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Iowa State University

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2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Education

Promoting Transformative Learning: Extension Partnerships Focused On An Ethic Of Caring, Nancy K. Franz, Jerri Baumeister, Leslie Van Dyke, Barbara Wollan Dec 2018

Promoting Transformative Learning: Extension Partnerships Focused On An Ethic Of Caring, Nancy K. Franz, Jerri Baumeister, Leslie Van Dyke, Barbara Wollan

Education Publications

Extension is known for creating educational environments conducive to the transformative learning required for people to change their perspectives and make better decisions in their lives. However, creating such environments is not easy. The complex Extension context often produces barriers to including program components that support transformative learning. Extension partnerships with nonprofits, government units, and businesses can reduce these barriers and enhance the potential for transformative learning by fostering caring program environments. A partnership between Extension and United Way exemplifies one model for developing programs focused on creating caring educational environments that encourage and sustain transformative learning.


Misconceptions On Part-Part-Whole Proportional Relationships Using Proportional Division Problems, Ji-Yeong I, Ricardo Martinez, Barbara Dougherty Nov 2018

Misconceptions On Part-Part-Whole Proportional Relationships Using Proportional Division Problems, Ji-Yeong I, Ricardo Martinez, Barbara Dougherty

Education Publications

This study focuses on proportional division, a specific problem type of proportions and proportional relationships, which embeds a part-part-whole relationship. We investigated how students in grades 6 to 9 solved and perceived three proportional division problems. Analysis of the students’ performance on the tasks revealed three types of misconceptions emerged in solving proportional division problems: regarding a ratio as a number, additive reasoning, and confusion about the whole. Confusion about the whole was the misconception that appeared most frequently across all grades. This finding suggests teachers should provide various types of proportional problems, especially with part-part-whole ratios. Proportional division is ...


Origins Of Early Stem Interest For Black Male Graduate Students In Engineering: A Community Cultural Wealth Perspective, Brian A. Burt, Jarrel T. Johnson Sep 2018

Origins Of Early Stem Interest For Black Male Graduate Students In Engineering: A Community Cultural Wealth Perspective, Brian A. Burt, Jarrel T. Johnson

Education Publications

The development of talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields remains a national priority, one for which increasing the number of STEM participants from historically underrepresented populations is germane. Increasing the number of historically underrepresented students who complete advanced degrees in STEM will not only aid in solving national problems such as building infrastructure and strengthening national security, but also provide more models of success for future generations. Addressing this priority requires developing a better understanding of what leads students into and through STEM pathways, and finding ways to eliminate systemic barriers to their participation in STEM. This ...


Toward A Theory Of Engineering Professorial Intentions: The Role Of Research Group Experiences, Brian A. Burt Aug 2018

Toward A Theory Of Engineering Professorial Intentions: The Role Of Research Group Experiences, Brian A. Burt

Education Publications

This article advances the Theoretical Model of Engineering Professorial Intentions to explain why individuals do or do not choose to pursue faculty careers. A 13-month ethnographic study of members of a diverse chemical engineering research group was conducted. The resulting theoretical model accounts for six emergent components that contribute to members’ identification with faculty careers: (1) social identities and personal factors; (2) sociocultural factors; (3) participation, interactions, and learning in research group experiences; (4) faculty prototype; (5) social comparisons; and (6) individual and institutional experiences. The article concludes with implications for further research and recommendations regarding mentoring and design of ...


It Takes A Village: The Role Of Emic And Etic Adaptive Strengths In The Persistence Of Black Men In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, Gordon J. M. Palmer Aug 2018

It Takes A Village: The Role Of Emic And Etic Adaptive Strengths In The Persistence Of Black Men In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, Gordon J. M. Palmer

Education Publications

Black men, underrepresented in engineering, constitute a missing segment of the population who could contribute to the global knowledge economy. To address this national concern, stakeholders need additional research on strategies that aid in Black men’s persistence. This study explores the experiences of 30 Black men in engineering graduate programs. Three factors are identified as helping them persist from year to year, and in many cases through completion of the doctorate: the role of family, spirituality and faith-based community, and undergraduate mentors. The article concludes with implications for future research and professional practice that may improve the experiences of ...


