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Edith Cowan University

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 173

Full-Text Articles in Education

"Network Teach": How A Student Led Organisation Supports The Transition To University, Deborah Callcott, Marianne J. Knaus, Judy Warren, Ashleigh Wenban Aug 2014

"Network Teach": How A Student Led Organisation Supports The Transition To University, Deborah Callcott, Marianne J. Knaus, Judy Warren, Ashleigh Wenban

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

It is well documented that the first-year experience is crucial to student success at university. The transition to university provides many challenges for students from a personal, social and academic perspective. Over several decades, universities across Australia have implemented strategies to improve the attrition rate of first year students. This paper discusses a program designed to meet the specific needs of students in the School of Education, at a university in a metropolitan suburb of Perth, Western Australia. The Network Teach program is unique in that it is a student-run organisation. It offers social networking and academic support systems to ...


The Effect Over Time Of A Video-Based Reflection System On Preservice Teachers’ Oral Presentations, Michael Cavanagh, Matt Bower, Robyn Moloney, Naomi Sweller Jun 2014

The Effect Over Time Of A Video-Based Reflection System On Preservice Teachers’ Oral Presentations, Michael Cavanagh, Matt Bower, Robyn Moloney, Naomi Sweller

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

We report the development of preservice teachers’ oral presentation performance based on a technology-mediated Video Reflection system. Participants video-recorded oral presentations and uploaded them to an online blog to view and reflect on their performance and that of their peers. Four presentations by forty-one participants were analysed using a range of criteria based on what we call the Modes of Communication (voice, body-language, words and alignment between them) and the Constructed Impression of the communication acts (confidence, clarity, engagement and appropriateness). Results indicate a significant improvement across all criteria with a decreased rate of improvement for later iterations.


‘The Sacred Spark Of Wonder’: Local Museums, Australian Curriculum History, And Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education: A Tasmanian Case Study, Peter Brett Jun 2014

‘The Sacred Spark Of Wonder’: Local Museums, Australian Curriculum History, And Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education: A Tasmanian Case Study, Peter Brett

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This article explores the intersections between museum learning – in a distinctive Tasmanian setting, the possibilities of a new national History curriculum, and the evolving views and professional practices of pre-service primary teachers at one Australian university. Following a brief overview of the framework for local and Australian history that is embedded in the ACH, the relevant literature around museum education, and the specific museum context, the article draws upon a survey of second year pre-service primary teachers’ views towards history, museums, and a pedagogical planning task and analyses features of students’ work. It concludes with some wider reflections on the ...


Are You Ready To Be A Mentor? Preparing Teachers For Mentoring Pre-Service Teachers, Angelina Ambrosetti Jun 2014

Are You Ready To Be A Mentor? Preparing Teachers For Mentoring Pre-Service Teachers, Angelina Ambrosetti

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The use of mentoring has nowadays become a predominant practice for the professional placement component of pre-service teacher education programs. Research however has identified that being an effective teacher doe not make you an effective mentor. The present research investigated the role of professional development in the preparation of mentor teachers for their mentoring roles. Specifically, this paper presents the findings of a pilot mentoring preparation course that engaged mentor teachers in developing their knowledge about the nature and process of mentoring, and the roles of mentors and mentees. Data about changed understandings of mentoring and changed mentoring practices of ...


Punish Them Or Engage Them? Teachers’ Views Of Unproductive Student Behaviours In The Classroom, Anna M. Sullivan, Bruce Johnson, Larry Owens, Robert Conway Jun 2014

Punish Them Or Engage Them? Teachers’ Views Of Unproductive Student Behaviours In The Classroom, Anna M. Sullivan, Bruce Johnson, Larry Owens, Robert Conway

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper reports on a study that investigated the extent to which student behaviour is a concern for school teachers. A questionnaire was used to investigate teachers’ views about student behaviour in their classes. The results suggest that low-level disruptive and disengaged student behaviours occur frequently and teachers find them difficult to manage. Aggressive and anti-social behaviours occur infrequently. Teachers employ strategies to manage unproductive behaviours that locate the problem with the student. This paper argues that teachers could benefit from understanding how the classroom ecology influences engagement and therefore student behaviour, rather than focusing on ‘fixing’ unproductive behaviour.


