Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 143

Full-Text Articles in Education

Issues In Academic Educational Research: The Impact Of Current Issues On Research Activity, Natalie Brown Jan 2019

Issues In Academic Educational Research: The Impact Of Current Issues On Research Activity, Natalie Brown

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Previous investigations into educational research in Australia have highlighted important issues affecting research, with the majority of issues remaining to date. The Australian government and several research academics have examined issues relevant to educational research, including areas such as research design, dissemination of research results, and effectiveness of research. However, few studies have given voice to the academic researchers working in this field. Therefore, in light of the complexities and broadness of issues faced by educational researchers, this study aimed to investigate what current issues were pertinent to academic educational researchers through an examination of their experiences. This study also ...


A Public Health Perspective Of The Higher Education Experiences Of Women Studying Nursing: A Hermeneutic Inquiry Into Commencement And Progression, Lesley Jane Andrew Jan 2019

A Public Health Perspective Of The Higher Education Experiences Of Women Studying Nursing: A Hermeneutic Inquiry Into Commencement And Progression, Lesley Jane Andrew

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

While student retention is a central goal across higher education, the projected shortage in the Australian health workforce has intensified its importance to undergraduate nursing.

Nursing degrees attract a higher proportion of mature-age women students than ever before. More are therefore beginning university at life stage characterised by marriage (or co-habitation) and traditional family structures. Nursing retention strategies require an understanding of the unique university experiences of these women, however, this is missing in the nursing literature. This study is the first to explore the experiences of these women students, doing so from the perspective of Bachelor of Science (Nursing ...


Looking In The Heads Of Experienced Teachers – Do They Use The Wide Range Of Principles Of Effective Teaching When Analysing Lessons?, Wilfried Plöger, Matthias Krepf, Daniel Scholl, Andreas Seifert Jan 2019

Looking In The Heads Of Experienced Teachers – Do They Use The Wide Range Of Principles Of Effective Teaching When Analysing Lessons?, Wilfried Plöger, Matthias Krepf, Daniel Scholl, Andreas Seifert

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study aimed to examine whether principles of effective teaching constitute essential criteria for a systematic and successful analysis of lessons. After watching a video of a complete lesson, the participants (each of nine experienced and pre-service teachers) were asked to analyse this lesson in terms of effectiveness for pupils’ learning in the form of an open dialogue. Their comments were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis and revealed that the experienced teachers independently used the wide range of principles of effective teaching and differed significantly from the pre-service teachers in this regard. Particularly striking were the large ...


Collaborative Coteaching (Cct): Practitioner Learning Through Shared Praxis, Joanne Yoo, Keith Heggart, Nina Burridge Jan 2019

Collaborative Coteaching (Cct): Practitioner Learning Through Shared Praxis, Joanne Yoo, Keith Heggart, Nina Burridge

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper explores the benefits of coteaching a philosophy and ethics subject for final year Australian primary preservice education students. It depicts the learning experiences of two early career academics, who were the coresearchers and coauthors of this article. A third author acted as a critical friend who facilitated reflective discussion around their coteaching practices. The coteachers adopt the living theory methodology to investigate collaborative coteaching as an effective model of instruction in higher education through a case study of their own practice. The primary data sources include both coteachers’ weekly journals, an interview discussion with a critical friend, informal ...


“Learning The Ropes”: Pre-Service Arts Teachers Navigating The Extracurricular Terrain, Christina C. Gray, Geoffrey M. Lowe Jan 2019

“Learning The Ropes”: Pre-Service Arts Teachers Navigating The Extracurricular Terrain, Christina C. Gray, Geoffrey M. Lowe

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Arts teachers undertake a multitude of extracurricular activities. Yet, while these activities consume considerable time and require specific expertise, little attention is afforded to developing these skills and expertise during pre-service training. This article presents findings from a study into the value of a pre-service teacher production as a form of professional development, from both the technical and personal development perspectives. Thirty pre-service secondary Arts teachers participated in the production. Through focus-group interviews, participants indicated the benefits of building technical understanding as well as personal benefits of engaging in an ensemble experience. All spoke of the potential transferability of what ...


