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Edith Cowan University

Teacher Education and Professional Development

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Analysis Of Elementary School English Teachers’ Professional Dialogue As Their Professional Development, Chin-Wen Chien Jan 2020

Analysis Of Elementary School English Teachers’ Professional Dialogue As Their Professional Development, Chin-Wen Chien

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This qualitative study analyzed the professional dialogue among 67 English teachers at seven elementary schools in New Taipei City in Taiwan. Based on the analysis of the documentation, observation, and interviews, the study has two major findings. First, the knowledge and skills covered in the professional dialogues of English teachers concerned planning, implementing, and managing instruction. Second, English teachers regarded their professional dialogues as effective and goal-oriented. In order to make professional dialogues into job-embedded professional development for English teachers, they must be goal-oriented and carried out in an environment of care and trust. Moreover, professional dialogue can take the ...


Examination Of Text And Video-Formatted Learning Diaries In The Teacher Education, Murat Debbag, Mustafa Fidan Jan 2020

Examination Of Text And Video-Formatted Learning Diaries In The Teacher Education, Murat Debbag, Mustafa Fidan

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study aims to comparatively examine the text and video formatted learning diaries created within the scope of a school experience course which is a part of teacher education programs for prospective science teachers (PSTs). The case study design was used in this study. The participants created their learning diaries both in text and video formats for the school experience. Results showed that both text formatted diaries and video formatted diaries not only made it possible for the PSTs to see, review, and correct their deficiencies with respect to the profession of teaching, but also made contributions to the development ...


Initial Education Of Philosophy Teachers In Colombia: Association Between New Public Policy Requirements And National Standardized Tests, Alejandro Farieta-Barrera Jan 2020

Initial Education Of Philosophy Teachers In Colombia: Association Between New Public Policy Requirements And National Standardized Tests, Alejandro Farieta-Barrera

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper evaluates the association between new public policy requirements for B.Ed. programs in Colombia —1) demand high-quality accreditation, 2) restrict distance modality, 3) restrict multidisciplinary programs, and 4) increase academic credits in education courses and pedagogical practices— and the outcomes of 1387 B.Ed. in Philosophy students in the National Saber Pro test 2016-2018, in ‘Education’ component. The methodology was multilevel linear regression; the residential region is the level variable, and were included other control variables (gender, age, ethnic minority, socioeconomic index, etc.). The results show that outcomes are associated with pedagogical practices and with non-multidisciplinary programs, supporting ...


Final Year Preservice Teachers' Views Of Professional Experience In Partnership Schools, Dianne M. Toe, Christine Ure, Damian Blake Jan 2020

Final Year Preservice Teachers' Views Of Professional Experience In Partnership Schools, Dianne M. Toe, Christine Ure, Damian Blake

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study investigated the perspectives of preservice teachers’ (PSTs) on their final year placements in Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programs offered at Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. It compared the views of PSTs in two placement models; the Alliance school (partnership)and non-Alliance school (or conventional) models. The Alliance model draws on Activity Theory (Engeström, 2015) to strengthen the links between theory and practice in ITE, providing additional support during school placements through an ‘in situ’ boundary crosser. These boundary crossers use an Assessment Circle process that supports professional conversations about teaching and learning. A mixed method approach has been used ...


The Effects Of Teacher Preparation On Student Teachers’ Ideas About Good Teaching, Eran Tamir Jan 2020

The Effects Of Teacher Preparation On Student Teachers’ Ideas About Good Teaching, Eran Tamir

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Utilizing a mixed method approach, this study focuses on the perceptions of good teaching held by graduates of a teacher education program in the U.S. Specifically, this paper examines whether graduates embrace their program’s vision of good teaching and core standards as a guide to their self-reported teaching practice. Six cohorts of graduates’ responses were recorded and analyzed upon arrival and completion of preparation to examine whether students’ ideas changed during the course of the program. Findings suggest mixed results suggesting that teachers adopted several ideas about good teaching that are related to the core standards of the ...


