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Full-Text Articles in Education

Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck Feb 2019

Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Educational campaigns are more complicated when members of our audiences hold scientific misconceptions related to new technologies. Our prairie strips research and education team produced a brief, focused video aimed to dispel a misconception related to the effect of prairie strip plants' roots on agricultural drain tiles in the Midwest. Our "Field Tile Investigation" video was based on the conceptual change framework from science education and featured a discrepant event. The goal was to move farmers, landowners, and their advisors to an understanding of prairie strips that was more compatible with the scientific standard.


Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands May 2018

Perceptions Of Career And Technical Education By Pre-Service Students, Scott W. Smalley, Kelsey Sands

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Agricultural education programs are one component of Career and Technical Education (CTE). For CTE to be effective, educators teaching CTE courses must be able to make connections between the curriculum and real-life situations. This qualitative study explored self-reported perceptions of CTE by pre-service students. Wigfield and Eccles’ expectancy-value model of achievement was used as the framework for this study. Findings indicated that career and technical education provides benefits for everyone because it helps develop career skills. With the shortage of educators and budget cuts, career and technical education cannot continue to survive. Participants also describe characteristics of successful career and ...


Rapid Needs Assessment And Response Technique, Jacqueline Comito, Brandy Case Haub, Mark Licht Apr 2018

Rapid Needs Assessment And Response Technique, Jacqueline Comito, Brandy Case Haub, Mark Licht

Agronomy Publications

The rapid needs assessment and response technique (RNR) is a useful tool for Extension professionals seeking ways to improve workshop structure. Facilitators using RNR organize workshop participants in small groups and then rotate the groups through a series of stations where participants dialogue on questions central to the workshop topic. The technique helps adult learners actively engage with one another, thus improving their ability to learn the subject matter. Use of RNR also allows facilitators to understand participants' existing knowledge of a workshop topic and tailor their education to participants' specific questions and needs.


Job Stress, Burnout, And Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers, Amy Smith, Scott Smalley Jan 2018

Job Stress, Burnout, And Professional Development Needs Of Mid-Career Agricultural Education Teachers, Amy Smith, Scott Smalley

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Retaining high quality school-based agricultural education teachers is a growing concern across the United States. This study focused on mid-career agricultural education teachers’ perceptions of job stress, burnout, job satisfaction, and professional development needs related to National Quality Program Standards for Secondary Agriculture Education (The National Council for Agricultural Education, 2009). The target population for this study was participants in the 2013 NAAE eXcellence in Leadership for Retention (XLR8) professional development program. Overall, XLR8 participants indicated the highest levels of job stress related to Standard 2 – Experiential Learning and Standard 7 – Program Planning and Evaluation. Participants were least stressed over ...


Early Field Experience Course Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Laboratory Environments, Trent Wells, Scott W. Smalley, Bryan D. Rank Jan 2018

Early Field Experience Course Students’ Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education Laboratory Environments, Trent Wells, Scott W. Smalley, Bryan D. Rank

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Laboratory instruction is an important component of school-based agricultural education (SBAE) programs (Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008). Early field experience (EFE) coursework can be an important component of agricultural teacher preparation programs (Retallick & Miller, 2007). Through the use of a modified photovoice technique, we sought to identify the perceptions of students (i.e., preservice teachers) enrolled in an EFE course in relation to the laboratory environment component of the SBAE model. Students enrolled in a 40-hour EFE course photographed a laboratory environment at their placement site and completed a 250-word descriptive/reflective summary of the laboratory. Through open coding of the summaries, three prominent themes emerged: 1) project-based learning is widely used for instructional purposes; 2) laboratory environments are set up and arranged in particular fashions based on needs; and 3) laboratory environments are arranged as settings for effective learning. Within the photographs, the agricultural mechanics laboratory was most commonly identified as a laboratory environment. The EFE students identified laboratory environments are not always traditional in their scope, and classrooms can serve as laboratory environments. We recommend photovoice be further used as a tool to explore students’ perceptions of the realities of modern SBAE programs.


Over The Edge: Factors Nudging Mid-Career, School- Based Agriculture Teachers Out Of The Profession, Jay K. Solomonson, Michael S. Retallick Jan 2018

Over The Edge: Factors Nudging Mid-Career, School- Based Agriculture Teachers Out Of The Profession, Jay K. Solomonson, Michael S. Retallick

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

The field of agricultural education has experienced a consistent labor shortage the past several decades. Consequently, many school districts struggle to fill their open positions, while others are forced to shut down their agricultural programs completely due to inadequate staffing. Teacher attrition has been identified as a predominant factor behind the teacher shortage. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify factors influencing mid-career school-based agriculture teachers’ decision to stay in or leave the secondary agriculture teaching profession. Researchers developed and administered questionnaires, as well as conducted interviews, to gather data from current, mid-career agriculture teachers to answer the ...