Educational Partnership In Action: Insights From Western Australia, Kwadwo Adusei-Asante, Daniel Doh, Isaiah Awidi Jan 2018

Educational Partnership In Action: Insights From Western Australia, Kwadwo Adusei-Asante, Daniel Doh, Isaiah Awidi

ECU Publications Post 2013

Governments and educational institutions are increasingly recognising the importance of collaboration and partnerships with stakeholders in achieving good educational outcomes for students and communities. In Australia, the need for such partnerships influenced the establishment of the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program in 2003 to ensure that Australians from low socio-economic status backgrounds who can study at university can access the opportunity. In this paper, we discuss the positive outcomes of a partnership arrangement between Edith Cowan University and the Organisation of African Communities of Western Australia on an educational outreach programme to inspire African communities in Perth to pursue ...


Issues Arising From The Use Of University Ilectures: A Case Study Of One Australian Campus, Toni J. Dobinson, Tatiana Bogachenko Jan 2018

Issues Arising From The Use Of University Ilectures: A Case Study Of One Australian Campus, Toni J. Dobinson, Tatiana Bogachenko

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Australian universities have moved towards greater reliance on technology as a learning tool. The use of podcasts or recorded lectures (sometimes called ilectures) is now common practice in both on-campus and online modes. Using a qualitative approach to data collection which included recorded interviews, an online survey of open-ended questions and the researcher’s own reflections on using ilectures, this study investigated 1) the impact of ilectures on the teaching and learning practices of both academics and students 2) student attendance in recorded lectures and 3) the responses of lecturers and students to being recorded. Findings highlighted a mix of ...


Creating Multicultural Music Opportunities In Teacher Education: Sharing Diversity Through Songs, Dawn Joseph, Rohan Nethsinghe, Alberto Cabedo Mas Jan 2018

Creating Multicultural Music Opportunities In Teacher Education: Sharing Diversity Through Songs, Dawn Joseph, Rohan Nethsinghe, Alberto Cabedo Mas

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper contributes to the knowledge base for preparing pre-service teachers (PSTs) for contemporary multicultural classrooms. To do so, we refer to our ongoing project “See, Listen and Share: Exploring intercultural music education in a transnational experience” across three Higher Education sites (Australia and Spain). Drawing on our narrative, and PSTs’ questionnaire data, using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to analyze and code the PST data, we report on our initial experience and findings across the three sites and cultural contexts. Generalisations to other institutions cannot be made. We discuss what was taught and how it was taught in our three settings ...


In-Service Teachers’ Training: The Case Of University Teachers In Yangon, Myanmar, Mark B. Ulla Jan 2018

In-Service Teachers’ Training: The Case Of University Teachers In Yangon, Myanmar, Mark B. Ulla

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Research studies show a number of significant contributions of professional development programs towards teachers’ teaching skills. This paper explores the views of eight (8) university lecturers in a university in Yangon, Myanmar with regards to the teacher capacity building and language enhancement training program they attended from 2014-2016. The interview data, which were subjected to qualitative content analysis were taken from the participants’ personal knowledge and experience of the teacher training program. The data were read many times, coded, and assigned to different themes. Findings revealed two themes; appreciation and hardships. Although teacher participants were glad to be part of ...


Improving Preservice Teachers’ Phonemic Awareness, Morphological Awareness And Orthographic Knowledge, Brigid Mcneill Jan 2018

Improving Preservice Teachers’ Phonemic Awareness, Morphological Awareness And Orthographic Knowledge, Brigid Mcneill

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Few studies have examined the effectiveness of methods to develop preservice teachers’ phonemic, morphological and orthographic awareness for spelling instruction. Preservice teachers (n=86) participated in 10 hours of metalinguistic coursework. The coursework focused on: phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness and utilising such information in spelling assessment. Measures from previous research were utilised to compare participants’ performance with other preservice and inservice teachers of varying experience and expertise. The research cohort outperformed the preservice comparison group and their scores approximated that achieved by inservice teachers who had participated in 30 hours of professional development focused on building metalinguistic knowledge ...