Dynamic Variables Of Science Classroom Discourse In Relation To Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs, Sibel Kaya Jun 2014

Dynamic Variables Of Science Classroom Discourse In Relation To Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs, Sibel Kaya

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The current study examines if the occurence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers’ instructional beliefs. Twelve 4th grade teachers from two different schools volunteered to participate in the study. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to determine teachers’ instructional beliefs, classroom practices and dynamic variables of classroom discourse. Results showed that teachers were more teacher-centred in their classroom practices than their instructional beliefs. There were no differences among teachers with different instructional beliefs in terms ...


Generating Cultural Capital? Impacts Of Artists-In-Residence On Teacher Professional Learning, Mary Ann Hunter, William Baker, Di Nailon Jun 2014

Generating Cultural Capital? Impacts Of Artists-In-Residence On Teacher Professional Learning, Mary Ann Hunter, William Baker, Di Nailon

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The introduction of the Australian Arts Curriculum and the rise of a twenty-first century creativity agenda in education signal an opportunity for teacher educators to re-examine the outcomes and potential of arts-based initiatives on teacher professional learning. This study re-visits the outcomes of the Australian Artist-in-Residence program in this context and analyses a subset of data collected for its evaluation. The study reveals that while teachers perceive an improvement in creative capital, it is important to consider questions about the capacity for such programs to generate long term changes in practice. The study illustrates how some States and Territories embedded ...


"Inside-Out Pedagogy": Theorising Pedagogical Transformation Through Teaching Philosophy, Rosie Scholl Jun 2014

"Inside-Out Pedagogy": Theorising Pedagogical Transformation Through Teaching Philosophy, Rosie Scholl

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This retrospective interview study focused on the impact that training and implementation of Philosophy, in Lipman's tradition of Philosophy for Children, had on the pedagogy of 14 primary teachers at one school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to document the impact of teaching Philosophy on pedagogy, the resources required to facilitate and sustain such change, including the necessary dispositions required to teach Philosophy, and the critical junctures in pedagogical change associated with teaching Philosophy. Interview data were coded and analysed to generate a grounded theory regarding the efficacy of teaching Philosophy in terms of its impact on the pedagogy of ...


Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Personal Figural Concepts And Classifications About Quadrilaterals, Emel Ozdemir Erdogan, Zeliha Dur Jun 2014

Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Personal Figural Concepts And Classifications About Quadrilaterals, Emel Ozdemir Erdogan, Zeliha Dur

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The aim of this study was to determine preservice mathematics teachers’ personal figural concepts and hierarchical classifications about quadrilaterals and to investigate the relationships between them. The participants were 57 preservice primary mathematics teachers in their senior year at a state university in Turkey. The preservice mathematics teachers were administered a questionnaire that consisted of 13 questions extracted from studies on the descriptions and images of quadrilaterals, identification of quadrilateral families among given images, and identification and classification of the relationships between quadrilaterals. The results showed that the preservice mathematics teachers’ knowledge of quadrilaterals learnt at primary-secondary school level and ...


The Reasons And Motivation For Pre-Service Teachers Choosing To Specialise In Primary Physical Education Teacher Education, Sharna Spittle, Michael Spittle May 2014

The Reasons And Motivation For Pre-Service Teachers Choosing To Specialise In Primary Physical Education Teacher Education, Sharna Spittle, Michael Spittle

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study explored the reasons for pre-service teachers choosing to specialise in primary physical education and how these choices related to their motivation. Pre-service teachers who then elected to specialise in primary physical education (n = 248) completed the Attractors and Facilitators for Physical Education (AFPE) questionnaire and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). The main reasons for specialising in primary physical education were sport and physical activity, confident interpersonal service, and role models. Pre-service teachers who were also completing health as a teaching method reported lower perceived demand than pre-service teachers who were completing other teaching methods. The strongest predictors of ...