Data Parties I Have Known: Lessons Learned And Best Practices For Success, Nancy K. Franz Aug 2018

Data Parties I Have Known: Lessons Learned And Best Practices For Success, Nancy K. Franz

Education Publications

Increased focus on data-driven decision making requires Extension professionals to excel at data analysis and interpretation. Data parties have become increasingly popular for involving stakeholders in making sense of data. As these parties become more frequently used by Extension professionals, best practices are emerging from lessons learned to improve the process and enhance the outcomes. These practices include designing discussion questions to fit the specific goals of the process, engaging a team of key partners, setting a theme and party environment that appeals to the participants and fits the context, providing appropriate data visualization tools, and using strong facilitation practices.


Four Approaches To Building Extension Program Evaluation Capacity, Nancy K. Franz, Thomas Archibald Aug 2018

Four Approaches To Building Extension Program Evaluation Capacity, Nancy K. Franz, Thomas Archibald

Education Publications

Extension educators are expected to more fully evaluate programs. In response, evaluation capacity building (ECB) is a necessary component of Extension educator professional development. One size rarely fits all; ECB more likely succeeds if it is well aligned with the educator's evaluation needs and the type of educational effort. Four approaches to Extension work have been documented—service, facilitation, content transmission, and transformative education. These approaches require different evaluation measures and therefore different forms of ECB.


Student-Centered Pedagogy: Using Moses’ Five-Step Approach As A Scaffolding Framework To Teach Diverse Learners, Ruth Ahn, Ji Yeong I, Justin White, Liane Monroy, Nicole Tronske Aug 2018

Student-Centered Pedagogy: Using Moses’ Five-Step Approach As A Scaffolding Framework To Teach Diverse Learners, Ruth Ahn, Ji Yeong I, Justin White, Liane Monroy, Nicole Tronske

Education Publications

In this article, two teacher educators and three preservice teachers reflect on the critical role Moses’ Five-Step Approach (Moses & Cobb, 2001) played as a scaffolding pedagogical framework in preservice teacher and faculty learning. Using Moses’ approach to frame their presentations, preservice teachers work in their groups to teach abstract Educational Psychology concepts to actively engage classmates from diverse backgrounds. During this process, the presenters co-construct knowledge with their peers and instructor, applying the framework by putting common activities and everyday language first before teaching abstract concepts and academic language. The authors, including a preservice teacher who also teaches a university ...


Mujeres Supporting: How Female Family Members Influence The Educational Success Of Latino Males In Postsecondary Education, Victor B. Saenz, Claudia Garcia-Louis, Carmen De Las Mercedez, Sarah L. Rodriguez Jul 2018

Mujeres Supporting: How Female Family Members Influence The Educational Success Of Latino Males In Postsecondary Education, Victor B. Saenz, Claudia Garcia-Louis, Carmen De Las Mercedez, Sarah L. Rodriguez

Education Publications

The purpose of this multi-institutional qualitative study was to understand the educational pathways of Latino males by underscoring the unique role female family members play in their academic pursuits—through the voice of these young men. Findings demonstrate female family members were identified as being primary supporters of their educational pursuits, and actively leveraged different sources of cultural capital to help Latino males enroll and persist through postsecondary education. This study reinforces extant literature on the importance of family in the educational pathways of Latina/o students. Furthermore, it makes a unique contribution by highlighting the important role female family ...


Adolescents Becoming Feminist On Twitter: New Literacies Practices, Commitments, And Identity Work, Benjamin W. Gleason Jul 2018

Adolescents Becoming Feminist On Twitter: New Literacies Practices, Commitments, And Identity Work, Benjamin W. Gleason

Education Publications

The author investigated the relation between young people's new literacies practices and identity development on Twitter and found that participants used three new literacies practices (live‐tweeting, hashtagging, and information sharing) in unique ways to develop feminist identities in this social media space. Participants mobilized popular culture to initiate dialogue about feminist issues, such as the wage gap, to participate in social activism (e.g., advocating for women's reproductive care), and to provide informal counsel to peers. Twitter can be a vital space for young people to become feminists, providing opportunities to learn, develop, and participate.