Student And Staff Perceptions Of A Learning Management System For Blended Learning In Teacher Education, Kathryn A. Holmes, Elena Prieto-Rodriguez Jan 2018

Student And Staff Perceptions Of A Learning Management System For Blended Learning In Teacher Education, Kathryn A. Holmes, Elena Prieto-Rodriguez

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Higher education institutions routinely use Learning Management Systems (LMS) for multiple purposes; to organise coursework and assessment, to facilitate staff and student interactions, and to act as repositories of learning objects. The analysis reported here involves staff (n=46) and student (n=470) responses to surveys as well as data collected in interviews and focus groups. The research focuses on participants’ perceptions of two broad affordances of the LMS: accessibility and interactivity. Differences were found between student and staff views in relation to accessibility of online materials, with students rating its contribution to their learning more highly than staff. However ...


Building Critically Reflective Practice In Higher Education Students: Employing Auto-Ethnography And Educational Connoisseurship In Assessment, Jane Southcott, Renee Crawford Jan 2018

Building Critically Reflective Practice In Higher Education Students: Employing Auto-Ethnography And Educational Connoisseurship In Assessment, Jane Southcott, Renee Crawford

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study posed the question: Does using an educational connoisseurship framework applied to auto-ethnography assist in the development of reflective practice in teacher education? The design of authentic assessments that assist students in making meaningful links between theory and practice is a complex process. We created an assessment task that was directly linked to the lived experience of the students and specifically focused on their educational practice. Students were required to write an auto-ethnography that was shaped by educational connoisseurship and criticism. With ethical permission we retained the auto-ethnographic assignments by nineteen students. After independent thematic analysis we built a ...


Getting The Most From Google Classroom: A Pedagogical Framework For Tertiary Educators, Keith R. Heggart, Joanne Yoo Jan 2018

Getting The Most From Google Classroom: A Pedagogical Framework For Tertiary Educators, Keith R. Heggart, Joanne Yoo

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Many tertiary institutions have embraced digital learning through the use of online learning platforms and social networks. However, the research about the efficacy of such platforms is confused, as is the field itself, in part because of the rapidly evolving technology, and also because of a lack of clarity about what constitutes a learning platform. In this study, two early career academics and instructors examined the effectiveness of using Google Classroom for final year primary teacher education students to encourage student voice and agency, and to consider how the platform might influence future pedagogies at the tertiary level. The data ...


Developing Pre-Service Teachers: The Impact Of An Embedded Framework In Literacy And Numeracy., Peter Sellings, Karen Felstead, Anitra Goriss-Hunter Jan 2018

Developing Pre-Service Teachers: The Impact Of An Embedded Framework In Literacy And Numeracy., Peter Sellings, Karen Felstead, Anitra Goriss-Hunter

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper focuses on the development of the academic and personal literacy and numeracy skills of pre-service teachers. It examines how an embedded enhancement framework of literacy and numeracy support named the DEER (Developing, Embedding, Extending, Reflecting) framework by the researchers was created in initial teacher education (ITE) programs in regional Victoria. The implementation of the DEER framework will be discussed and an evaluation of the impact of the DEER framework will be presented. Quantitative data draws on two test results in both literacy and numeracy, comparing the performance of students. These tests were undertaken by pre-service teachers, before and ...


Australian Teacher Education Policy In Action: The Case Of Pre-Service Internships., Susan Ledger, Lesley Vidovich Jan 2018

Australian Teacher Education Policy In Action: The Case Of Pre-Service Internships., Susan Ledger, Lesley Vidovich

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Studies on internships within initial teacher education have existed in literature since the early 1900s, they have espoused the benefits of experiential learning or critiqued the variance available in terms of structure, length of time and purpose. However, little research on teacher internships has been reported within a policy context. This study employs a modified ‘policy trajectory’ framework to capture the impact of teacher internship models emerging from policy reform in Australia driven by the National Partnership Agreement on Improving Teacher Quality Program (NPTQ). It highlights how policy contexts and practices are inextricably interconnected and influenced by key policy ‘threads ...