Factors Contributing To Illinois School-Based Agriculture Teachers’ Final Decision To Leave The Classroom, Jay K. Solomonson, Debra S. Korte, Erica B. Thieman, Michael S. Retallick, Kari H. Keating Jan 2018

Factors Contributing To Illinois School-Based Agriculture Teachers’ Final Decision To Leave The Classroom, Jay K. Solomonson, Debra S. Korte, Erica B. Thieman, Michael S. Retallick, Kari H. Keating

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Teacher attrition is a significant problem nationally and a special challenge for school-based agriculture education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate contributing variables associated with former Illinois school-based agriculture teachers and their decision to leave the profession. A four-factor conceptual model is proposed as a framework for explaining agriculture teacher retention or attrition and includes the multivariate constructs of Personal Factors, Working Conditions, Teacher Development, and Compensation. Demographic characteristics are explored as well as difference between novice and experienced teachers and their perceptions of attrition influences. This study is unique in that it reports survey data from ...


Evaluating First Year Agriculture Teachers’ Use Of Reflection, Amanda Meder, Scott Smalley, Michael Retallick Jan 2018

Evaluating First Year Agriculture Teachers’ Use Of Reflection, Amanda Meder, Scott Smalley, Michael Retallick

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Reflection is a useful tool which improves teaching approaches; however, many first-year teachers do not appear to reflect upon their instructional plans (McAlpine & Weston, 2000). Prior research has indicated preservice teachers are not utilizing the acquired reflective approaches learned throughout the teacher preparation program (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Kagan & Tippins, 1992; Reynolds, 1993). It is believed teachers fail to implement reflective practice in their professional practice because they have not acquired the pedagogical knowledge to effectively reflect (McAlpine & Weston, 2000). The primary purpose of this study was to determine if beginning agricultural education teachers employed a systematic approach of reflection, determine what components of the teacher preparation program aided in learning, how to reflect, and to examine first-year teachers’ gratification with the reflective approaches learned from Iowa ...


The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish Jan 2018

The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Citizen science has been shown to be an effective tool for increasing data collection, as well as a great benefit to those who participate in the research project. The rising costs and limited funding for conducting large-scale research projects make citizen science projects valuable assets for researchers. Understanding the impact of citizen science projects on the volunteers must be done to better engage with and retain the volunteers. The Growing Together project, a partnership between the ISU Extension and Outreach Master Gardener program and the Human Sciences Extension, was created to increase food security in Iowa. The two major components ...


Perceived Distance And Instructional Design In Online Agriculture And Life Science Courses, Yahya S. Alotibi Jan 2018

Perceived Distance And Instructional Design In Online Agriculture And Life Science Courses, Yahya S. Alotibi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to describe relationships between factors that influence perceived transactional distance (course structure, course interaction, and learner autonomy) and instructional design aspects that help to reduce transactional distance from the learner's perspective. Using Transactional Distance Theory. Specifically, the study sought to identify the extent to which learners felt they were distant from their online course and describe relationships between online students’ perceived distance and factors of transactional distance (course structure, interactions, and learner autonomy).

An online survey was disseminated to 271 students who enrolled in online courses in the College of Agriculture and ...


Barriers And Motivators For Tractors Rops Retrofitting In Iowa, Charles V. Schwab, J. Gordon Arbuckle, H. Mark Hanna Jan 2018

Barriers And Motivators For Tractors Rops Retrofitting In Iowa, Charles V. Schwab, J. Gordon Arbuckle, H. Mark Hanna

Sociology Publications

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach conducted an assessment of Iowa farm operators’ perceptions about the barriers and motivators when considering retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS). A statewide sample of approximately 2,000 farm operators were surveyed in the 2017 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. A series of questions were asked to evaluate the importance of potential barriers to decisions not to retrofit a tractor and potential motivators that could influence the decision to retrofit or purchase a tractor with ROPS. The survey received a 48% response rate with 999 responses. Among the 76% of Iowa farm ...