Building Leadership Capacity In Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers, Glenda Campbell-Evans, Elizabeth Stamopoulos, Carmel Maloney May 2014

Building Leadership Capacity In Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers, Glenda Campbell-Evans, Elizabeth Stamopoulos, Carmel Maloney

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Building leadership capacity within the early childhood profession has emerged as a key concern as the sector responds to national reforms. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around the changes needed in tertiary training to build early childhood leadership capacity in school settings. Eight experienced early childhood teachers enrolled in a post graduate leadership unit participated in this small scale, exploratory study. Data were drawn from the participants’ research plans, reflective journals and a post unit survey. The findings indicated that the participants found it difficult to perceive themselves as leading families and community. Two ...


An Investigation Of Western Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Experiences And Self-Efficacy In The Arts, Geoff W. Lummis, Julia Morris, Annamaria Paolino May 2014

An Investigation Of Western Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Experiences And Self-Efficacy In The Arts, Geoff W. Lummis, Julia Morris, Annamaria Paolino

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The arts are crucial in developing our multi-sensory interpretation of culture. With the introduction of the Australian National Curriculum in the arts, there is cause to reflect on teacher education courses, and pre-service teachers’ ability to deliver the new curriculum. Reflection on students’ experiences in the arts may provide insight into improving teacher education. A mixed methods study was conducted with first and fourth-year Bachelor of Education primary students at a Western Australian university, to determine students’ arts experiences prior to and during the course. Fourth-year graduating students were also asked to reflect on their self-efficacy to teach the arts ...


A School System And University Approach To Reducing The Research To Practice Gap In Teacher Education: A Collaborative Special Education Immersion Project, Christine R. Grima-Farrell, Jan Long, Robyn Bentley-Williams, Cath Laws May 2014

A School System And University Approach To Reducing The Research To Practice Gap In Teacher Education: A Collaborative Special Education Immersion Project, Christine R. Grima-Farrell, Jan Long, Robyn Bentley-Williams, Cath Laws

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This research is a response to the call for more effective practice based knowledge on ways to build inclusive cultures that assist the translation of research-to-practice. It reports on the factors identified in literature as being significant to the successful translation of research-to-practice and seeks to identify important sources of influence from an undergraduate teacher perspective.

By investigating a collaborative school system and university generated Special Education Immersion Project, specifically designed for undergraduate teachers, a number of factors are presented as contributors to the gap between research and practice. They include the importance of linkages between teacher preparation programs and ...


Finding Ways To Effectively Use Year 12 Achievement Data To Inform Practice In Secondary Schools, Frank Italiano, Gregory Hine May 2014

Finding Ways To Effectively Use Year 12 Achievement Data To Inform Practice In Secondary Schools, Frank Italiano, Gregory Hine

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This qualitative research explored how Year 12 achievement data were used by school personnel to inform practice within seven Catholic secondary schools. Deputy Principals of Curriculum from participating schools were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the improvement of Year 12 student achievement outcomes, and their insights into how to strengthen future efforts (or achievements). Three key insights included: Communication of achievement data to key stakeholders in the school community, strategic use of achievement data by teaching staff, and leadership strategies to promote an achievement culture to the students. The findings of this research will serve to improve and strengthen practice ...


Autoethnography And Teacher Education: Snapshot Stories Of Cultural Encounter, Maureen F. Legge May 2014

Autoethnography And Teacher Education: Snapshot Stories Of Cultural Encounter, Maureen F. Legge

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In this paper I discuss how I framed and wrote an autoethnographic personal narrative of my lived experience as a New Zealand physical education teacher educator in the presence of two cultures, Māori and Pākehā. Central to my qualitative study was writing as a method of inquiry. Using this method I wrote a series of descriptive ‘snapshot stories’ derived from field experiences, over an 11 year period, that involved close and prolonged encounters with physical education teacher education (PETE) students in tertiary classrooms and 4 day marae stays. The storied accounts served as data for self-reflexivity about my role as ...