“I Actually Felt More Confident”: An Online Resource For Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Resilience During Professional Experience, Caroline F. Mansfield, Susan Beltman, Noelene L. Weatherby-Fell Jan 2020

“I Actually Felt More Confident”: An Online Resource For Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Resilience During Professional Experience, Caroline F. Mansfield, Susan Beltman, Noelene L. Weatherby-Fell

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

One responsibility of teacher education is to provide opportunities for pre-service teachers to build skills and strategies to develop confidence for overcoming challenges and build their professional resilience, yet how students learn these skills is not clearly understood. This study examines how engaging with online modules influenced participants’ efficacy and resilience during their final professional experience practicum. Interviews with 13 Australian pre-service teachers revealed that the module content and design reactivated existing knowledge, taught new emotional regulation and coping strategies, encouraged self-awareness and reflection, and built confidence. While further research is needed, participants used their new found knowledge during their ...


Factor Structure Of Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale For School-Teachers In Hong Kong, Chi Hung Leung, Ming Tak Hue Jan 2020

Factor Structure Of Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale For School-Teachers In Hong Kong, Chi Hung Leung, Ming Tak Hue

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study investigates the perceptions of teaching competency in multicultural classrooms held by 421 teachers at 16 schools in Hong Kong. The aims of the study are (a) to use confirmatory factor analysis to validate a culturally appropriate version of the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS), (b) to assess three types of multicultural-teaching competency, and (c) to provide recommendations for teacher-education institutes and policy makers on developing effective training in multicultural education. The results indicate that a tripartite model assessing skills, knowledge, and relationships, the core features of multicultural-teaching competency as assessed by the MTCS from a Hong Kong sample ...


Learning To Become An English Language Teacher: Navigating The Self Through Peer Practicum, Irem Comoglu, Kenan Dikilitas Jan 2020

Learning To Become An English Language Teacher: Navigating The Self Through Peer Practicum, Irem Comoglu, Kenan Dikilitas

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Pre-service English language teachers' school practicum is key to their learning to become a teacher. However, a number of challenges are observed in its implementation. This paper addresses this issue by investigating how engaging in practicum as peers can function as mentoring support and how this process can influence their selves. A cohort of 16 senior pre-service English teachers was invited to participate in the study from a state university in the west of Turkey. We collected qualitative data through dialogic verbal records and post-practicum interviews. The data were analyzed through thematic analysis. The results show that pre-service teachers provided ...


Teacher Crisis: Critical Events In The Mid-Career Stage, Katie Cawte Jan 2020

Teacher Crisis: Critical Events In The Mid-Career Stage, Katie Cawte

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

To understand the ways in which teachers in the mid-career stage might be retained and maintained in the classroom and the profession, this article identifies the critical events in the journey of the mid-career teacher. The findings of a qualitative study that drew on narrative inquiry are used to explore the reasons why 20 mid-career teachers in Queensland, Australia, exited or remained in the classroom and/or profession. The article concludes with a profile of the mid-career teacher which helps to understand how to provide and/or develop job satisfaction and motivation and retain the knowledge, experience and skills of ...


Elaborating A Model For Teacher Professional Learning To Sustain Improvement In Teaching Practice, Pauline W. Thompson, Jeana A. Kriewaldt, Christine Redman Jan 2020

Elaborating A Model For Teacher Professional Learning To Sustain Improvement In Teaching Practice, Pauline W. Thompson, Jeana A. Kriewaldt, Christine Redman

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

: Effective professional learning is acknowledged as a key lever to improve teacher practice. However, many studies report significant variation in the effectiveness of the types of programs on offer. Recently, there has been a move from the traditional single-event, passive approach to more collaborative and ongoing forms of professional learning. Interestingly, researchers have paid little attention to understanding the experience of professional learning from the teachers’ viewpoint. This research sought to develop this understanding by following the attitudes and behaviours of a group of secondary teachers as they participated in an ongoing professional learning program. This professional learning program tracked ...


