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Full-Text Articles in Education

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung Dec 2018

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung

English Publications

In the past 2 decades, there has been an increasing tendency to use scores from the TOEFL iBT® Speaking test for decisions regarding the certification of international graduate students as teaching assistants at North American universities. To obtain validity evidence in support of the usefulness of the speaking scores for this secondary use of the test, this study adopted the argument‐based approach to validation. Focusing on the domain description inference in the TOEFL interpretive argument, the study investigated whether the language functions elicited by TOEFL iBT Speaking tasks can be identified in authentic discourse produced by international teaching assistants ...


Attending To Phenomenology: Rethinking Cognition And Reflection In North American Writing Studies, Dylan B. Dryer, David R. Russell Jun 2018

Attending To Phenomenology: Rethinking Cognition And Reflection In North American Writing Studies, Dylan B. Dryer, David R. Russell

English Publications

As detailed elsewhere in this collection (esp. Bazerman; Carillo; Talbot), when North American Writing Studies of higher education and workplaces (henceforth, NAWS) turned to European continental philosophies, it turned away from information-processing (IP) cognitive theories. Those theories were early casualties of this “social-turn” (e.g., Bartholomae, 1985; Bizzell, 1982; Brand, 1987); today, NAWS seems somewhat squeamish about the fact that the brain is an organ with a broadly generalizable structure, predictable development, capacity constraints, operating costs, and so on. Yet cognitive research is a dynamic and thriving field that does not much resemble the after-image that persists in NAWS. Some ...


Addressing Diversity In Call Evaluation Through Arguments And Theory-Of-Action, Jim R. Ranalli Mar 2018

Addressing Diversity In Call Evaluation Through Arguments And Theory-Of-Action, Jim R. Ranalli

English Publications

THE DIVERSE AND EVER-CHANGING list of technologies encompassed by computer-assisted language learning (CALL) presents evaluators with a challenging moving target. At a time when CALL can include everything from school-based telecollaborative projects to Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), to smartphone- and tablet-based apps, previous approaches to evaluation reveal their inadequacies. The checklists that once predominated (see Susser 2001) assumed the focus of evaluation to be tutorial software known as “courseware,” which now constitutes a much-diminished part of the CALL landscape. Methodological frameworks like the one proposed by Hubbard (2006) assume the role of an instructor and a course in which ...


Innovative Implementation Of A Web-Based Rating System For Individualizing Online English Speaking Instruction, Hyejin Yang, Elena Cotos Feb 2018

Innovative Implementation Of A Web-Based Rating System For Individualizing Online English Speaking Instruction, Hyejin Yang, Elena Cotos

English Publications

The primary goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in general, and of online language instruction in particular, is to create and evaluate language learning opportunities. To be effective, online language courses need to be guided by an integrated set of theoretical perspectives to second language acquisition (SLA), as well as by specific curricular goals, learning objectives and outcomes, appropriate tasks and necessary materials, and learners’ characteristics and abilities – to name a few factors that are essential in both online and face-to-face teaching (Xu & Morris, 2007). Doughty and Long (2003) articulate pedagogical principles for computer-enhanced language teaching, which highlight the importance ...


Technology And Strategy Instruction, Jim Ranalli Feb 2018

Technology And Strategy Instruction, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

Since the 1970s, one strand of second language (L2) pedagogy has been concerned with imparting behaviors and techniques to learners that they can use independently to improve their learning and use of the target language. This strand, known as strategy instruction (SI), has faced a number of challenges including overdependence on teachers for instruction, competition for space in already crowded syllabuses, and the need to provide individualized practice and feedback on strategy use. This entry explores recent efforts to harness digital technologies in support of SI initiatives.


Inaccurate Metacognitive Monitoring And Its Effects On Metacognitive Control And Task Outcomes In Self-Regulated L2 Learning, Jim Ranalli Feb 2018

Inaccurate Metacognitive Monitoring And Its Effects On Metacognitive Control And Task Outcomes In Self-Regulated L2 Learning, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

Accurate metacognitive monitoring of one’s own knowledge or performance is a precondition for self-regulated learning; monitoring informs metacognitive control, which in turn affects task outcomes. Studies of monitoring accuracy and its connection to knowledge and performance are common in psychology and educational research but rare in instructed SLA. This paper describes two studies in which actual performance and self-evaluated performance were compared. In Study 1, 64 college-level ESL learners completed L2 vocabulary tasks that differed in complexity and familiarity. Wide discrepancies in monitoring accuracy were observed. In Study 2, the same sample was divided into two groups, and the ...


L2-Arctic: A Non-Native English Speech Corpus, Guanlong Zhao, Sinem Sonsaat, Alif O. Silpachai, Ivana Lucic, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John Levis, Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna Jan 2018

L2-Arctic: A Non-Native English Speech Corpus, Guanlong Zhao, Sinem Sonsaat, Alif O. Silpachai, Ivana Lucic, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John Levis, Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna

English Publications

In this paper, we introduce L2-ARCTIC, a speech corpus of non-native English that is intended for research in voice conversion, accent conversion, and mispronunciation detection. This initial release includes recordings from ten non-native speakers of English whose first languages (L1s) are Hindi, Korean, Mandarin, Spanish, and Arabic, each L1 containing recordings from one male and one female speaker. Each speaker recorded approximately one hour of read speech from the Carnegie Mellon University ARCTIC prompts, from which we generated orthographic and forced-aligned phonetic transcriptions. In addition, we manually annotated 150 utterances per speaker to identify three types of mispronunciation errors: substitutions ...


The Affordances Of Process-Tracing Technologies For Supporting L2 Writing Instruction, Jim R. Ranalli, Hui-Hsien Feng, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen Jan 2018

The Affordances Of Process-Tracing Technologies For Supporting L2 Writing Instruction, Jim R. Ranalli, Hui-Hsien Feng, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen

English Publications

The research literature on L2 writing processes contains a multitude of insights that could inform writing instruction, but writing teachers are constrained in their capacity to make use of these insights insofar as they lack detailed information about how their students’ actually engage in the processes of writing. At the same time, writing-process researchers have been using powerful technologies to trace writers’ process engagement—namely, keystroke-logging and eye-tracking—that are potentially applicable in educational settings. In this article, we describe a pilot effort to integrate these technologies into L2 writing instruction with college-level ESL students. In addition to illustrating three ...


Pronunciation—Research Into Practice And Practice Into Research, John M. Levis, Ana Wu Jan 2018

Pronunciation—Research Into Practice And Practice Into Research, John M. Levis, Ana Wu

English Publications

The field of second language (L2) pronunciation is attracting researchers with many interests, as well as the teachers who have always been interested in the field. Evidence is growing that pronunciation teaching is successful at promoting greater intelligibility, and that pronunciation learning is not strongly constrained by the age at which learning takes place. The importance of pronunciation in current approaches to language means that L2 pronunciation has a strong teaching-research connection, in which teaching practices are influenced by research, and research agendas are explicitly influenced by practical questions. This growing interest is visible in the field’s dedicated conferences ...