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Full-Text Articles in Education

Eye Tracking Student Strategies For Solving Stoichiometry Problems Involving Particulate Nature Of Matter Diagrams, John Y. Baluyut, Thomas A. Holme Feb 2019

Eye Tracking Student Strategies For Solving Stoichiometry Problems Involving Particulate Nature Of Matter Diagrams, John Y. Baluyut, Thomas A. Holme

Chemistry Publications

This study compared how students obtained and used information from particulate nature of matter (PNOM) diagrams as well as balanced chemical equations when asked questions about stoichiometry concepts such as limiting and excess reagents, and yield. The comparisons were made in terms of visual behaviors by examining eye fixations while students responded to a 30-item online instrument. Statistically significant differences were found between visual behaviors of high- and low-performers on seven items, mostly those that dealt with correctly identifying the limiting reagent for each diagram. High-performing students were found to have spent more time examining PNOM diagrams and transitioned more ...


Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck Feb 2019

Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Educational campaigns are more complicated when members of our audiences hold scientific misconceptions related to new technologies. Our prairie strips research and education team produced a brief, focused video aimed to dispel a misconception related to the effect of prairie strip plants' roots on agricultural drain tiles in the Midwest. Our "Field Tile Investigation" video was based on the conceptual change framework from science education and featured a discrepant event. The goal was to move farmers, landowners, and their advisors to an understanding of prairie strips that was more compatible with the scientific standard.


Integrating Language, Content, Technology, And Skills Development Through Project-Based Language Learning: Blending Frameworks For Successful Unit Planning, Tammy Slater, Gulbahar H. Beckett Feb 2019

Integrating Language, Content, Technology, And Skills Development Through Project-Based Language Learning: Blending Frameworks For Successful Unit Planning, Tammy Slater, Gulbahar H. Beckett

English Publications

In this article, the authors first summarize the literature on project-based language learning (PBLL), a sound approach to second language teaching, addressing its various benefits such as providing opportunities to develop language authentically in real-world contexts, building decision-making and problem-solving skills, and developing content knowledge. In acknowledging reports that have also suggested that students can struggle to see how language is being developed through PBLL, the authors then argue that by looking at a project as a social practice, educators can demonstrate how language, content, and 21st century skills can be taught as an integrated whole through PBLL. They describe ...


Technology-Mediated Tblt In A Hybrid Environment: Bridging Content And Language Production, Cristina Pardo-Ballester Jan 2019

Technology-Mediated Tblt In A Hybrid Environment: Bridging Content And Language Production, Cristina Pardo-Ballester

World Languages and Cultures Publications

This article examines the use of technology-mediated, task-based language teaching (TBLT) in a hybrid environment as an instructional approach in an intermediate-level Spanish course. It (a) evaluates elements of a hybrid course that was developed with computer-assisted language learning (CALL) materials to help learners improve their Spanish, focusing on two areas of specialization––engineering and business; (b) examines the effectiveness of the course materials and curriculum with a focus on CALL readings; (c) demonstrates that the technology-mediated TBLT approach in the hybrid learning environment was successful in linking content and language; and (d) establishes that the learners’ speaking skills had ...


Still Moving Toward Automation Of The Systematic Review Process: A Summary Of Discussions At The Third Meeting Of The International Collaboration For Automation Of Systematic Reviews (Icasr), Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, Stephen B. Gilbert, Kristina A. Thayer, Ian Shemilt, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Mary S. Wolfe Jan 2019

Still Moving Toward Automation Of The Systematic Review Process: A Summary Of Discussions At The Third Meeting Of The International Collaboration For Automation Of Systematic Reviews (Icasr), Annette M. O'Connor, Guy Tsafnat, Stephen B. Gilbert, Kristina A. Thayer, Ian Shemilt, James Thomas, Paul Glasziou, Mary S. Wolfe

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The third meeting of the International Collaboration for Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR) was held 17–18 October 2017 in London, England. ICASR is an interdisciplinary group whose goal is to maximize the use of technology for conducting rapid, accurate, and efficient systematic reviews of scientific evidence. The group seeks to facilitate the development and widespread acceptance of automated techniques for systematic reviews. The meeting’s conclusion was that the most pressing needs at present are to develop approaches for validating currently available tools and to provide increased access to curated corpora that can be used for validation. To that ...