Utilizing Multivariate Analysis For Assessing Student Learning Through Effective College-Industry Partnerships, Caleb Burns, Shweta Chopra, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Gretchen A. Mosher Jan 2018

Utilizing Multivariate Analysis For Assessing Student Learning Through Effective College-Industry Partnerships, Caleb Burns, Shweta Chopra, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Gretchen A. Mosher

Political Science Publications

There is no doubt that college–industry collaborations are vital to the success of undergraduate students with engineering and technology majors. This collaboration provides students with an opportunity to bridge the gap between classroom education and real-world experience. Inviting industry representatives to engage in the classroom and involving students with professional organizations, student field trips, virtual plant tours, and industry-focused final projects are ways in which an instructor can incorporate student–industry engagement into their course. During their undergraduate degree program, students are required to participate in an internship program where they gain substantial industry engagement and opportunities to learn ...


Using Immediate Feedback To Improve Short-Term Learning In Extension, Erin W. Hodgson Jan 2018

Using Immediate Feedback To Improve Short-Term Learning In Extension, Erin W. Hodgson

Entomology Publications

Program evaluation is an important part of any extension program and is often a required component by funding agencies. Given declining resources in land-grant universities, we must be creative in evaluating the learning and adoption of our research-based recommendations. I used a survey tool to give immediate feedback to participants in a wide variety of situations. Results indicate adults were receptive to this evaluation method, and close-ended questions can provide reliable evaluation data in an extension program. People showed improved significant learning with this technique and it is a model for other extension personnel.


Perceptions Of Middle, High School And Community College Agricultural Teachers In Iowa Regarding Agricultural Awareness Concepts And Activities In The Middle School Curriculum: Grades 7-9, Abisoye Oyeyinka Odubanjo Jan 2018

Perceptions Of Middle, High School And Community College Agricultural Teachers In Iowa Regarding Agricultural Awareness Concepts And Activities In The Middle School Curriculum: Grades 7-9, Abisoye Oyeyinka Odubanjo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Teachers are relied upon to teach basic agricultural knowledge among young learners who are devoid of real-world agricultural experiences. The middle school serves as a tool for achieving this goal because self and environmental awareness, and career choices begin at this educational stage. Since agricultural teachers are the major driver of agricultural education program in the middle school, their perceptions regarding this program are important. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of agricultural teachers regarding teaching agriculture and selected course content in the middle school. The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a theoretical framework ...


The Food Consumption Habits Of 145 Iowa Farm Families, P. Mabel Nelson, Elizabeth E. Hoyt, Laura Mclaughlin, Ethel Cessna Morgan Aug 2017

The Food Consumption Habits Of 145 Iowa Farm Families, P. Mabel Nelson, Elizabeth E. Hoyt, Laura Mclaughlin, Ethel Cessna Morgan

Bulletin

The food consumption habits of 145 Iowa farm families were studied from records of expenditures for food and of food produced by farms during one year. Forty-three families in the central part of the state near Ames, 49 families in the southwestern part near Corning, and 53 families near Oelwein in the northeastern part of the state cooperated in the study.

The nutritive values of the respective diets were calculated for the families in the Ames group and for the average of the families in each of the other two groups.

The energy values of these diets and their content ...


Value Of Family Living On Iowa Farms, Elizabeth Ellis Hoyt Aug 2017

Value Of Family Living On Iowa Farms, Elizabeth Ellis Hoyt

Bulletin

The average value of living1 of 147 Iowa farm families who kept accounts for one year was $1,624.95. The average size of household was 4.8 persons. For three-fourths of these families value of living fell between $1,200 and $2,400.

The farm furnished an average of 42.6 percent of the value of living of all families.

Food cost these families an average of $640.86, or 39.4 percent of the total value of living. Over three-fifths of the food was furnished by the farm. The average of all diets was adequate for energy ...


Influence Of The Animal's Age Upon The Quality And Palatability Of Beef, M. D. Helser, P. Mabel Nelson, Belle Lowe Aug 2017

Influence Of The Animal's Age Upon The Quality And Palatability Of Beef, M. D. Helser, P. Mabel Nelson, Belle Lowe

Bulletin

1. Beef from two-year-old and yearling steers is more desirable than beef from calves both in the feeder and finished stages.

2. Finished cattle show higher dressing and cutting yields than unfinished cattle.

3. The age of the animal has little influence on the percentages of the various cuts of beef.

4. Beef from young animals is lighter in color than that from older animals.

5. The distribution of fat thru the lean was more, satisfactory in the yearling and two-year-old beef than in beef from the calves.