Safe Spaces For Enabling The Creative Process In Classrooms, Monique Fuss, Graham R. Daniel Jan 2020

Safe Spaces For Enabling The Creative Process In Classrooms, Monique Fuss, Graham R. Daniel

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Based on interviews with five creative professionals this article looks to investigate the creative experience as a source of data on how educators might create space for enabling the creative process in the classroom. Looking toward professional artists who are also committed educators provides core commentary on how to maximise creative experiences in the classroom. Whilst acknowledging the importance of physical space, the following article looks purposefully toward how to enable space as an internal state of being, with the intent toward establishing transdisciplinary discussions that stimulate and provoke creative pedagogical research across an interdependent continuum. The research concludes that ...


Pre-Service Science And Mathematics Teachers’ Teaching Efficacy Beliefs And Attitudes Toward Teaching: A Partial Correlation Research, Büşra Kartal Jan 2020

Pre-Service Science And Mathematics Teachers’ Teaching Efficacy Beliefs And Attitudes Toward Teaching: A Partial Correlation Research, Büşra Kartal

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Teachers with a high level of self-efficacy and positive attitudes are more likely to use new and constructivist approaches and to create a learning environment in which students may develop 21st-century skills. Examining pre-service teachers’ attitudes and beliefs related to teaching allow teacher preparation programs to evaluate their effectiveness on beliefs and attitudes. This correlational research investigated pre-service elementary science and mathematics teachers’ beliefs and attitudes due to gender, grade level, and department, and revealed the reliable correlation between beliefs and attitudes performing partial correlation. Results show that females feel more efficacious in teaching and have more positive attitudes than ...


Influence Of Teachers’ Metacognitive Skills On Development Of Early-Childhood Students, Sunthorn Thienngam, Aree Promlek, Koranit Thongsaard Jan 2020

Influence Of Teachers’ Metacognitive Skills On Development Of Early-Childhood Students, Sunthorn Thienngam, Aree Promlek, Koranit Thongsaard

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The objectives were to study and develop metacognitive skills of 1,616 early childhood in-service teachers in Child Development Center, Thailand. The quasi-experimental design were implied. Research Tools were Metacognitive Self-Assessment Questionnaire and scoring rubrics for early childhood students’ assessment. Data were analyzed through fundamental statistics and inferential statistics. The research results were as follows:

The teachers who joined with the program had got higher metacognitive skills score for both knowledge of cognition and knowledge of regulation than the other one. The teachers who had different supportive factors, different attitude towards pedagogy and different self-efficacy, would have got statistically significant ...


Supporting Undergraduate University Students Through Instrumental Mentoring, Cindy A. Smith, Susan Beltman, Judith Dinham, Toni J. Dobinson, Jenny Jay Jan 2020

Supporting Undergraduate University Students Through Instrumental Mentoring, Cindy A. Smith, Susan Beltman, Judith Dinham, Toni J. Dobinson, Jenny Jay

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Student engagement and retention is a noted concern for universities and may be impacted by many different student factors such as difficulty transitioning to a university setting, inadequate skills or a sense of isolation. This study evaluated an instrumental mentoring program conducted at an Australian University in a program for pre service teachers. Twenty four undergraduate students were engaged as volunteer research assistants and worked with seven academic staff in meaningful writing and research tasks. Qualitative data was collected through focus groups, student journals, and follow up interviews. The data was analysed thematically. Results indicated that through their participation, students ...


Fun And Friendly Or Wild And Offensive? Preservice Teachers’ Use Of And Image Conveyed By Social Media, Marlynn M. Griffin, Cordelia Zinskie Jan 2020

Fun And Friendly Or Wild And Offensive? Preservice Teachers’ Use Of And Image Conveyed By Social Media, Marlynn M. Griffin, Cordelia Zinskie

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The study presents survey results from 515 preservice teachers at a regional United States institution on their social media use, specifically, their self-reported personal image conveyed on their social media sites, likelihood of posting problematic content on their social media sites, and preference for various others viewing their social media sites. While many preservice teachers reported appropriate social media use, some participants conveyed inappropriate personal images; had reservations about supervisors, employers, and university faculty viewing their sites; and were likely to post problematic content. Thus, it is incumbent for teacher preparation programs to develop clear policies as preservice teachers must ...