Thinking In Hashtags: Exploring Teenagers’ New Literacies Practices On Twitter, Benjamin W. Gleason May 2018

Thinking In Hashtags: Exploring Teenagers’ New Literacies Practices On Twitter, Benjamin W. Gleason

Education Publications

This research investigates how three high school students in the USA developed new literacies practices through their participation in teenage Twitter. Data was collected from two sources, including archival data from participants’ Twitter over a two-year span, and semi-structured interviews. Results found that teenagers developed a number of practices that facilitated orientation to cultural conventions of teenage Twitter, helped them mobilize followers for participatory events, and led to reflective awareness of how to tell stories on Twitter. This study suggests that teenagers used the affordances of Twitter in order to craft multimodal narratives that are co-constructed, participatory, nonlinear, and emergent ...


Giving Up On A Course: An Analysis Of Course Dropping Behaviors Among Community College Students, Lyle Mckinney, Heather Novak, Linda Hagedorn, Maria Luna-Torres May 2018

Giving Up On A Course: An Analysis Of Course Dropping Behaviors Among Community College Students, Lyle Mckinney, Heather Novak, Linda Hagedorn, Maria Luna-Torres

Education Publications

Excessive course dropping is costly to students and institutions. Using longitudinal transcript data, this study investigated course withdrawal patterns among 5900 students at a large, racially/ethnically diverse community college district in Texas. Two-thirds of the students dropped at least one course, and 13.5% of the total course enrollments resulted in withdrawal. Course withdrawal rates were significantly higher among students who were: male, African American, age 20–24, GED holders, academically underprepared, enrolled part-time, and had a cumulative college GPA of less than 2.0. Science, mathematics, and writing courses had high drop rates, as did Second Start and ...


On A Continuum: Examining Ncore's Influence In The Development Of Multicultural Competence In Student Affairs Educators, Jennifer Lynn Plagman-Galvin, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf Apr 2018

On A Continuum: Examining Ncore's Influence In The Development Of Multicultural Competence In Student Affairs Educators, Jennifer Lynn Plagman-Galvin, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf

Education Publications

Multiculturally competent student affairs educators are required to effectively meet the needs of today’s diverse student population. However, little is known about how educators acquire these skills. This study examined the multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills gained by student affairs educators through their participation in NCORE, an experiential conference exploring race and ethnicity. Results of the study have implications for graduate preparation programs and professional development opportunities for student affairs educators.


Developing The Next Generation Of Diverse Computer Scientists: The Need For Enhanced, Intersectional Computing Identity Theory, Sarah L. Rodriguez, Kathleen Lehman Apr 2018

Developing The Next Generation Of Diverse Computer Scientists: The Need For Enhanced, Intersectional Computing Identity Theory, Sarah L. Rodriguez, Kathleen Lehman

Education Publications

This theoretical paper explores the need for enhanced, intersectional computing identity theory for the purpose of developing a diverse group of computer scientists for the future. Greater theoretical understanding of the identity formation process specifically for computing is needed in order to understand how students come to understand themselves as computer scientists. To ensure that the next generation of computer scientists is diverse, this paper presents a case for examining identity development intersectionally, understanding the ways in which women and underrepresented students may have difficulty identifying as computer scientists and be systematically oppressed in their pursuit of computer science careers ...


Into The Storm: Ecological And Sociological Impediments To Black Males’ Persistence In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, William A. Smith Apr 2018

Into The Storm: Ecological And Sociological Impediments To Black Males’ Persistence In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, William A. Smith

Education Publications

While much is known about how Black students negotiate and navigate undergraduate studies, there is a dearth of research on what happens when these students enter graduate school. This article presents the results of a study of 21 Black male graduate students in engineering from one highly ranked research-intensive institution. This article provides evidence of structurally racialized policies within the engineering college (e.g., admissions) and racialized and gendered interactions with peers and advisors that threaten Black males’ persistence in engineering. We argue for taking an anti-deficit approach to understanding Black males’ persistence in engineering. We conclude with implications for ...