6. Beef from older animals will ripen more satisfactorily than beef from ...


Organoleptic, Chemical, Physical And Microscopic Characteristics Of Muscles In Eight Beef Carcasses, Differing In Age Of Animal, Carcass Grade And Extent Of Cooking, Belle Lowe, Joseph Kastelic Jun 2017

Organoleptic, Chemical, Physical And Microscopic Characteristics Of Muscles In Eight Beef Carcasses, Differing In Age Of Animal, Carcass Grade And Extent Of Cooking, Belle Lowe, Joseph Kastelic

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Studies have been made of the organoleptic and some chemical, physical and microscopic characteristics of cooked and uncooked beef muscles obtained from carcasses of animals differing in age and quality. The beef animals were divided into pairs according to animal age and carcass grade. Group I included animals I and V - age, 18 months; carcass grade, Commercial. Group 2 included animals II and VI - age, 18 months; carcass grade, Choice. Group 3 consisted of animals III and VII - age, 6 months; carcass grade, Commercial. Group 4 included animals IV and VIII - age, 42-48 months; carcass grade, Commercial.

Roasts were obtained ...


Educational Needs Of Three Socio-Economic Groups Of Rural Homemakers In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle Jun 2017

Educational Needs Of Three Socio-Economic Groups Of Rural Homemakers In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In the belief that a study of the practices and problems of rural homemakers would yield information from which some of their educational needs could be inferred, a project was designed at the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station to investigate the homemaking practices of rural homemakers in Iowa. Of special concern in the study were the practices and problems of women in the low socio-economic group who often are not served by adult education agencies. 1 If their practices and problems differ widely from those of the middle and high socioeconomic group, part of the explanation for their ...


Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill Jun 2017

Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Nearly 2,200 women, ranging in age from 30 to more than 90 years, living in five North Central states, provided the 24-hour dietaries from which data summarized in this bulletin were obtained. The women interviewed in Iowa and South Dakota were selected by area-probability sampling methods, so that they represented all women over 29 years of age in each of these two states. Four other samples were drawn from three urban centers: one from Urbana, Illinois; two (one white, one Negro) from Lansing-East Lansing, Michigan; and one from St. Paul, Minnesota.

The mean nutritive values of 24-hour dietaries reported ...


Management Aspects Of School Lunch Programs In Iowa, Beatrice Donaldson, Grace M. Augustine Jun 2017

Management Aspects Of School Lunch Programs In Iowa, Beatrice Donaldson, Grace M. Augustine

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Efficient management of school lunch programs involves the operation of the food service to provide attractive, palatable and nutritionally adequate meals and the realization of the educational potentialities of such programs. These are recognized as important management aspects of feeding children at school.

This bulletin reports results of a survey of management aspects of school lunch programs in 25 Iowa schools which were drawn as a sample to represent the 622 Iowa schools in which full meals were served during the 1948-49 school year. The survey was made in connection with a regional study of the nutritional status of school ...


Educational Needs Of Less Privileged Homemakers In A Rural County In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle Jun 2017

Educational Needs Of Less Privileged Homemakers In A Rural County In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Even though only six states had a rural level of living index higher than Iowa in 1940, according to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, many families in Iowa were living at a level much below that suggested by the index and were at a disadvantage in income and in education. A study of the economic problems of farmers in Iowa in 1939 showed that 81 percent of them had a net cash income below $1,200 and 64 percent had a total income of less than $1,200. Even in the prosperous years after World War II when incomes in ...


Defrosting And Cooking Frozen Meat: The Effect Of Method Of Defrosting And Of The Manner And Temperature Of Cooking Upon Weight Loss And Palatability, Belle Lowe, Elma Crain, Georgia Amick, Mildred Riedesel, Louise J. Peet, Florence Busse Smith, Buford R. Mcclurg, P. S. Shearer Jun 2017

Defrosting And Cooking Frozen Meat: The Effect Of Method Of Defrosting And Of The Manner And Temperature Of Cooking Upon Weight Loss And Palatability, Belle Lowe, Elma Crain, Georgia Amick, Mildred Riedesel, Louise J. Peet, Florence Busse Smith, Buford R. Mcclurg, P. S. Shearer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the time for defrosting cuts of beef, veal, Iamb and pork by four methods and to consider the effect of the method of defrosting upon the palatability of the cooked meat. The methods of defrosting were: (1) in the refrigerator, (2) at room temperature, (3) in water and (4) during cooking.

Data to determine the weight loss during defrosting, weight loss during cooking, time for cooking and the amount of fuel needed for cooking were also recorded.

The methods of cooking employed with the different cuts of meat were roasting, broiling ...


