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Iowa State University

Human development and family studies

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson Jan 2006

Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore multiple methods of assessing early childhood programs and to investigate children's individual experiences and activities in inclusive early child care and education settings. Specifically, this research investigated if individual play/learning experiences in early childhood programs differed for children with and without disabilities and the relationship between global quality of early childhood care and education programs and individual play/learning experiences of individual children with or without disabilities;Early care and education quality is a complex phenomenon influenced by variables that exist on a number of levels including overall program quality ...


What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore Jan 2005

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore preschool teachers' understanding of make-believe play in order to aid understanding and enhance further use of teachers as informants in research on children's play. Participants included preschool teachers (n = 10) and faculty members ( n = 3) who teach early childhood educators. Their descriptions of play and make-believe play were examined through qualitative research methods, including individual interviews. In-depth analysis of the emergent themes used to describe play and make-believe play were conducted. Preschool teachers defined make-believe play as representational play that is intrinsically motivated. This report includes examination of definitions, comparisons between ...


Effects Of Boundary Regulation On Children's Academic Performance: A Systems Perspective Of Family Functioning , Jane Rose Muthoni Njue Jan 2005

Effects Of Boundary Regulation On Children's Academic Performance: A Systems Perspective Of Family Functioning , Jane Rose Muthoni Njue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Systems theory was used to link family functioning in the task of boundary regulation to adolescents' academic performance. Boundary regulation, a family task defined in terms of proximity and generation hierarchy, is believed to be the most critical to family functioning because it sets a precondition for the execution of other family tasks. Data from Wave II of the National Survey of Families and Household (NSFH) were used to identify family interaction patterns that reflect proximity and generation hierarchy aspects of boundary regulation, utilizing both parent and adolescent responses. Proximity was measured by items representing physical and emotional closeness of ...


Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago Jan 2005

Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The number of international students continues to grow in the United States, especially students from the Asian continent. However, research continues to show that Asian international students tend to under-use therapeutic services, even though they experience many of the common problems that all students face entering college. Before mental health practitioners and therapists can effectively work with these students, they need to understand international students in terms of their attitudes toward seeking professional therapeutic help and various proximal variables that may influence their attitudes.;The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity, spirituality, acculturation, and racism with attitudes toward ...


Assessing The Relationship Between Encouragement And Social Interest: An Adlerian Perspective , Michael Patrick Mcclain Jan 2005

Assessing The Relationship Between Encouragement And Social Interest: An Adlerian Perspective , Michael Patrick Mcclain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research utilized data from Reconnecting Youth in Iowa, a positive youth development program for at-risk students, to assess the relationship between two Adlerian psychology constructs: encouragement and social interest. Relevant survey questions utilized in outcome studies for the program were clustered into the theoretical constructs. Pearson product moment correlations revealed broad correlations between indicators of encouragement and social interest. Analysis of variance revealed there were significant difference between high, moderate, and low levels of encouragement on most social interest indicators. Implications for helping professionals and programmatic efforts are discussed.


Understanding The Outdoor Play Environment For Preschool Children In Child Care: Should We Just Let 'Em Go? , Kelly Ross Kantz Jan 2004

Understanding The Outdoor Play Environment For Preschool Children In Child Care: Should We Just Let 'Em Go? , Kelly Ross Kantz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand the outdoor play environment provided for preschool children in an inclusive early care and education center. This qualitative examination sought to determine what children and teachers do when they are outside and how the indoor and outdoor curricula are integrated. Supports and barriers for a quality outdoor play environment were identified. In addition, opportunities for development of self-determination in the outdoor environment were studied. This research sought to determine the opportunities children are provided to make choices, practice overcoming challenges, and develop friendships during outdoor play and learning.;The importance of an ...


Distance Education From The Inside Out: Experiences Grounded In The Real World Contexts Of Participants , Sherry June Washburn Jan 2004

Distance Education From The Inside Out: Experiences Grounded In The Real World Contexts Of Participants , Sherry June Washburn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In order to understand the distance education learning experience of those individual and collective participants (remote site students, origination site students, and faculty), using Bronfenbrenner's human bioecological theory as a base, I sought answers to the question "What impact does a distance learning environment have on both students and faculty?" Methods I used to gather data included small group interviews and individual in-depth interviews with both students and faculty. The data I received was anecdotal, personal experience data from the participants. I analyzed the data using qualitative methods, specifically Tesch's Steps for Developing an Organizing System for Unstructured ...


Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan Jan 2004

Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation are threefold: first, to examine a model of how socioeconomic status, parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and adolescents' self-esteem might be causally related; second, to examine whether or not the proposed model is structurally invariant across gender and grade; and third, to determine whether family income, paternal and maternal education, and paternal and maternal occupational prestige make unique contributions to nurturant and punitive parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and self-esteem. Structural equation results showed that socioeconomic status has a significant and positive effect on nurturant parenting and on adolescents' academic achievement, which, in turn, affect adolescent self-esteem ...


The Influence Of Individual Characteristics And Parenting Behaviors On Adolescent Academic Performance , Keren M. Zuniga Jan 2004

The Influence Of Individual Characteristics And Parenting Behaviors On Adolescent Academic Performance , Keren M. Zuniga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to discover the effects of adolescent autonomy, parental academic involvement and parental academic expectations as they link gender, age, ethnicity, and immigrant generation to adolescent academic performance. A selected sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data set (Add Health) was used to examine these relationships specifically for Latino/as with comparisons drawn to White, African American, and Asian adolescents. Special emphasis was also placed on gender differences for each ethnic/racial group. The outcome variable of adolescent academic performance was assessed using the adolescent's reported grade point average (GPA). The ...


Longitudinal Relations Of Maternal Supportiveness And Child Task-Approach Behavior To Early Cognitive Development Of Children With Developmental Risks , Hyun-Joo Jeon Jan 2004

Longitudinal Relations Of Maternal Supportiveness And Child Task-Approach Behavior To Early Cognitive Development Of Children With Developmental Risks , Hyun-Joo Jeon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of study was to investigate the longitudinal relations among maternal supportiveness, child task-approach behavior, and cognitive development for children with developmental risks. The participants (N = 400) in this study were a subset of the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. The current study used structural equation modeling analyses including growth-curve models.;Findings are that maternal supportiveness was moderately stable from the time the children were 14 to 36 months of age, but stability of child task-approach behavior was weak between 14 and 24 months of age. Child task-approach behavior became stronger as children grew older. Earlier ...


Student Loan Debt: Insight Into Economic Well-Being Issues , Ann M. Perkins Jan 2003

Student Loan Debt: Insight Into Economic Well-Being Issues , Ann M. Perkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate economic well-being issues related to student loan debt. The sample used for this study was extracted from the Baccalaureate and Beyond survey. The focus of the study is the extent to which repayment of student loan debt is a financial hardship for graduates. Two debt-to-income ratios of (1) total monthly debt payments over total monthly household income and (2) total educational debt payments over total monthly household income are used as outcome variables. How students pay for a higher education is a critical component of family and public policy. The purpose is ...


How Dual-Earner Adoptive Couples Distribute Family Labor Responsibilities In Special-Needs Adoptive Placements , Darren Anthony Wozny Jan 2002

How Dual-Earner Adoptive Couples Distribute Family Labor Responsibilities In Special-Needs Adoptive Placements , Darren Anthony Wozny

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ten dual-earner adoptive couples within the initial 18 months of their special-needs adoptive placement were interviewed regarding how they organize their family and work lives to provide consistent care for their adoptive child. The analysis identified six major content domains: (a) non-adoption-specific family challenges; (b) adoption-specific family challenges; (c) extent of social support for adoptive couples; (d) experiences that helped in the adoption adjustment; (e) sharing family responsibilities; (f) adoptive parents' management of their work contexts. The latter two domains are most closely related to the primary research question. In terms of sharing family responsibilities, several themes were identified: (a ...


