Education In Kindergarten , Kuei-Er Chung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Kindergarten is a bridge linking children's informally learned mathematical knowledge to formal school-taught Mathematics; To gain a better understanding of young children's acquisition of mathematical knowledge and actual mathematics teaching and learning in kindergarten, this dissertation aims to (1) examine existing literature on young children's acquisition of mathematical knowledge, (2) examine existing literature on the current classroom practices in kindergarten, and (3) investigate actual classroom practices relating to mathematics teaching and learning in kindergarten;To investigate kindergarten classroom practices in mathematical teaching and learning, 30 Iowa kindergarten teachers and children in their classes were studied. Relations between ...


Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee Jan 1994

Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to explore the sibling relationships in low-income families. This study utilized a subsample of a larger longitudinal study and included 35 Head Start and 45 kindergarten children who had older siblings. All subjects were low income. Among the kindergarten children, 29 had attended Head Start. Children were interviewed about their relationships with their older siblings. When a child had more than one older sibling, random sampling was used to select the older sibling on whom to focus the interview. There were no significant differences between Head Start and kindergarten children in their descriptions ...


Teacher Beliefs And Classroom Practices Regarding A Curriculum That Is Multicultural And Antibias , Valerie Jarvis Samuels Jan 1994

Teacher Beliefs And Classroom Practices Regarding A Curriculum That Is Multicultural And Antibias , Valerie Jarvis Samuels

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Census information and demographic predictions indicate that by the year 2000 one of three Americans will be a person of color. This changing cultural composition has fueled educators to restructure education for children. Specifically, numerous early childhood educators have embraced the notion of weaving a more cultural and antibias perspective into existing curricula for young children. To gain an understanding of early childhood education as it relates to multicultural and antibias sensitivity according to teachers' perceptions and classroom practices, this dissertation aims to (1) examine strands of literature under the auspices of early childhood education as it relates to education ...


Quality Of Caregiver-Child Relationship And Its Effect On Child Satisfaction With Daycare, Susan D. Zarr Jan 1993

Quality Of Caregiver-Child Relationship And Its Effect On Child Satisfaction With Daycare, Susan D. Zarr

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Emergent Literacy: The Role Of Parent-Child Interactions , Deanna Sue Gilkerson Jan 1993

Emergent Literacy: The Role Of Parent-Child Interactions , Deanna Sue Gilkerson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study was designed to explore the role that parent-child interactions play in the four areas of emergent literacy: letter knowledge, knowledge about environmental print, knowledge of the purpose and function of print, and story knowledge. It was predicted that parents who engaged in more emergent literacy activities with their children would have children who would score higher on the emergent literacy tasks, that fathers and mothers would differ in the amount and types of emergent literacy behaviors they engage in, and that there would be a significant difference in the type and amount of scaffolding behaviors of parents ...


Early Mathematics Teaching And Learning In Sudanese Families, Azza Moawia Habib Jan 1992

Early Mathematics Teaching And Learning In Sudanese Families, Azza Moawia Habib

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Educators' Beliefs About Kindergarten Practices , Gloysis Mayers Jan 1991

Educators' Beliefs About Kindergarten Practices , Gloysis Mayers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Educators' beliefs about kindergarten practices were investigated in this study. Subjects were 56 kindergarten teachers, 51 first-grade teachers and 47 principals from Iowa public school districts offering full-day every day kindergarten programs and 46 kindergarten teachers, 43 first-grade teachers and 45 principals from schools offering half-day every day programs. A majority of the kindergarten teachers have 11+ years of kindergarten teaching experience and an elementary (K-6) teaching certification. The Teacher Information Survey and the Teacher Questionnaire addressing teachers' beliefs and instructional classroom practices were completed. Results from ANOVA and the Duncan multiple range test revealed that kindergarten teachers first-grade teachers ...


Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta Jan 1991

Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Relatively few studies have documented the nature of mother-father-child play interactions at home, especially during the preschool years. Based on the ecological approach regarding the relationship of play behavior as a function of the playing child and the play environment (Darvill, 1982), this study investigated the play of 48 3- and 5-year-old boys and girls with their parents in their home. The mother-father-child play was videotaped for 10 minutes and later coded for child's social-cognitive play behaviors and the parental involvement of mother and father. Quality of home environment was measured using the HOME Inventory scale (preschool version);Differences ...