Evaluation Of Confidence Using Motivational Interviewing Skills Before And After In-Person Training Workshop, Jeni E. Lansing, Kathryn J. Deshaw, Maria Perez, Gregory Welk, Laura D. Ellingson Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Confidence Using Motivational Interviewing Skills Before And After In-Person Training Workshop, Jeni E. Lansing, Kathryn J. Deshaw, Maria Perez, Gregory Welk, Laura D. Ellingson

CIRTL Reports

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a skill used to help individuals make positive behavior changes and may be beneficial for those who work with undergraduate students. A new training, comprised of online content followed by an in-person workshop, was created and offered to staff members working directly with students at Iowa State University. The aim of this study was to evaluate confidence for using MI-related components pre and post an in-person workshop. To do so, participants completed a survey regarding their confidence in using MI-related skills before and after the workshop. From the survey results, a paired t-test was conducted to ...


La Evaluación De La Destreza Oral Una Comparación Entre Cursos "Híbridos A Distancia" Y "Presenciales Alao", Cristina Pardo-Ballester Dec 2018

La Evaluación De La Destreza Oral Una Comparación Entre Cursos "Híbridos A Distancia" Y "Presenciales Alao", Cristina Pardo-Ballester

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In the last decade, university institutions have been increasing, which demand from the teaching staff a greater offer of courses where technology is effectively incorporated into teaching. Critical studies published today, relating to the use of different technological tools in conjunction with language teaching, repeatedly contain the terms "distance learning" or "online course", as well as the terms "hybrid" or "combined" for make reference to the same model, to the same type of course. This study distinguishes two terms to refer to two models of courses: "hybrid at a distance" and "face-to-face ALAO". The oral dexterity of 132 participants was ...


Augmented Reality In Foreign Language Education: A Review Of Empirical Studies (增强现实技术在外语教学中的应用:文献综述性研究), Shenglan Zhang Dec 2018

Augmented Reality In Foreign Language Education: A Review Of Empirical Studies (增强现实技术在外语教学中的应用:文献综述性研究), Shenglan Zhang

World Languages and Cultures Publications

This literature review examines how Augmented Reality (AR) has been used in foreign language learning. AR is a live view of reality that is augmented by computer-generated sound, image, or videos. It allows the user to interact with the real physical environment in an enhanced way. This study provides an overview of what AR is, its history, different definitions, and how it has been used in education in general. It summarizes how AR has been used in all aspects of foreign language education, including skill development (listening, speaking, reading and writing), vocabulary, grammar, culture, the aspect of affect in language ...


Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung Dec 2018

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung

English Publications

In the past 2 decades, there has been an increasing tendency to use scores from the TOEFL iBT® Speaking test for decisions regarding the certification of international graduate students as teaching assistants at North American universities. To obtain validity evidence in support of the usefulness of the speaking scores for this secondary use of the test, this study adopted the argument‐based approach to validation. Focusing on the domain description inference in the TOEFL interpretive argument, the study investigated whether the language functions elicited by TOEFL iBT Speaking tasks can be identified in authentic discourse produced by international teaching assistants ...


Design And Perception Of An Approach To Improving Chinese As A Foreign Language Learners’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Shenglan Zhang Nov 2018

Design And Perception Of An Approach To Improving Chinese As A Foreign Language Learners’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Shenglan Zhang

World Languages and Cultures Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a social-cognitive construct in the realm of self-regulation that describes the ways in which individuals actively and constructively regulate their own congitive processes in an educational setting. SRL conceptualizes effective learning as a process of cognitive and motivational evaluation where a learner completes academic tasks (Heikkilä & Lonka, 2006; Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 1990; 2008). Different models of SRL developed over the years (Boekaerts & Niemivirta, 2000; Borkowski, 1996; Pintrich, 2000; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000), but all models assume at least three phases: a preparatory or forethought phase, an actual performance or task completion phase, and an evaluation and adaptation phase. In the preparatory ...


An Analysis Of Classroom Collusion Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Charles B. Shrader, Sue P. Ravenscroft, Jeffrey Kaufmann Nov 2018

An Analysis Of Classroom Collusion Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Charles B. Shrader, Sue P. Ravenscroft, Jeffrey Kaufmann

Management Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

In this study, we use Latent Dirichlet Allocation to explore the reflections of students who faced a demanding classroom challenge, to which some responded by colluding. Our five-topic LDA solution describes the cheating event in terms of the nature of the course assignment itself, teams as a resource and support mechanism, the repercussions of cheating, and differences between majors or course tracks. The most relevant topics were the differences between the tracks and the repercussions of cheating. Teams and teammates also play a large role in the students’ reflections. We conclude with the implications of these topics in future research.


Cultural Competency Training: How Do We Measure Outcomes?, Timothy Lee, Sean Ervin Dr. Nov 2018

Cultural Competency Training: How Do We Measure Outcomes?, Timothy Lee, Sean Ervin Dr.