Professional Knowledge Landscapes In Online Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Exploration Through Metaphor, Frances Quinn, Jennifer Charteris, Peter Fletcher, Mitchell Parkes, Vicente Reyes Jan 2018

Professional Knowledge Landscapes In Online Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Exploration Through Metaphor, Frances Quinn, Jennifer Charteris, Peter Fletcher, Mitchell Parkes, Vicente Reyes

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper explores metaphors as a process of professional learning, and as a research method to interrogate professional knowledge landscapes (PKLs) within the flexible space and time of online pre-service teacher education. The methodology comprised five pre-service teacher educators with different disciplinary areas of responsibility engaging in metaphorical analysis of our teaching work. We found that the metaphors that frame our e-pedagogy are multiple, reflecting a range of theoretical positions and objects of our teaching work, sometimes internally contradictory notions of education and e-learning, and the complexities of our individual and collective PKLs. We argue that it is crucial in ...


Developing Reflection Through An Eportfolio-Based Learning Environment: Design Principles For Further Implementation, Pauline Roberts Jan 2018

Developing Reflection Through An Eportfolio-Based Learning Environment: Design Principles For Further Implementation, Pauline Roberts

ECU Publications Post 2013

This article discusses the implementation of an ePortfolio-based learning environment with Bachelor of Education students. The intention was for the platform to be an agency for the development of reflection. The environment scaffolded reflection through (1) exemplars of good practice, (2) the opportunity for discussions and (3) activities to support the development of reflection. There were issues within the research around the introduction of the platform at the particular stage of the students’ degrees but the environment was successful in the provision of a teaching and learning platform. The findings provided design principles for a model to guide the development ...


Print Versus Digital Preferences Of University Students In Australia, Nicole Johnston, A.M. Salaz Jan 2018

Print Versus Digital Preferences Of University Students In Australia, Nicole Johnston, A.M. Salaz

ECU Publications Post 2013

This paper presents findings of a survey that investigated the reading preferences of university students at Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Perth, Australia. This survey is being undertaken as part of the Academic Reading Format International Study (ARFIS), which is investigating print versus digital reading preferences in 31 countries. A total of 582 students completed the survey. Results from the survey indicate a strong preference for reading in print because of issues such as eyestrain, tactile features, better focus, and ability to highlight and take notes. Issues such as cost, usability and accessibility also impacted on students’ reading decisions.


Maximising The Contributions Of Phd Graduates To National Development: The Case Of The Seychelles, Marina Fatima Confait Jan 2018

Maximising The Contributions Of Phd Graduates To National Development: The Case Of The Seychelles, Marina Fatima Confait

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree is the pinnacle of educational attainment and the most respected of the doctoral programs. The degree certifies the holder as an independent researcher, an expert with extensive knowledge about the chosen field of study, and a professional with a wide range of transferable skills . As such, PhD graduates have the capability to make important contributions to knowledge and drive change in society. Furthermore, PhD graduates represent accumulated human capital, a valuable human resource with potential for making significant contributions to a country’s development. This can materialise through enhancing the knowledge of others, performing ...


The Online Student Experience: An Exploration Of First-Year University Students’ Expectations, Experiences And Outcomes Of Online Education, Melanie Henry Jan 2018

The Online Student Experience: An Exploration Of First-Year University Students’ Expectations, Experiences And Outcomes Of Online Education, Melanie Henry

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Online higher education presents a critical opportunity to extend and diversify the student body. The Online Student Experience (OSE), and online student outcomes, however, remain shrouded in ambiguity. The literature presents conflicting reports of online education (OE) quality, confounded by a lack of appreciation for potential differences between online and on-campus education, and a diversity of interpretations for what constitutes OE. The present research conceptualises OE as representing university courses that require students to interact with instructors and course materials via the internet, with no expectation of attending a university campus. A broad student-centred perspective is notably lacking from the ...