The Power Of Language: Exploring Foundations Of Neoliberalism In Federal Financial Aid Policy, Brian A. Burt, Lorenzo D. Baber Apr 2018

The Power Of Language: Exploring Foundations Of Neoliberalism In Federal Financial Aid Policy, Brian A. Burt, Lorenzo D. Baber

Education Publications

Despite claims that colleges and universities are isolated from ideological preferences, sociopolitical discourse regularly shapes policies and practices of postsecondary education. This article considers how national discourse on federal aid for postsecondary education during the 1970s reflected a monumental shift in higher education policy. Specifically, we critique neoliberalism, a tenet of Critical Race Theory (CRT), to examine key testimonies from six expert educational leaders during a 1978 hearing on the Middle Income Student Assistance Act (MISAA). The key testimonies examined in this article highlight how language shifted the focus of national discourse on federal financial aid from public to private ...


Reframing Rigor: A Modern Look At Challenge And Support In Higher Education, Corbin M. Campbell, Deniece Dortch, Brian A. Burt Mar 2018

Reframing Rigor: A Modern Look At Challenge And Support In Higher Education, Corbin M. Campbell, Deniece Dortch, Brian A. Burt

Education Publications

What is “hard” about college? The concept of academic rigor has been remarkably narrowly defined in contemporary higher education. Rigor is often equated with hard work in terms of the number of hours students spend studying or the quantity of assignments—or “piling on” a lot of work for students (Arum & Roksa, 2011). Alternatively, as derived from the recent K–12 standards movement in the No Child Left Behind act, rigor may be seen as an advanced level of curriculum (achieving mastery of prespecified content; for example, less rigorous algebra versus more rigorous calculus) (Matusevich, O'Connor, & Hargett, 2009). Yet, if we ask students what was “hard” about college academics—many other understandings may emerge—perhaps what was “hard” was maintaining one's identity while learning material that does not align with one's cultural values. Perhaps what was “challenging” was shifting basic assumptions that have been a core part of an individual’s experiences. Or, perhaps, the “rigor” was learning scholarly writing in a second language. Perhaps what was “hard” was learning to move from memorizing facts to analyzing and evaluating them—becoming a producer and interpreter rather than a consumer of information. Perhaps what was “hard” was coming to see oneself as an academic. All of these can be seen as a challenge of the academic experience at college—and resolving each of these challenges has been associated with student learning (Braxton, 1993; Castillo‐Montoya, 2017; Castillo‐Montoya & Torres‐Guzmán, 2012; Fries‐Britt, Johnson, & Burt, 2013; Neumann, 2014).


From Margins To Center: Developing Cultural Citizenship Education Through The Teaching Of Asian American History, Noreen N. Rodriguez Feb 2018

From Margins To Center: Developing Cultural Citizenship Education Through The Teaching Of Asian American History, Noreen N. Rodriguez

Education Publications

Citizenship education is considered a primary purpose for social studies education. However, in elementary classrooms, it is often limited to the memorization of mainstream civic knowledge and learning about a handful of American heroes. This qualitative study of three Asian American educators uses Asian Critical Race Theory to explore how the teachers drew from their own cultural and linguistic experiences to inform pedagogies of cultural citizenship education that interrogated what it means to be a citizen. By (re)defining the terms Asian American and American (citizen), the teachers enacted cultural citizenship education through the use of counternarratives and children’s ...


Sense Of Belonging In Computing: The Role Of Introductory Courses For Women And Underrepresented Minority Students, Linda J. Sax, Jennifer M. Blaney, Kathleen J. Lehman, Sarah L. Rodriguez, Kari L. George, Christina Zavala Jan 2018

Sense Of Belonging In Computing: The Role Of Introductory Courses For Women And Underrepresented Minority Students, Linda J. Sax, Jennifer M. Blaney, Kathleen J. Lehman, Sarah L. Rodriguez, Kari L. George, Christina Zavala

Education Publications

This study examines an aspect of gender and racial/ethnic gaps in undergraduate computing by focusing on sense of belonging among women and underrepresented minority (URM) introductory computing students. We examine change in sense of belonging during the introductory course as well as the predictors of belonging, with attention to conditional effects by gender and URM status. Results show that sense of belonging outcomes are a product of both incoming student characteristics and college environments and experiences, highlighting the important role the computing faculty play in fostering belonging. These and other findings are discussed, focusing on sense of belonging among ...