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

Background

The term “cultural competency” in healthcare is meant to convey an understanding of cultural and linguistic differences that exist within and between distinct social groups and a sensitivity to these differences that may allow for improved health care outcomes to occur. The medical literature has validated the importance of cultural competency training to medical education and its possible influence on patient health status and outcomes. Many pre-licensure cultural competency training programs have emerged due to the perceived benefits for healthcare delivery and outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the clinical impact and success of these training programs. In this ...


Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph Nov 2018

Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

Here we offer an open exchange / evaluation of our experience as facilitator and editor (Bianca) and writer and collaborator (Sara) during the inaugural Women of Color Sexual Health Network Curriculum Lab which took place November 2017 in New Orleans, LA. In two months, 7 women and femmes of color who are sexuality educators wrote a robust curriculum for our communities that centers pleasure, social emotional learning competencies as early Freedom Schools implemented, sex and pleasure positive, using an intersectional framework and praxis, disability justice framework, inclusive of LGBTQ communities, and does not assume HIV negative status. This is one of ...


Perception, Production, And Perception-Production: Research Findings And Implications For Language Pedagogy, Charles Nagle Aug 2018

Perception, Production, And Perception-Production: Research Findings And Implications For Language Pedagogy, Charles Nagle

World Languages and Cultures Publications

When we are born our perceptual systems are capable of discriminating sounds that occur in English, Spanish, Hindi, or any other language. During the first year, our perception begins to zero in on the particular set of sounds that are contrastive in our native language(s) (L1s) (Kuhl et al., 2006). For example, a child whose parents are L1 English speakers will pick up on the fact that /b/ and /p/ are contrastive in English (e.g., “bet” vs. “pet”) and that the major difference is in the burst of air that occurs when the stop is released (i.e ...


Off To On: Best Practices For Online Team-Based Learning™, Michele Clark, Laura Merrick, Jennifer Styron, Annetta Dolowitz, Cassandra Dorius, Kajal Madeka, Holly Bender, Janet Johnson, John Chapman, Meghan Gillette, Michael Dorneich, Brian O'Dwyer, James Grogan, Tom Brown, Bruce Leonard, Jane Rongerude, Liz Winter Aug 2018

Off To On: Best Practices For Online Team-Based Learning™, Michele Clark, Laura Merrick, Jennifer Styron, Annetta Dolowitz, Cassandra Dorius, Kajal Madeka, Holly Bender, Janet Johnson, John Chapman, Meghan Gillette, Michael Dorneich, Brian O'Dwyer, James Grogan, Tom Brown, Bruce Leonard, Jane Rongerude, Liz Winter

Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching Publications

In the fall of 2014, 20.4 million American students were enrolled in higher education. Of these, 28% or 5.8 million students were taking at least some of their courses at a distance and half of those or nearly 3 million students were taking all of them at a distance (Allen, Seaman, Poulin, & Straut, 2016). According to the 2017 New Media Consortium Horizon Report, “online, mobile, and blended learning are foregone conclusions” (Adams Becker et al. 2017, p. 2) reflecting the growing numbers of students seeking more flexible schedules and learning environments. In addition, employers are demanding that higher ...


Toward A Theory Of Engineering Professorial Intentions: The Role Of Research Group Experiences, Brian A. Burt Aug 2018

Toward A Theory Of Engineering Professorial Intentions: The Role Of Research Group Experiences, Brian A. Burt

Education Publications

This article advances the Theoretical Model of Engineering Professorial Intentions to explain why individuals do or do not choose to pursue faculty careers. A 13-month ethnographic study of members of a diverse chemical engineering research group was conducted. The resulting theoretical model accounts for six emergent components that contribute to members’ identification with faculty careers: (1) social identities and personal factors; (2) sociocultural factors; (3) participation, interactions, and learning in research group experiences; (4) faculty prototype; (5) social comparisons; and (6) individual and institutional experiences. The article concludes with implications for further research and recommendations regarding mentoring and design of ...


It Takes A Village: The Role Of Emic And Etic Adaptive Strengths In The Persistence Of Black Men In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, Gordon J. M. Palmer Aug 2018

It Takes A Village: The Role Of Emic And Etic Adaptive Strengths In The Persistence Of Black Men In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, Gordon J. M. Palmer

Education Publications

Black men, underrepresented in engineering, constitute a missing segment of the population who could contribute to the global knowledge economy. To address this national concern, stakeholders need additional research on strategies that aid in Black men’s persistence. This study explores the experiences of 30 Black men in engineering graduate programs. Three factors are identified as helping them persist from year to year, and in many cases through completion of the doctorate: the role of family, spirituality and faith-based community, and undergraduate mentors. The article concludes with implications for future research and professional practice that may improve the experiences of ...