Do Same-Demography Mentoring Programmes Make Any Difference To Mentees’ Learning Outcomes? Reflections On The Top Up Programme, Kwadwo Adusei-Asante Jan 2018

Do Same-Demography Mentoring Programmes Make Any Difference To Mentees’ Learning Outcomes? Reflections On The Top Up Programme, Kwadwo Adusei-Asante

ECU Publications Post 2013

Peer mentoring is considered an effective vehicle for addressing anti-social behaviours and improving students’ academic achievement and retention. Consequently, discussions on the subject have received considerable traction in the education literature in recent times, most of which depicts its usefulness as well as factors that contribute to successful design and implementation. One issue that has not received adequate attention in the peer mentoring literature, which this reflection paper seeks to address, relates to whether demographic attributes such as gender, race and ethnicity influence mentoring outcomes for mentors and mentees. Drawing on the Top Up mentoring programme at Edith Cowan University ...


Supporting Postgraduate Coursework Students Through Their Time Of Transition, Anne-Maree Hays, Sue Sharp Jan 2018

Supporting Postgraduate Coursework Students Through Their Time Of Transition, Anne-Maree Hays, Sue Sharp

ECU Publications Post 2013

Recent episodes of violence among Australian youth of African descent have been a concern for politicians, the police, policymakers and the African communities in the country. In Western Australia, the police and African communities have been searching for ways to reduce and prevent the recent spate of violence among Australian youth of African descent. This exploratory evaluative case study presents preliminary findings on the nature of violence committed by Australian youth of African descent and examines the impact of the ‘Stop the Violence Programme’, a pilot youth mentoring initiative for creating awareness among African youth in Western Australia about crime ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Using Peer-Dialogue Assessment (Pda) For Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Confidence And Competence To Teach Physical Education, Narelle Eather, Nick Riley, Drew Miller, Bradley Jones Jan 2017

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Using Peer-Dialogue Assessment (Pda) For Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Confidence And Competence To Teach Physical Education, Narelle Eather, Nick Riley, Drew Miller, Bradley Jones

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Developing effective methods for improving student learning in higher education is a priority. Recent findings have shown that feedback on student work can effectively facilitate learning if students are engaged as active participants in the feedback cycle; where they seek, generate and use feedback in the form of dialogue. This novel study investigates the use of peer dialogue assessment as an assessment for learning tool used in an existing undergraduate physical education course. Our findings demonstrate that when thirty six undergraduate physical education students were provided with instruction and practice using peer dialogue assessment after consecutive teaching performances, they exhibit ...


Fostering Creative Ecologies In Australasian Secondary Schools, Leon R. De Bruin, Anne Harris Jan 2017

Fostering Creative Ecologies In Australasian Secondary Schools, Leon R. De Bruin, Anne Harris

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study investigates and compares elements of creativity in secondary schools and classrooms in Australia and Singapore. Statistical analysis and qualitative investigation of teacher, student and leadership perceptions of the emergence, fostering and absence of creativity in school learning environments is explored. This large-scale international study (n=717) reveals the impact of teacher behaviours, teaching environments and school leadership approaches that promote and impede the enhancement of creative, critical, and innovative thinking, organisation, and curriculum structures. Implications for Australian schools and teaching urge for secondary education to challenge current, practices, pedagogies and environments, arguing for school-based strategies and considerations that ...


Predictors Of Teacher Educators' Research Productivity, Fadia M. Nasser-Abu Alhija, Arin Majdob Jan 2017

Predictors Of Teacher Educators' Research Productivity, Fadia M. Nasser-Abu Alhija, Arin Majdob

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study examined the relationship between teacher educators' research productivity (RP) and their background and professional characteristics, attitudes, motives, obstacles and time devoted to research. The sample included 161 teacher educators from four teacher education colleges in Israel. The findings indicate the significance of five variables for predicting RP: academic degree, rank, administrative position, desire to develop new knowledge and learn from research findings and perceived insufficient research competence and self-confidence. These variables account for 37.2% of the variance in RP. The results from this study provide useful information for teacher education institutions and policy makers regarding variables significantly ...