Parent-Infant/Toddler Interactions And Early Literacy Skills , Beverly June Dodici Jan 2002

Parent-Infant/Toddler Interactions And Early Literacy Skills , Beverly June Dodici

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the relationship between parent-infant/toddler interactions and early literacy skills for families living in low-income households. Twenty-seven families participated in this longitudinal study. Videotapes of parent-infant/toddler interactions participating in "simulated" daily experiences were made when the child was 14-, 24-, and 36-months-old. These tapes were coded on a scale rating child language, parent language, emotional tone, joint attention, parental guidance, and parental responsivity, all behaviors that have been related previously to later skill development in children. These parent-infant/toddler scores were then compared with early literacy skills, measured the spring prior to kindergarten entry. Parent-infant ...


The Preparation Of Pastors In Premarital Counseling , Jeffrey Karl Buikema Jan 2001

The Preparation Of Pastors In Premarital Counseling , Jeffrey Karl Buikema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Historically, clergy have been the primary providers of premarital counseling (PMC). Over the past 50 years, limited research has been focused on the preparation needs of pastors in PMC. When asked, they claimed to feel inadequate as PMC providers. They cited inadequate seminary education as the reason (Babb, 1992; Buikema, 1999; Ipes, 1982; Loskot, 1993; Stahmann & Hiebert, 1997).;The purpose of this qualitative research study was to examine the "lived experience" of pastors and their PMC ring needs by seeking their direct input. Twelve interviews were conducted. The researcher developed a 10-question protocol based on his previous research on PMC (Buikema, 1999 ...


Teacher-Child Verbal Interactions In Preschool Science Teaching , Tsung-Hui Tu Jan 2001

Teacher-Child Verbal Interactions In Preschool Science Teaching , Tsung-Hui Tu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine preschool teachers' verbal interactions with children during morning self-selection time. Naturalistic (Day 1) and experimental (Day 2) designs were used to provide empirical evidence of the availability of science activities and accessible science materials in preschool classrooms. The participants were 20 head teachers of 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers employed in central Iowa child care centers. Each teacher was videotaped for two consecutive days during morning self-selection time. The most frequent preschool teachers' verbal interaction for Day 1 and Day 2 combined was giving learning guidance, and they used more verbal statements than ...


Knowledge Building Among Family Child Care Providers During A Training Using Problem-Based Learning And Computer Mediated Communication , Kathy Lynn Reschke Jan 2001

Knowledge Building Among Family Child Care Providers During A Training Using Problem-Based Learning And Computer Mediated Communication , Kathy Lynn Reschke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study, 17 family child care providers took part in a seven-week, online training that used problem-based learning to address guidance and discipline practices. A website and an e-mail list provided the context in which two groups of participants discussed causes and solutions for three real cases of preschoolers' challenging behavior. Based on social constructivist theory, this research addressed two aspects of cognitive change and group problem-solving: the process of knowledge building within a group and individual appropriation of knowledge generated by the group.;Transcripts of group discussions were analyzed for evidence of knowledge building using the Degrees of ...


Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner Jan 2000

Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the longitudinal effects of maternal depression and stress on children's teacher-rated social skills (i.e., assertion, cooperation, and self-control) and playground observed behaviors (i.e., positive, negative, and nonsocial) in a community setting with low-income families. The current study consisted of 122 mothers and their kindergarten and/or first grade child who participated in a larger longitudinal study examining the transition of Head Start students into elementary school. Families were selected from the transition study if their incomes were less than or equal to 200% of the poverty threshold in ...


The Home Environments Of Children With Disabilities: Implications For Peer Relationships And Self-Determination , Cheryl Lynn Geisthardt Jan 1998

The Home Environments Of Children With Disabilities: Implications For Peer Relationships And Self-Determination , Cheryl Lynn Geisthardt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research reported here explores the role of the home environment in the development of peer relationships and skills contributing to self-determination for children with disabilities. More specifically, the roles that parents and the physical environment play in regulating peer relationships and providing opportunities to exert control, make choices and act independently in the home are examined. A literature review and two research studies examining the home environments of children with disabilities are presented;The first study uses qualitative data analysis of in-depth family interviews and home observations to examine the experiences children with disabilities have with peers in the ...


Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees Jan 1998

Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, parents have been considered the primary source of influence on development in children. However many preschoolers spend substantial portions of their day in child care surrounded by peers. This study surveyed mothers', fathers', (n = 112) and early childhood educators' (n = 30) beliefs regarding their influence relative to other developmental agents (genetics, peers, siblings, and the child's own effort) on six cognitively and socially oriented child competencies. The parents' child (M = 49 months) served as the target child. All children received 30+ hours a week of nonparental care. Mother, father, and child lived within the same household. Ile child ...


Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera Jan 1997

Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the population in the United States. Consequently, that growth will have a dramatic effect on this country.. The high number of Latino youth that drop out of school is exceedingly critical in light of the fact that by the turn of the century less than 14 percent of jobs will require less than a high school diploma. There is divergence among researchers as to the cause of the high drop out rates. Some attribute it directly to socioeconomic factors while others argue that those factors should be viewed as distal influences and that ...


Play Behaviors And Peer Interactions Of Preschoolers In Classroom And Playground Settings , Sook-Young Shim Jan 1997

Play Behaviors And Peer Interactions Of Preschoolers In Classroom And Playground Settings , Sook-Young Shim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship among different settings for young children's play behaviors and peer interactions was examined. The participants were forty-one children from 2 to 5 years of age (21 2- and 3-year-olds and 20 4- and 5-year-olds) enrolled in three child care programs. The children were videotaped for 5 minutes each on 4 different days both indoors and outdoors. Program measures described the quality of the child care program (the Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Programs) and additional measures described the playground setting. Children's play behaviors were categorized using the Parten-Smilansky Scale, which combines social play categories and cognitive ...


Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong Jan 1997

Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine an exploratory model to explain the interactive relationships among parents' number and monetary practices, and their kindergartners' number concepts, monetary concepts, and monetary skills. The 207 kindergartners participated in three number and monetary tasks during clinical interviews. Each child's father or mother completed two kinds of home practices questionnaires. By using path analysis through LISREL 8.12, the results showed that kindergartners' use of money was significantly influenced by their number concepts (i.e., cardinality) and knowledge of coins (i.e., knowing the coin names and coin values). Kindergartners' cardinality benefited ...


The Influence Of Parent Gender On Division Of Work In Families Of Children With Disabilities , Lynn Terri Martin Jan 1996

The Influence Of Parent Gender On Division Of Work In Families Of Children With Disabilities , Lynn Terri Martin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative study which examined the influence of parent gender on division of work in families of children with disabilities. Thirty-three interviews were completed with mothers and fathers from ten families over a four year period. The study used a family systems framework to examine child and family characteristics, family perceptions, family interactions, and social roles and family work. Data was obtained through in-depth interviews and family stories and cross-cutting themes were identified and discussed. Results indicated mothers are continuing to assume the majority of the work including direct and indirect child care, and are experiencing role strain ...


Foster Parent Licensing: Personal Characteristics, Parenting Attitudes, And Training Experiences , Amy Moeller Yates Jan 1996

Foster Parent Licensing: Personal Characteristics, Parenting Attitudes, And Training Experiences , Amy Moeller Yates

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing foster parent licensing. Data collected on survey questionnaires and telephone interviews included personal characteristics, altitudes toward parenting, attitudes toward foster parenting, and perceptions of foster parent training. Data were collected prior to foster parent preservice training, immediately after training, and 6 months following training. Participants included 113 persons (77 females and 36 males) who attended foster parent training in Iowa. Logistic regressions were performed and indicated that attitudes toward parenting and perceptions of foster parent training had significant (p <.01) effects on foster parent licensing. Permutations were performed to ensure results were not artifactual. The model explained 23% of the total variance and correctly predicted 79% of all cases. Persons with more appropriate parenting attitudes were more likely to become licensed foster parents. Perceived usefulness of 2 of the 7 training objectives were found to have an effect on foster parent licensing. The significant (p <.05) training objectives were "preparing for the role of foster parent" and "understanding the foster care system." Neither personal characteristics (such as age, gender, and income) nor attitudes toward foster parenting influenced foster parent licensing;Persons with more education were less likely to perceive foster parent training as useful in meeting several training objectives. Furthermore, more educated participants were less likely to perceive foster parent training as useful overall. T-tests indicated significant differences (p <.01) in parenting and foster parenting attitudes between white and nonwhite participants. While both whites and nonwhites held appropriate attitudes toward parenting, white participants scored significantly lower (p <.01) than nonwhite participants. Lower scores indicated more appropriate parenting attitudes. Female participants identified with the role of foster parent significantly more than their male cohorts. These results suggest that foster parent preservice training must take into account the various needs of persons from diverse backgrounds.