Farm Family Housing Needs And Preferences In The North Central Region, Paulena Nickell, Marie Budolfson, Margaret Liston, Elisabeth Willis Jun 2017

Farm Family Housing Needs And Preferences In The North Central Region, Paulena Nickell, Marie Budolfson, Margaret Liston, Elisabeth Willis

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This bulletin reports the results of a survey of farm family preferences and activities as they relate to housing needs, carried on as a cooperative regional project by the agricultural experiment stations in 12 North Central states and the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture. A sample survey of nearly 900 households, made in the spring of 1948, provides a basis for making reliable estimates of the housing needs and preferences of the 2,270,000 households in the open-country portion of the North Central region.

The information obtained about preferences-about what ...


The Expansion Of Vocational Education In Agriculture In Iowa, J. A. Starrak, J. B. Mcclelland Jun 2017

The Expansion Of Vocational Education In Agriculture In Iowa, J. A. Starrak, J. B. Mcclelland

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The facilities for vocational education in agriculture in the public schools of Iowa leave much to be desired. Only 17 percent of Iowa's high schools are currently offering such instruction. The majority of the high schools, and chiefly those whose enrollments contain large proportions of farm boys, are too small and too poorly equipped to carry on reasonably efficient and economical programs of vocational agriculture. Such programs should serve all the farm people of the community and each should employ the full-time services of at least one properly qualified instructor. Programs not possessing these two characteristics are not recommended ...


A Test Of The Performance Of Portable Electric Mixers For Household Use, Louise J. Peet, Gail M. Redfield, Arnold E. Baragar Jun 2017

A Test Of The Performance Of Portable Electric Mixers For Household Use, Louise J. Peet, Gail M. Redfield, Arnold E. Baragar

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

At the time this study was initiated, the small electrical food mixer was a common appliance in the home, serving in many ways to facilitate and hasten the tasks of whipping, beating and mixing during food preparation. Then, as now, the homemaker with a small food mixer wanted to use it for all her mixing and beating operations. Advertising claims indicated that it was adequate for such purposes. Many mixers, however, would not perform all the tasks required. The beater speed was too fast; the bowl turned too rapidly or did not turn at all; portions of the food remained ...


Teacher Supply And Demand In Home Economics In Iowa, 1935-1941, Hester Chadderdon Jun 2017

Teacher Supply And Demand In Home Economics In Iowa, 1935-1941, Hester Chadderdon

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Fifteen Iowa colleges and universities prepared 1,051 students to meet the state requirements for teaching home economics in the secondary schools between 1935 and 1941. The number prepared in 1940 was 74.7 percent greater than in 1935.

Slightly over three-fourths (76.3 percent) gave some service to Iowa high schools. The percentages going into teaching in the state from the different institutions varied from 33 to 100.

Of 271 not teaching in the secondary schools of Iowa immediately after c9mpleting their preparation, 100 taught in other states or at other school levels. Eighty-eight students taught outside Iowa the ...


General Agriculture In The High Schools Of Iowa, J. A. Starrak, Max W. Kneedy Jun 2017

General Agriculture In The High Schools Of Iowa, J. A. Starrak, Max W. Kneedy

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The three R's dominated the program of the common schools until about the turn of the century. The first decade, 1900-1910, saw determined efforts made to relate the program of the common schools to the life of the child outside the school. Part of this effort can be attributed to the growing consciousness that the practices of agriculture could be improved greatly through application of scientific principles.. This also accounts for the organization and rapid development of agricultural extension services in a number of states, notably Iowa. P. G. Holden, the first director of organized extension work in Iowa ...


Performance Of Electric Roasters, Faith Madden, Louise J. Peet Jun 2017

Performance Of Electric Roasters, Faith Madden, Louise J. Peet

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The National Committee on Household Equipment Research under the leadership of the Bureau of Home Economics, has been working' for several years on test specifications for various household appliances, so that the several investigators in the field may be able to follow similar methods in testing equipment and have a basis for comparing results. Since research in the field of household equipment is of comparative recent date, very little data are available. It is necessary, therefore, to test the performance of appliances before test specifications can be set up and agreed upon. The present investigation was carried on for the ...


The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value Ii. Use In Plain Cake, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson Jun 2017

The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value Ii. Use In Plain Cake, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

These studies on the use of lards in plain cake were initiated in the fall of 1932 and completed during the summer of 1936. The major results of these investigations with cake have been included in a series of four theses by Martin (11), Buel (2), Minard (13) and Myers (15) .

Cakes containing fat may be divided into two types:

1. The pound cake, named from the proportions formerly used by our great-grandmothers, consists of a pound each of fat, sugar, flour and eggs, with no baking powder or soda. The volume of the cake depends upon the expansion of ...