A Simulation Pedagogical Approach To Engaging Generalist Pre-Service Teachers In Physical Education Online: The Gopro Trial 1.0, Brendon P. Hyndman Jan 2017

A Simulation Pedagogical Approach To Engaging Generalist Pre-Service Teachers In Physical Education Online: The Gopro Trial 1.0, Brendon P. Hyndman

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

There has been a continuous increase in enrolments within teacher education programs in recent years delivered via online and external modes. Such levels of enrolment have raised discussion around the theory-practice nexus and whether pre-service teachers (PSTs) can optimally engage with practical learning components via online platforms. This paper provides insight into the potential and feasibility of using GoPro video technology as an innovation in online teacher education delivery of practical physical education (PE) classes. Upon completion of the university semester, qualitative data was collected detailing the generalist PSTs’ perceptions relating to the potential of using GoPro video footage to ...


Enhancing Phonological Awareness And Orthographic Knowledge Of Preservice Teachers: An Intervention Through Online Coursework, Marleen F. Westerveld, Georgina M. Barton Jan 2017

Enhancing Phonological Awareness And Orthographic Knowledge Of Preservice Teachers: An Intervention Through Online Coursework, Marleen F. Westerveld, Georgina M. Barton

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The teaching of reading is a core priority across the education sector. In an attempt to better prepare our next generation of professional teachers of reading, academic staff at an Australian university implemented coursework changes that were designed to enhance the phonological awareness and orthographic knowledge of first-year preservice teacher education students. All students were asked to complete written surveys measuring phonological awareness and orthographic knowledge during class-time at the start and end of their first semester of study. During the semester, students were expected to complete two online modules on phonological awareness and orthographic conventions and pass an online ...


School Leaders’ Perspectives On Educating Teachers To Work In Vulnerable Communities: New Insights From The Coal Face, Lynette Longaretti, Dianne Toe Jan 2017

School Leaders’ Perspectives On Educating Teachers To Work In Vulnerable Communities: New Insights From The Coal Face, Lynette Longaretti, Dianne Toe

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Classroom teacher quality can significantly impact student learning outcomes. Increased access to skilled teachers in low socioeconomic status (SES) schools could substantially improve the learning outcomes and engagement levels of young people.

The National Exceptional Teaching for Disadvantaged Schools (NETDS) programme is a university based Teacher Education programme that has been implemented by Deakin University in the Geelong/Werribee area. It seeks to prepare high achieving pre-service teachers (PSTs) to teach in low SES school settings.

This project investigated the views of school leadership teams in low SES schools including their views of an exemplary teacher, and the understandings and ...


Purpose-Built, Web-Based Professional Portfolios: Reflective, Developmental And Showcase, Susan Blackley, Dawn Bennett, Rachel Sheffield Jan 2017

Purpose-Built, Web-Based Professional Portfolios: Reflective, Developmental And Showcase, Susan Blackley, Dawn Bennett, Rachel Sheffield

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This pilot study examined student engagement with a web-based digital professional portfolio through the 3C process of collect-critique-curate. To overcome common problems associated with electronic portfolios, including cost; specificity; lifelong access; and ease of use, the study used Weebly as its portfolio platform. The creation and use of the portfolio was embedded into the first professional studies unit in the second year of an undergraduate initial teacher education degree, and technical seminars ensured that the base portfolio was created. As students reflected on possible sources of evidence to demonstrate achievement of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (AITSL, 2011) and ...


Active Learning And Self-Regulation Enhance Student Teachers’ Professional Competences, Päivi Virtanen, Hannele M. Niemi, Anne Nevgi Jan 2017

Active Learning And Self-Regulation Enhance Student Teachers’ Professional Competences, Päivi Virtanen, Hannele M. Niemi, Anne Nevgi

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The study identifies the relationships between active learning, student teachers’ self-regulated learning and professional competences. Further, the aim is to investigate how active learning promotes professional competences of student teachers with different self-regulation profiles. Responses from 422 student teachers to an electronic survey were analysed using statistical methods. It was found that the use of active learning methods, such as goal-oriented and intentional learning as well as autonomous and responsible group work, are strongly and positively related to the achievement of professional competences. To develop the best competences, student teachers need high learning motivation and excellent self-regulation strategies. The mean ...