The Effects Of Life-Stress, Social Support And Health On Formal Medical Utilization: A Longitudinal Study , Haeseon Lee Jan 1996

The Effects Of Life-Stress, Social Support And Health On Formal Medical Utilization: A Longitudinal Study , Haeseon Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research explored the relationships between life stress, social support and health on health service use behavior for elderly individuals, 70 years and older. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2590) were analyzed by using structural equation modeling (LISREL). The results revealed that initial life stresses (financial stress and physical stress) at Time 1 were indirectly related to formal medical service utilization through social support especially functional support (availability of support) and health status measured at Time 2 (perception of functional ability and actual illness level);Different dimensions of social support function differently, however, all of the quantitative ...


Family Financial Management: A Real World Perspective , Glenn Allen Muske Jan 1996

Family Financial Management: A Real World Perspective , Glenn Allen Muske

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine techniques used by families in the day-to-day management of their finances. The purpose is accomplished by analysis of data gathered through a series of in-depth interviews with the family money manager in seven different families. Each family was interviewed for a minimum of four hours, to examine what the family actually does and their reported explanation of why they do it. The families are all white, in first marriages, with children living at home. The family financial managers have a bachelor's degree or less, and both spouses are employed at least ...


The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff Jan 1995

The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although play and toys have been shown in the literature to benefit children in a variety of domains, relatively little is known about the effects of specific types of toys on the behavior and attitudes of children. Chapter 1 consolidates research that has attempted to discover the relationship between children's attitudes/behaviors and war toys. Research concerning the benefits of play and toys to children is presented, followed by the opposing viewpoints of aggression theorists regarding this issue. Research supporting each side of the debate is presented. Finally, variables that are likely to affect the war toy-child aggression relationship ...


Sex And Earnings Differentials Among Home-Based Workers , Hyochung Kim Jan 1995

Sex And Earnings Differentials Among Home-Based Workers , Hyochung Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to examine the earnings differentials between men and women and to find the factors explaining the differentials among home-based workers with comparison to on-site workers. The overall hypotheses examined were: (a) sex is a significant factor in choosing simultaneously occupation and location of work, and (b) sex is a significant factor in determining the earnings, given the choice of occupation and location of work. The data from Census of Population and Housing, 1990 (United States): Public Use Microdata Sample: 1/10,000 Sample were used for this study. One of the major findings of ...


Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee Jan 1994

Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to explore the sibling relationships in low-income families. This study utilized a subsample of a larger longitudinal study and included 35 Head Start and 45 kindergarten children who had older siblings. All subjects were low income. Among the kindergarten children, 29 had attended Head Start. Children were interviewed about their relationships with their older siblings. When a child had more than one older sibling, random sampling was used to select the older sibling on whom to focus the interview. There were no significant differences between Head Start and kindergarten children in their descriptions ...


The Impact Of Household Characteristics On Household Consumption Behavior: A Demand System Analysis On The Consumption Behavior Of Urban Households In The Province Of Central Java, Indonesia , Hamonangan Ritonga Jan 1994

The Impact Of Household Characteristics On Household Consumption Behavior: A Demand System Analysis On The Consumption Behavior Of Urban Households In The Province Of Central Java, Indonesia , Hamonangan Ritonga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Consumer demand theory has long dominated the study of household consumption behavior. This theory, however, incorporates only the effects of prices and income on consumer demand, with tastes as given. In addition, most previous empirical studies have been applying this theory to aggregate data and to an incomplete household expenditure/demand system;This study draws attention to the use of household characteristics in household demand analysis. The main goal of this study is to estimate a complete, theoretically plausible system of household demand to investigate the impact of household characteristics on household consumption behavior in the province of Central Java ...