The Impact Of A Research Methods Course On Teacher Candidates’ Epistemological Beliefs, Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin, Yasin Gökbulut Jan 2020

The Impact Of A Research Methods Course On Teacher Candidates’ Epistemological Beliefs, Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin, Yasin Gökbulut

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The epistemological beliefs of teachers impact both their in-class practices and the perceptions and beliefs of the students whose learning is the responsibility of teachers. Therefore, this study aims to investigate and discuss the impact of a course entitled “research methods” which is taught in education faculties in Turkey, on the epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates. The study adopted the mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Forty-three teacher candidates participated in the study. The data for the study were collected through the “Scientific Epistemological Beliefs Scale (SEBs)”, a semi-structured interview form, and another form that included the written opinions of teacher candidates ...


Reflections On Journaling: An Initiative To Support Pre-Service Mathematics And Science Teachers, Lisa O'Keeffe, Kathryn Paige Jan 2020

Reflections On Journaling: An Initiative To Support Pre-Service Mathematics And Science Teachers, Lisa O'Keeffe, Kathryn Paige

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In this article the authors present two different ways in which journaling has been utilised with final year pre-service teacher students (PSTs) in their primary/middle science and mathematics pathway course. Pedagogical practices that model effective teaching and learning in a tertiary setting are an integral component of this course. As teacher educators exploring ways to develop our practices, we introduced journaling as a teaching and learning tool. The first results section of this article focuses on the journaling experiences of PSTs, including the different ways they chose to engage with journaling and factors contributing to their engagement or disengagement ...


Problem-Seeking In Teacher Education: Empowering Students To Grapple With The Complexities Of The Profession, Julie Ballantyne, Libby Flynn, Tammie Olm-Madden Jan 2020

Problem-Seeking In Teacher Education: Empowering Students To Grapple With The Complexities Of The Profession, Julie Ballantyne, Libby Flynn, Tammie Olm-Madden

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Preparing teachers for the realities of the profession is an ongoing concern for teacher education providers. In a climate where the future of teaching is largely unknown and the issues to be faced by teachers throughout their career largely imagined, the ability to identify and solve problems becomes increasingly important. This paper documents an evaluation of a pilot approach to preparing pre-service teachers for the realities of their profession. This approach, which centred on students utilising mobile technologies to problem-seek, was evaluated in terms of students’ perceived preparedness for the profession and their development of problem-solving skills and strategies. Results ...


Being And Belonging: Student-Teachers’ Contextual Engagement In Schools, Enda Donlon, Elaine Mcdonald, Sabrina Fitzsimons, Pj Sexton Jan 2020

Being And Belonging: Student-Teachers’ Contextual Engagement In Schools, Enda Donlon, Elaine Mcdonald, Sabrina Fitzsimons, Pj Sexton

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

While School Placement is long established as a central component of Initial Teacher Education programmes, there is an increasing awareness that these placement experiences should go beyond the practical activities most directly associated with teaching. This paper considers how engagement in a school placement period with a focus on non-teaching activities contributes to the professional and personal development of student-teachers, and to their sense of ‘belonging’ while on placement. Drawing primarily on the analysis of data obtained from online logs maintained by student-teachers during this predominantly non-teaching placement, it establishes the activities that they engaged in, and their reflections and ...


“Maths Outside Of Maths”: Pre-Service Teachers’ Awareness Of Mathematical And Statistical Thinking Across Teachers’ Professional Work, Judy Bailey, Bronwen Cowie, Beverley Cooper Jan 2020

“Maths Outside Of Maths”: Pre-Service Teachers’ Awareness Of Mathematical And Statistical Thinking Across Teachers’ Professional Work, Judy Bailey, Bronwen Cowie, Beverley Cooper

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Mathematical and statistical thinking is involved across the breadth of people’s home and work life and leisure activities. This paper reports on an aspect of a project that aimed to develop pre-service teacher awareness of the mathematical and statistical thinking required across the breadth of primary teachers’ professional role. This thinking is conceptualised as the mathematics and statistics embedded in each of the curriculum learning areas, in data literacy, and administration and management tasks. Mentor meetings indicated pre-service teachers who were completing a one-year graduate diploma initially had a limited awareness of the extent of this thinking. Through focus ...