School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, And Instructional Practices, Chantarath Hongboontri, Natheeporn Keawkhong May 2014

School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, And Instructional Practices, Chantarath Hongboontri, Natheeporn Keawkhong

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University’s Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire. Of these, 14 participated in semi-structured interviews and classroom observations; 2 agreed to be interviewed but did not allow their classrooms to be observed. Quantitative data demonstrated strong correlations among eight social organizational variables of a school culture. Qualitative data further revealed the influences of a school culture on these teacher ...


Macro-Scaffolding: Contextual Support For Teacher Learning, Marion Engin May 2014

Macro-Scaffolding: Contextual Support For Teacher Learning, Marion Engin

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

A socio-cultural theory of learning places importance on the social and cultural context of the learning as well as the interaction between a more expert other and the learner. Scaffolding at the level of interaction may be defined as micro-scaffolding, and support which can be found in the context of the learning can be referred to as macro-scaffolding. This paper reports on research carried out in a pre-service English teacher training context which explored macro-scaffolding. Findings suggest that support at the macro-level includes the shared understanding of accepted practices of the training context in terms of what is considered ‘good ...


Evidence-Based Classroom And Behaviour Management Content In Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Coursework: Wherefore Art Thou?, Sue C. O'Neill, Jennifer Stephenson Apr 2014

Evidence-Based Classroom And Behaviour Management Content In Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Coursework: Wherefore Art Thou?, Sue C. O'Neill, Jennifer Stephenson

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Beginning teachers often report feeling less than adequately prepared by their teacher education programs in the area of classroom and behaviour management (CBM). This article reports the prevalence of evidence-based practices in the coursework content on offer in Australian undergraduate primary teacher education programs. First a set of CBM practices supported by empirical research was established. Models of CBM in CBM courses and prescribed texts were then examined for the inclusion of these practices. We found that evidence-based practices in CBM were not commonly included in either models of CBM covered in courses, or in the prescribed texts used to ...


Research And Reflective Practice In The Esl Classroom: Voices From Sri Lanka, Andrzej Cirocki, Sujeewa Tennekoon, Alicia Pena Calvo Apr 2014

Research And Reflective Practice In The Esl Classroom: Voices From Sri Lanka, Andrzej Cirocki, Sujeewa Tennekoon, Alicia Pena Calvo

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Modern language education favours the model of a reflective teacher-researcher who is engaged in both individual and collaborative curriculum revision and teaching-learning environment improvement. The present paper addresses the issue of classroom research and reflective practice in current ESL pedagogy and teacher professional development. The theoretical introduction is followed by research findings recently gathered from Sri Lankan ESL teachers. The study aimed at ascertaining the extent to which Sri Lankan ESL teachers are involved in classroom research and discussing various reasons why they assume or do not assume the role of a teacher-researcher. The study reports interesting findings, calling for ...


Establishing Positive Relationships With Secondary Gifted Students And Students With Emotional/Behavioural Disorders: Giving These Diverse Learners What They Need, Trevor Capern, Lorraine Hammond Apr 2014

Establishing Positive Relationships With Secondary Gifted Students And Students With Emotional/Behavioural Disorders: Giving These Diverse Learners What They Need, Trevor Capern, Lorraine Hammond

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The relationships between teachers and their students play a vital role in the creation of positive learning outcomes and environments for all learners, but particularly for those individuals with diverse needs. This study examined the teacher behaviours that contributed to positive student-teacher relationships with gifted secondary students (GS) (N=58) and with secondary students with Emotional/Behavioural Disorders (EBD) (N=40) in Western Australia. Valued teachers’ behaviours were identified through a mixed-methods approach that included surveys and student focus groups. The data indicated that GSs valued teacher behaviours that promoted cordial and friendly interactions between teachers and students to the ...


