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Analysis Of Elementary School English Teachers’ Professional Dialogue As Their Professional Development, Chin-Wen Chien Jan 2020

Analysis Of Elementary School English Teachers’ Professional Dialogue As Their Professional Development, Chin-Wen Chien

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This qualitative study analyzed the professional dialogue among 67 English teachers at seven elementary schools in New Taipei City in Taiwan. Based on the analysis of the documentation, observation, and interviews, the study has two major findings. First, the knowledge and skills covered in the professional dialogues of English teachers concerned planning, implementing, and managing instruction. Second, English teachers regarded their professional dialogues as effective and goal-oriented. In order to make professional dialogues into job-embedded professional development for English teachers, they must be goal-oriented and carried out in an environment of care and trust. Moreover, professional dialogue can take the ...


Factor Structure Of Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale For School-Teachers In Hong Kong, Chi Hung Leung, Ming Tak Hue Jan 2020

Factor Structure Of Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale For School-Teachers In Hong Kong, Chi Hung Leung, Ming Tak Hue

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study investigates the perceptions of teaching competency in multicultural classrooms held by 421 teachers at 16 schools in Hong Kong. The aims of the study are (a) to use confirmatory factor analysis to validate a culturally appropriate version of the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS), (b) to assess three types of multicultural-teaching competency, and (c) to provide recommendations for teacher-education institutes and policy makers on developing effective training in multicultural education. The results indicate that a tripartite model assessing skills, knowledge, and relationships, the core features of multicultural-teaching competency as assessed by the MTCS from a Hong Kong sample ...


Reflections On Journaling: An Initiative To Support Pre-Service Mathematics And Science Teachers, Lisa O'Keeffe, Kathryn Paige Jan 2020

Reflections On Journaling: An Initiative To Support Pre-Service Mathematics And Science Teachers, Lisa O'Keeffe, Kathryn Paige

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In this article the authors present two different ways in which journaling has been utilised with final year pre-service teacher students (PSTs) in their primary/middle science and mathematics pathway course. Pedagogical practices that model effective teaching and learning in a tertiary setting are an integral component of this course. As teacher educators exploring ways to develop our practices, we introduced journaling as a teaching and learning tool. The first results section of this article focuses on the journaling experiences of PSTs, including the different ways they chose to engage with journaling and factors contributing to their engagement or disengagement ...


“Maths Outside Of Maths”: Pre-Service Teachers’ Awareness Of Mathematical And Statistical Thinking Across Teachers’ Professional Work, Judy Bailey, Bronwen Cowie, Beverley Cooper Jan 2020

“Maths Outside Of Maths”: Pre-Service Teachers’ Awareness Of Mathematical And Statistical Thinking Across Teachers’ Professional Work, Judy Bailey, Bronwen Cowie, Beverley Cooper

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Mathematical and statistical thinking is involved across the breadth of people’s home and work life and leisure activities. This paper reports on an aspect of a project that aimed to develop pre-service teacher awareness of the mathematical and statistical thinking required across the breadth of primary teachers’ professional role. This thinking is conceptualised as the mathematics and statistics embedded in each of the curriculum learning areas, in data literacy, and administration and management tasks. Mentor meetings indicated pre-service teachers who were completing a one-year graduate diploma initially had a limited awareness of the extent of this thinking. Through focus ...


Perceptions And Experiences Of Belonging During The Transition From Primary To Secondary School, Lynette Longaretti Jan 2020

Perceptions And Experiences Of Belonging During The Transition From Primary To Secondary School, Lynette Longaretti

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

A young person’s sense of belonging at school can affect their level of motivation, academic achievement and wellbeing. During the transition from primary to secondary school, one’s sense of belonging may be affected by the changes and challenges encountered.

This paper reports some of the findings from a larger qualitative longitudinal study that investigated the factors that contribute to educational resilience during the transition from primary to secondary school. Data gathered from interviews with sixteen Year 6 students from three Victorian primary schools over a period of eighteen months is presented and analysed.

A key theme identified from ...