Digital Citizenship With Social Media: Participatory Practices Of Teaching And Learning In Secondary Education, Benjamin W. Gleason, Sam Von Gillern Jan 2018

Digital Citizenship With Social Media: Participatory Practices Of Teaching And Learning In Secondary Education, Benjamin W. Gleason, Sam Von Gillern

Education Publications

This article explores how social media use in formal and informal learning spaces can support the development of digital citizenship for secondary school students. As students increasingly spend large amounts of time online (e.g., an average of six hours of screen time per day, excluding school and homework), it is critical that they are developing skills enabling them to find, evaluate, and share information responsibly, engage in constructive conversation with others from diverse backgrounds, and to ensure their online participation is safe, ethical, and legal. And, yet, in spite of the importance of students learning these skills, opportunities for ...


Story County Conservation Strategic Plan 2018-2020, Michael Cox, Nancy K. Franz Jan 2018

Story County Conservation Strategic Plan 2018-2020, Michael Cox, Nancy K. Franz

Education Publications

During the last five years, our landscape has changed both literally and figuratively. These changes, combined with a very hopeful outlook for our future, shape a new vision for Story County Conservation (SCC) for the next three years. Our vision includes capacity building-- community members broadly engaging with nature as a means of self and community improvement that collaboratively works to steward the nature they know--a vision of a healthier environment and a richer community. Several factors helped formulate this plan:

completion of the Cornerstone to Capstone (C2C) Plan in 2016;

lack of sustainable statewide funding for natural resources;

recent ...


The Landscape Of Rural Service Learning, And What It Teaches Us All, Nancy K. Franz Jan 2018

The Landscape Of Rural Service Learning, And What It Teaches Us All, Nancy K. Franz

Education Publications

Community-engaged scholars know that understanding the community context is critical for successful communitybased learning that results in community development. As a rural-focused and mostly rural-based educator, I’ve been surprised at the lack of attention over the decades by university– community engagement scholars to the characteristics, opportunities, challenges, and impacts of rural service-learning. The Rural Alliance for Service Learning has attempted to address this gap in the literature by publishing this 19-chapter anthology of interesting experiences, research, and insights about service-learning in rural America with a predominant focus on the upper Midwest.


Taken Together: Conceptualizing Students’ Concurrent Course Enrollment Across The Post-Secondary Curriculum Using Temporal Analytics, Michael Brown, R. Matthew Demonbrun, Stephanie Teasley Jan 2018

Taken Together: Conceptualizing Students’ Concurrent Course Enrollment Across The Post-Secondary Curriculum Using Temporal Analytics, Michael Brown, R. Matthew Demonbrun, Stephanie Teasley

Education Publications

In this study, we develop and test four measures for conceptualizing the potential impact of co-enrollment in different courses on students’ changing risk for academic difficulty and recovery from academic difficulty in a focal course. We offer four predictors, two related to instructional complexity and two related to structural complexity (the organization of the curriculum) that highlight different trends in student experience of the focal course. Course difficulty, discipline of major, time in semester, and simultaneous difficulty across courses were all significantly related to entering a moderate and high-risk classification in the early warning system (EWS). Course difficulty, discipline of ...


How Signaling Principle Affects Learning: An Eye Tracking Study, Mehmet Donmez, Sibel Dogan, Evrim Baran Jan 2018

How Signaling Principle Affects Learning: An Eye Tracking Study, Mehmet Donmez, Sibel Dogan, Evrim Baran

Education Publications

Studies examining the effects of signaling principle on learning mostly used data sources such as interviews, achievement tests and think aloud protocols. There is, however, limited research on the use of quantitative measures to promote findings from interviews and think aloud procedures. This study aimed to investigate the effects of signaling principle on learning by supporting the results with the eye movement data. Participants included 34 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) pre-service teachers divided into experimental and control groups randomly. Participants were presented with two types of MS Power Point presentations with and without highlighted clues as multimedia material. Participants ...


“It’S All About The Ganas”: Incorporating A Multicultural Curriculum In Developmental Education, Erin E. Doran, Anumpa Singh Jan 2018

“It’S All About The Ganas”: Incorporating A Multicultural Curriculum In Developmental Education, Erin E. Doran, Anumpa Singh

Education Publications

Despite the overrepresentation of students of color in developmental education, there is a lack of research on programs that promote the success and transfer of these students beginning in developmental education, especially Latinx students. Since 2012, the Dream Catchers program in Texas has targeted the recruitment, retention, and completion of Latinx and other historically underrepresented students through a literacy-based program that targets students in developmental education in community colleges. This study draws primarily from interview data gathered from 14 Dream Catchers faculty across the 10 institutions that have participated in the program. Through the lens of a multicultural developmental education ...