Beginning Teacher Support In Australia: Towards An Online Community To Augment Current Support, Nick Kelly, Shirley Reushle, Sayan Chakrabarty, Anna Kinnane Apr 2014

Beginning Teacher Support In Australia: Towards An Online Community To Augment Current Support, Nick Kelly, Shirley Reushle, Sayan Chakrabarty, Anna Kinnane

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper describes opportunities to improve the current support provided to beginning teachers in Australia. It holds that there is a need for approaches that go beyond school-based induction and support. The paper presents data from a survey of beginning teachers in Queensland, with aims to determine current access to support and perceptions about gaps in support. It uses these findings alongside existing evidence to make arguments, that some beginning teachers are effectively unsupported and that universities have the potential to play a greater role in beginning teacher support. Further results are used to suggest guidelines for developing a national ...


Investigating Mandatory Peer Review Of Teaching In Schools, Jacinta Brix, Peter Grainger, Angela Hill Apr 2014

Investigating Mandatory Peer Review Of Teaching In Schools, Jacinta Brix, Peter Grainger, Angela Hill

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Accountability agendas are influencing the secondary education sector. Analysis of student achievement, student feedback mechanisms and personal reflection are forming part of these agendas as methods of teacher evaluation. Additionally, and more recently, teacher evaluation through ‘peer review’ is emerging as a tool for evaluating teacher quality. Peer review of teaching encompasses educators working and learning together to improve teaching practices and student learning. A plethora of literature currently exists on peer review of teaching for formative purposes. While there are a number of studies examining the role of peer review of teaching within higher education, there are very few ...


The Casual Approach To Teacher Education: What Effect Does Casualisation Have For Australian University Teaching?, Christopher J. Klopper, Bianca M. Power Apr 2014

The Casual Approach To Teacher Education: What Effect Does Casualisation Have For Australian University Teaching?, Christopher J. Klopper, Bianca M. Power

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Universities in many countries are struggling to adapt to the competing forces of globalisation, new managerialism, entrepreneurialism and new technologies and quality agenda demands. Diminishing resources caused by restricted funding and an aging and diminishing academic workforce pose barriers. One solution to staffing shortages is the casualisation of academic teachers increasing causal or sessional teaching staff who take on significantly increased teaching responsibilities. This article explores the casualisation of university academics and reports on preliminary findings of a small scale sessional teacher development program that used data from a questionnaire on demographics of a small group of 22 sessional teaching ...


Opportunities Taken, Lost Or Avoided: The Use Of Difference Of Opinion In School Decision Making, Bridget M. Leggett, Glenda Campbell-Evans, Jan Gray Apr 2014

Opportunities Taken, Lost Or Avoided: The Use Of Difference Of Opinion In School Decision Making, Bridget M. Leggett, Glenda Campbell-Evans, Jan Gray

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In this paper the authors report on an exploratory investigation into the use of disequilibrium and difference of opinion in decision-making in schools, based on the experiences of Master of Education students in their own university. From examples provided by the participants the authors identify the factors that contribute to the positive use of difference of opinion, and those that limit or constrain its use. They then discuss the implications of the findings for the curriculum of the degree in which the participants are enrolled.


“On The Way To School”: Structural Analysis Of The Relational Path Between Social Context Variables And Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Among Pre-Service Palestinian Teachers In Israel, Sami Mahajna Apr 2014

“On The Way To School”: Structural Analysis Of The Relational Path Between Social Context Variables And Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Among Pre-Service Palestinian Teachers In Israel, Sami Mahajna

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

While many researches have focused on the self-efficacy's effects, few researches studied antecedents' variables of self-efficacy. The present study purpose was to examine how social context, motivational and teacher training variables related to teachers' self-efficacy. The study examined a theoretical model that links between Social Context variables and self efficacy through motivational and teacher training variables. 218 Arab teacher students' citizens of Israel participated in the study. Structural equation modeling showed direct correlations between self efficacy and Teacher training variables but not with Social Context variables. These results showed specifically, the importance of expressive skills in promoting teaching self ...