Perceptions And Experiences Of Belonging During The Transition From Primary To Secondary School, Lynette Longaretti Jan 2020

Perceptions And Experiences Of Belonging During The Transition From Primary To Secondary School, Lynette Longaretti

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

A young person’s sense of belonging at school can affect their level of motivation, academic achievement and wellbeing. During the transition from primary to secondary school, one’s sense of belonging may be affected by the changes and challenges encountered.

This paper reports some of the findings from a larger qualitative longitudinal study that investigated the factors that contribute to educational resilience during the transition from primary to secondary school. Data gathered from interviews with sixteen Year 6 students from three Victorian primary schools over a period of eighteen months is presented and analysed.

A key theme identified from ...


Effective Teacher Professional Learning On Classroom Behaviour Management: A Review Of Literature, Pramesti P. Paramita, Angelika Anderson, Umesh Sharma Jan 2020

Effective Teacher Professional Learning On Classroom Behaviour Management: A Review Of Literature, Pramesti P. Paramita, Angelika Anderson, Umesh Sharma

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Classroom behaviour management is an essential skill for teachers, yet teachers often report being inadequately prepared for addressing student behaviour effectively. Teacher professional learning on classroom behaviour management is continually needed to support teacher implementation of evidence-based classroom management practices. This article reports the findings from a systematic literature review aimed to identify the features and reported findings of recent teacher professional learning programs on classroom behaviour management. The result indicates that most of the effective programs were focused on training teachers on a specific strategy such as behaviour specific praise, or a combination of several proactive behaviour management strategies ...


Evidence-Based Reasoning Processes In Education: A Model To Support Interventionist Practice., Natasha Ziebell, Jemma Skeat Jan 2020

Evidence-Based Reasoning Processes In Education: A Model To Support Interventionist Practice., Natasha Ziebell, Jemma Skeat

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The Evidence-based Reasoning model is a systematic inquiry into student learning to determine what interventions are required in classroom contexts. The four step process includes noticing students who need additional support in their learning, the use of assessment data to establish an evidence-base, and subsequent interpretation that leads to decision making. The reasoning process is supported by collaborative practice models both within and beyond the teaching profession. The evaluation of interventions is integral in determining the impact that interventions have on student learning.



Teacher Biography: Solo Analysis Of Preservice Teachers’ Reflections Of Their Experiences In Physical Education, John E. Haynes, Frances Quinn, Judith A. Miller Jan 2020

Teacher Biography: Solo Analysis Of Preservice Teachers’ Reflections Of Their Experiences In Physical Education, John E. Haynes, Frances Quinn, Judith A. Miller

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Teacher biography, as a reflective practice, was implemented in the context of Physical Education in a primary teacher education course at a regional Australian university. Second year students were asked to provide descriptions of a critical incident they experienced at the primary or secondary level in a Physical Education or sporting context (N=214). Their responses comprised the data for this study and the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) Model was used to determine the levels of complexity of the responses to ‘alternatives for action’ associated with these incidents. More responses were multistructural (48%), than relational (24%), and unistructural ...


Teacher Wellbeing In Remote Australian Communities, Alison S. Willis, Peter R. Grainger Jan 2020

Teacher Wellbeing In Remote Australian Communities, Alison S. Willis, Peter R. Grainger

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper reports on a project aimed at investigating teacher wellbeing in remote communities in Australia. It utilised a multiple case study methodology to investigate the lived experiences of remote Australian teachers, particularly how remote teachers simultaneously manage the wellbeing and academic needs of their students. Findings show how the challenges of working in remote places impact teacher wellbeing and provides six practical recommendations about how to better support remote teachers. There is a present need to develop a framework of remote teachers thriving, so systems and communities are not over-reliant upon teachers’ individual resilience in hard-to-staff places.