In Search Of Mirrors: An Asian Critical Race Theory Content Analysis Of Asian American Picturebooks From 2007 To 2017, Noreen N. Rodriguez, Esther J. Kim Jan 2018

In Search Of Mirrors: An Asian Critical Race Theory Content Analysis Of Asian American Picturebooks From 2007 To 2017, Noreen N. Rodriguez, Esther J. Kim

Education Publications

Grounded in Asian critical race theory, this critical content analysis examines Asian American representation in 21 picturebooks published from 2007 to 2017.


Taking The Long View By Focusing On Description: Examining Bias, Agency, And The Messy Parts Of Teaching, Mary B. Mcvee, Lynn E. Shanahan, H. Emily Hayden, Fenice B. Boyd, P. David Pearson Jan 2018

Taking The Long View By Focusing On Description: Examining Bias, Agency, And The Messy Parts Of Teaching, Mary B. Mcvee, Lynn E. Shanahan, H. Emily Hayden, Fenice B. Boyd, P. David Pearson

Education Publications

Many times, teaching is viewed only in terms of the end product: what a lesson produces in terms of student learning. This all-or-nothing view ignores the many complicated components of teaching. Consider how this idea of teaching as a singular product is communicated. Some common sayings about teachers are: “Teachers are born, not made” or “Those who can, do. Those who can’t, teach.” These sayings and the ideologies behind them suggest that good teaching is an inborn trait or singular action: you’ve either got it or you don’t. But what if teaching were viewed as a layered ...


The Affordances Of Mobile-App Supported Teacher Observations For Peer Feedback, Sercan Celik, Evrim Baran, Olcay Sert Jan 2018

The Affordances Of Mobile-App Supported Teacher Observations For Peer Feedback, Sercan Celik, Evrim Baran, Olcay Sert

Education Publications

Mobile technologies offer new affordances for teacher observation in teacher education programs, albeit under-examined in contrast to video technologies. The purpose of this article is to investigate the integration of mobile technologies into teacher observation. Using a case study method, the authors compare the traditional narrative paper-pen, mobile app-supported, and video observation methods. Participants included 2 experienced teachers of English as a Foreign Language who were selected as the observers and observees in a higher education institutional context. The data was collected in three different teaching sessions over 4 weeks. Data sources included lesson observation notes and semi structured interviews ...


Texas House Bill 51—An Incognito Performance-Based Funding Policy: Implications For Access And Equity In Texas, Dwuana Bradley, Erin E. Doran Jan 2018

Texas House Bill 51—An Incognito Performance-Based Funding Policy: Implications For Access And Equity In Texas, Dwuana Bradley, Erin E. Doran

Education Publications

Higher education policy discussions are largely shaped by competing viewpoints regarding who benefits from higher education—society or the individual (Bowen et al., 1997). This tension around who higher education most benefits informs decision-making for policy makers who might ultimately decide who should pay for higher education—the individual or state and federal governments (Labaree, 1997). Most importantly, the aforementioned premise undergirds policy makers’ perceptions of higher education as a justifiable public investment, which shapes their beliefs regarding their role in determining the function of public universities as state institutions (Labaree, 2013).


Book Review: The Mexican American Community College Experience: Fostering Resilience, Achieving Success By Campa, B., Erin Doran Jan 2018

Book Review: The Mexican American Community College Experience: Fostering Resilience, Achieving Success By Campa, B., Erin Doran

Education Publications

In this book, Blanca Campa, a professor of educational psychology at El Paso Community College (EPCC), gives readers a window into the experiences and perspectives of a small group of faculty and students at EPCC, an urban, multicampus system located on the Texas–Mexico border. Given that the majority of Latinx students enter postsecondary education in community colleges and nearly half of all Hispanic-serving institutions are 2-year institutions, there is a critical need for research on these students. The Mexican American Community College Experience draws on research literature from across disciplines and qualitative data Campa collected over the course of ...