Pronunciationforteachers.Com/ Key Concepts Factors Affecting Pronunciation Development, Charles Nagle Aug 2018

Pronunciationforteachers.Com/ Key Concepts Factors Affecting Pronunciation Development, Charles Nagle

World Languages and Cultures Publications

As Derwing (2010) observed nearly ten years ago, one of the goals of pronunciation research is to identify how different aspects of second language (L2) speech develop over time, providing teachers with information on the pronunciation problems that will work themselves out, versus those that will likely pose an ongoing challenge. At the same time, research must account for the cognitive, socio-affective, and experiential variables that shape pronunciation learning outcomes (Moyer, 2014a, 2014b).


Mujeres Supporting: How Female Family Members Influence The Educational Success Of Latino Males In Postsecondary Education, Victor B. Saenz, Claudia Garcia-Louis, Carmen De Las Mercedez, Sarah L. Rodriguez Jul 2018

Mujeres Supporting: How Female Family Members Influence The Educational Success Of Latino Males In Postsecondary Education, Victor B. Saenz, Claudia Garcia-Louis, Carmen De Las Mercedez, Sarah L. Rodriguez

Education Publications

The purpose of this multi-institutional qualitative study was to understand the educational pathways of Latino males by underscoring the unique role female family members play in their academic pursuits—through the voice of these young men. Findings demonstrate female family members were identified as being primary supporters of their educational pursuits, and actively leveraged different sources of cultural capital to help Latino males enroll and persist through postsecondary education. This study reinforces extant literature on the importance of family in the educational pathways of Latina/o students. Furthermore, it makes a unique contribution by highlighting the important role female family ...


Do Believe The Hype: Using Student Stories To Shape A Year-Long Faculty And Staff Training Initiative, Denise N. Williams-Klotz, Kenyatta N. Shamburger Jul 2018

Do Believe The Hype: Using Student Stories To Shape A Year-Long Faculty And Staff Training Initiative, Denise N. Williams-Klotz, Kenyatta N. Shamburger

Multicultural Student Services Regional Conference

This session will outline the creation of a student blog and the year-long faculty and staff training program that grew from sharing the student stories. Join us to learn about the development of the program, what we found to be benefits and how you might implement something similar on your campus.


When It Gets Personal: Connecting, Collaborating And Closing The Gap, Stancia J. Whitcomb Jenkins Jul 2018

When It Gets Personal: Connecting, Collaborating And Closing The Gap, Stancia J. Whitcomb Jenkins

Multicultural Student Services Regional Conference

Keynote address for the 2018 Multicultural Student Services Regional Conference.


Building Student Engagement Through Specializes Employment And Leadership Roles, Hemie Collier, Tiyah Western Jul 2018

Building Student Engagement Through Specializes Employment And Leadership Roles, Hemie Collier, Tiyah Western

Multicultural Student Services Regional Conference

The objective of this session will be to supply you with ideas and methods that will help you build student engagement and buy-in through the creation of valuable leadership roles, internships, and employment within your office. The roles that we will discuss will go beyond your typical student office assistant jobs. We will teach you how to create roles that will allow students to be involved in the planning and implementation of programs, orientations, marketing, etc.


Let’S Get Naked: How To Amplify Student Voices In Vulnerable Conversations, Jade Horning, Colice Sanders Jul 2018

Let’S Get Naked: How To Amplify Student Voices In Vulnerable Conversations, Jade Horning, Colice Sanders

Multicultural Student Services Regional Conference

Are you concerned that workshops about diversity and inclusion are not giving anything back to your students? We've been there. Come hear our story and learn about the evolution of our two-hour, interactive workshop for new underrepresented students at UNI. We've learned that to lead these conversations we have to be courageous, vulnerable, and committed to nurturing student voices. We invite you to bring your own stories and experiences in facilitating conversations about identity, self-awareness, and affinity group building.