A Case-Based Tool Promoting Teacher’S Reflection On Intercultural Encounters, Anuleena Kimanen, Tapani Innanen Jan 2020

A Case-Based Tool Promoting Teacher’S Reflection On Intercultural Encounters, Anuleena Kimanen, Tapani Innanen

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This design-based study explores what kind of reflection in-service or student teachers produced in case-based discussion workshops, and how. Worksheets on the case and tasks facilitated discussion in small groups. In this study, the targets of reflection written on those sheets are analysed. Three levels and seven categories of reflection emerged, ranging from context and practices to principles and power relations. Most of the reflection was superficial or on the meso-level, the level of deepest reflection was reached to greatly differing degrees depending on the group or case concerned. Both some in-service and some student teachers needed scaffolding by ...


Professional Learning In Reading Instruction: The Influence Of Context On Engagement And Enactment, Susan Main, Deslea Konza, Mark Hackling, Graeme Lock Jan 2020

Professional Learning In Reading Instruction: The Influence Of Context On Engagement And Enactment, Susan Main, Deslea Konza, Mark Hackling, Graeme Lock

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Professional learning is widely acknowledged as an effective way to improve teacher practice and, consequently, student outcomes. However, this presupposes a direct link from professional learning to the enactment of the content of professional learning in teaching. This paper explores teachers’ engagement with a continuing professional learning (CPL) program intended to improve teachers’ knowledge and practice in reading instruction. Six case study subjects, self-selected from 10 schools participating in a year‑long CPL program, provided the opportunity to explore what teachers enacted from the professional learning. This research highlighted the significance of contextual factors on how teachers engaged with and ...


Entangling Our Thinking And Practice: A Model For Collaboration In Teacher Education, Peta White, Jo Raphael, Shelley Hannigan, John Cripps Clark Jan 2020

Entangling Our Thinking And Practice: A Model For Collaboration In Teacher Education, Peta White, Jo Raphael, Shelley Hannigan, John Cripps Clark

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Collaboration is a key component of our practice as teachers and teacher educators and there is a need to develop generative models for collaboration among teacher educators. We have created and tested a model of collaboration. Data were drawn from: recordings of monthly group meetings; discussion threads and documents on our leaning management site; individual interviews with all members of the group conducted three times across the project; and reflections on these interview transcripts by individual annotation and group discussions. The model includes a collaborative overarching research project and, nested under this mantle, a series of focused research projects conducted ...


Reappraising The Aitsl Professional Engagement Domain: Clarifying Social Capacity Building For School Leaders To Enhance Overall Teacher Job Satisfaction And Career Longevity, Geoffrey M. Lowe, Peter F. Prout, Christina C. Gray, Sarah Jefferson Jan 2020

Reappraising The Aitsl Professional Engagement Domain: Clarifying Social Capacity Building For School Leaders To Enhance Overall Teacher Job Satisfaction And Career Longevity, Geoffrey M. Lowe, Peter F. Prout, Christina C. Gray, Sarah Jefferson

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (AITSL, 2018) stipulate what teachers should know and do through each career stage. School leaders are complicit in promoting the Standards are met by all staff, including Professional Engagement (Standards Six and Seven). While the Standards emphasise content and pedagogical capacity building, we contend that teaching is a social enterprise. Although social capacity building is implied in the Professional Engagement domain through terms such as ‘collegiality, collaboration and dialogue’, we question the degree to which it is understood by school leaders. We ask this in light of influential studies by Waldinger (2010) and Vaillant ...


Primary Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy And Outcome Expectancy: A Case Study, Gillian Ward, Helen Dixon, Helen Withy Jan 2020

Primary Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy And Outcome Expectancy: A Case Study, Gillian Ward, Helen Dixon, Helen Withy

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Self-efficacious teachers are critical in the development of students’ positive attitudes towards science and scientific literacy yet to date little attention has been given to studies of experienced teachers of primary science and development of their self-efficacy (SE) beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore how two experienced teachers of primary science built their SE beliefs and outcome expectancy. Bandura’s (1977) SE framework provided the conceptual lens to understand participants’ experiences and beliefs. Findings suggest that teachers’ SE beliefs had developed over time, creating a foundation for a strong expectancy outcome. Each of the sources of influence ...