Multiple Intelligences Theory, Action Research, And Teacher Professional Development: The Irish Mi Project, Joan Hanafin Apr 2014

Multiple Intelligences Theory, Action Research, And Teacher Professional Development: The Irish Mi Project, Joan Hanafin

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper presents findings from an action research project that investigated the application of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory in classrooms and schools. It shows how MI theory was used in the project as a basis for suggestions to generate classroom practices; how participating teachers evaluated the project; and how teachers responded to the professional experience. Teachers reported successful student outcomes including more interest and motivation, better recall and deeper understanding, higher attainment, improved self-esteem, and more fun and enjoyable classroom experiences. For teachers themselves, the project was a challenge. They needed more planning time, more persistence, more collegiality, and more ...


Effectiveness Of Research-Based Teacher Professional Development:, Rebecca Saunders Apr 2014

Effectiveness Of Research-Based Teacher Professional Development:, Rebecca Saunders

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

A significant body of literature assists researchers and program designers to identify the desirable characteristics of professional development for teachers. Few studies, however, specifically examine the operation and outcomes of programs built upon research-led principles. This study uses a sequential mixed methods design to examine a four-year systemic-change professional development initiative designed to extend and refine the instructional processes of teachers working in the vocational education and training (VET) system in Western Australia. The program’s design incorporated theory and research on systemic change and teacher professional development. Findings reveal that the program was successful in helping teachers extend and ...


Defining Professional Self: Teacher Educator Perspectives Of The Pre-Ecr Journey., Abbey Macdonald, Vaughan Cruickshank, Robyn Mccarthy, Fiona Reilly Mar 2014

Defining Professional Self: Teacher Educator Perspectives Of The Pre-Ecr Journey., Abbey Macdonald, Vaughan Cruickshank, Robyn Mccarthy, Fiona Reilly

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper examines the situations of four teacher educators working within academic contexts, but who do not as yet qualify as early career researchers (ECRs) by definition. Within this paper, we define this group as ‘pre-ECRs’; those working and teaching within contexts of academia whilst undertaking a PhD or similar higher education qualification. Critical comparative analysis is used to examine the nexus between what is currently known about becoming an ECR and narrative accounts of the authors’ experiences of negotiating Faculty expectations for research output, teaching and postgraduate study. This approach provides rich insight into what happens prior to and ...


Human Rights And History Education: An Australian Study, Nina Burridge, John Buchanan, Andrew Chodkiewicz Mar 2014

Human Rights And History Education: An Australian Study, Nina Burridge, John Buchanan, Andrew Chodkiewicz

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were examined across school learning stages, taking into account explicit and implicit, compulsory or elective, as well as curricular and extra-curricular dimensions. Given the continued importance of History as a learning area there is a need to strengthen the available explicit and mandatory opportunities for students to learn about human ...


The Role Of Different Types Of Feedback In The Reciprocal Interaction Of Teaching Performance And Self-Efficacy Belief, Nalan Akkuzu Mar 2014

The Role Of Different Types Of Feedback In The Reciprocal Interaction Of Teaching Performance And Self-Efficacy Belief, Nalan Akkuzu

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of feedback based on self-efficacy belief sources in the reciprocal interaction of teaching performance and self-efficacy beliefs. A single case study design was employed to address and began to bridge the gap in our understanding of the relationship between feedback, self-efficacy belief and teaching performance. The data for this study were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 6 volunteer 5th-grade chemistry student teachers. The data were analyzed based on an inductive analytical approach. The results indicated that different types of feedback based on self-efficacy belief ...