Combining Academics And Social Engagement: A Major-Specific Early Alert Method To Counter Student Attrition In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Andrew J. Sage, Cinzia Cervato, Ulrike Genschel, Craig Ogilvie Jun 2018

Combining Academics And Social Engagement: A Major-Specific Early Alert Method To Counter Student Attrition In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Andrew J. Sage, Cinzia Cervato, Ulrike Genschel, Craig Ogilvie

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Students are most likely to leave science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors during their first year of college. We developed an analytic approach using random forests to identify at-risk students. This method is deployable midway through the first semester and accounts for academic preparation, early engagement in university life, and performance on midterm exams. By accounting for cognitive and noncognitive factors, our method achieves stronger predictive performance than would be possible using cognitive or noncognitive factors alone. We show that it is more difficult to predict whether students will leave STEM than whether they will leave the institution. More ...


Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson May 2018

Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Novel methods to increase crop productivity are required to meet anticipated demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. It is becoming feasible to use modern sensors and data analysis techniques for predicting plant growth and productivity based on genomic, phenotypic, and environmental data. To design and construct crops that deliver desired traits requires trained personnel with scientific and engineering expertise as well as a variety of “soft” skills. To address these needs at Iowa State University, we developed a graduate specialization called “Predictive Plant Phenomics” (P3). Although some of our experiences may be unique, many of the specialization’s principles ...


Understanding Collaborations Between Chinese And The U.S. Universities: The Development Of A Typology, Hui Kang, Genshu Lu, Linda S. Hagedorn May 2018

Understanding Collaborations Between Chinese And The U.S. Universities: The Development Of A Typology, Hui Kang, Genshu Lu, Linda S. Hagedorn

Education Conference Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

There has been a recent and rapid increase in the number and forms of educational collaborations between the U.S. and China in recent decades. Through the years these collaborations have evolved from the simplest forms of welcome of international students and faculty to complex agreements and even new postsecondary institutions. In this manuscript, we develop a typology to better understand the various varieties of educational collaborations using examples of the various forms between universities in the U.S. and China.


Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands May 2018

Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Agricultural education programs are one component of Career and Technical Education (CTE). For CTE to be effective, educators teaching CTE courses must be able to make connections between the curriculum and real-life situations. This qualitative study explored self-reported perceptions of CTE by pre-service students. Wigfield and Eccles’ expectancy-value model of achievement was used as the framework for this study. Findings indicated that career and technical education provides benefits for everyone because it helps develop career skills. With the shortage of educators and budget cuts, career and technical education cannot continue to survive. Participants also describe characteristics of successful career and ...


Into The Storm: Ecological And Sociological Impediments To Black Males’ Persistence In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, William A. Smith Apr 2018

Into The Storm: Ecological And Sociological Impediments To Black Males’ Persistence In Engineering Graduate Programs, Brian A. Burt, Krystal L. Williams, William A. Smith

Education Publications

While much is known about how Black students negotiate and navigate undergraduate studies, there is a dearth of research on what happens when these students enter graduate school. This article presents the results of a study of 21 Black male graduate students in engineering from one highly ranked research-intensive institution. This article provides evidence of structurally racialized policies within the engineering college (e.g., admissions) and racialized and gendered interactions with peers and advisors that threaten Black males’ persistence in engineering. We argue for taking an anti-deficit approach to understanding Black males’ persistence in engineering. We conclude with implications for ...


Rapid Needs Assessment And Response Technique, Jacqueline Comito, Brandy Case Haub, Mark Licht Apr 2018

Rapid Needs Assessment And Response Technique, Jacqueline Comito, Brandy Case Haub, Mark Licht

Agronomy Publications

The rapid needs assessment and response technique (RNR) is a useful tool for Extension professionals seeking ways to improve workshop structure. Facilitators using RNR organize workshop participants in small groups and then rotate the groups through a series of stations where participants dialogue on questions central to the workshop topic. The technique helps adult learners actively engage with one another, thus improving their ability to learn the subject matter. Use of RNR also allows facilitators to understand participants' existing knowledge of a workshop topic and tailor their education to participants' specific questions and needs.


The Power Of Language: Exploring Foundations Of Neoliberalism In Federal Financial Aid Policy, Brian A. Burt, Lorenzo D. Baber Apr 2018

The Power Of Language: Exploring Foundations Of Neoliberalism In Federal Financial Aid Policy, Brian A. Burt, Lorenzo D. Baber

Education Publications

Despite claims that colleges and universities are isolated from ideological preferences, sociopolitical discourse regularly shapes policies and practices of postsecondary education. This article considers how national discourse on federal aid for postsecondary education during the 1970s reflected a monumental shift in higher education policy. Specifically, we critique neoliberalism, a tenet of Critical Race Theory (CRT), to examine key testimonies from six expert educational leaders during a 1978 hearing on the Middle Income Student Assistance Act (MISAA). The key testimonies examined in this article highlight how language shifted the focus of national discourse on federal financial aid from public to private ...