Primary Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy And Outcome Expectancy: A Case Study, Gillian Ward, Helen Dixon, Helen Withy Jan 2020

Primary Science Teachers’ Self-Efficacy And Outcome Expectancy: A Case Study, Gillian Ward, Helen Dixon, Helen Withy

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Self-efficacious teachers are critical in the development of students’ positive attitudes towards science and scientific literacy yet to date little attention has been given to studies of experienced teachers of primary science and development of their self-efficacy (SE) beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore how two experienced teachers of primary science built their SE beliefs and outcome expectancy. Bandura’s (1977) SE framework provided the conceptual lens to understand participants’ experiences and beliefs. Findings suggest that teachers’ SE beliefs had developed over time, creating a foundation for a strong expectancy outcome. Each of the sources of influence ...


How Do Teacher Affective And Cognitive Self-Concepts Predict Their Willingness To Teach Challenging Students?, Ee Ling Low, Pak Tee Ng, Chenri Hui, Li Cai Jan 2019

How Do Teacher Affective And Cognitive Self-Concepts Predict Their Willingness To Teach Challenging Students?, Ee Ling Low, Pak Tee Ng, Chenri Hui, Li Cai

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Building on and extending earlier research on student self-concepts and studies investigating teachers working with students with social, emotional, or behavioural difficulties, disorders, or disturbance, this longitudinal study examined teacher self-concepts in relation to their willingness to teach challenging students in mainstream classrooms. In the current study, “challenging students” refer to those who may pose a challenge to the teacher, either behaviourally or academically. Statistical measures included analysis of variance, correlation analysis, path analysis, and commonality analysis. Survey data collected from 108 participants at three different time points consistently showed that affective self-concept was a stronger predictor than cognitive self-concept ...


Literature In The Australian English Curriculum: Victorian Primary School Teachers’ Practices, Challenges And Preparedness To Teach, Louise Paatsch, Kirsten Hutchison, Anne Cloonan Jan 2019

Literature In The Australian English Curriculum: Victorian Primary School Teachers’ Practices, Challenges And Preparedness To Teach, Louise Paatsch, Kirsten Hutchison, Anne Cloonan

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The introduction of the Literature strand within the Australian Curriculum requires all teachers to engage students in print and digital literature that embrace the cross-curriculum priorities and support students to examine, evaluate, and discuss literary texts. However, such curriculum change assumes that primary school teachers who have often not studied literature as a specific method, have the confidence and content and pedagogical knowledge to plan and implement programs. This paper investigates teachers’ views of their level of confidence and preparedness to teach literature, and to explore teachers’ practices, challenges and enablers in teaching literature in both print and digital environments ...


A Matrix Of Feedback For Learning, Cam Brooks, Annemaree Carroll, Robyn M. Gillies, John Hattie Jan 2019

A Matrix Of Feedback For Learning, Cam Brooks, Annemaree Carroll, Robyn M. Gillies, John Hattie

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The present study used an established model of feedback (Hattie & Timperley, 2007) as a framework to explore which types and levels of feedback are most common in the upper primary classroom. Results demonstrate that feedback was predominantly directed toward the task level and that feed forward, information about the next steps for learning, was the least occurring feedback type in the classroom. Based upon research and findings, the authors propose a conceptual matrix of feedback that bridges research to practice with the aim of feedback being a driver to promote improvement.


How Teachers Find Meaning In Their Work And Effects On Their Pedagogical Practice, Kristina Turner, Monica Thielking Jan 2019

How Teachers Find Meaning In Their Work And Effects On Their Pedagogical Practice, Kristina Turner, Monica Thielking

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study addresses a gap in current literature by applying a qualitative phenomenological approach to understand how teachers with a calling orientation perceive meaning in their work. A calling orientation has been defined by Wrzesniewski, et al. (1997) as a commitment to one’s work as it contributes to the greater good and makes the world a better place. Individuals’ perception of participation in meaningful work has been closely linked to subjective wellbeing. The current study revealed that teachers’ reported that they found meaning in their work through having an impact on their students’ lives and through positive relationships with ...


Initial Teacher Preparation For Teaching Students With Exceptionalities: Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge And Perceived Competence, Michelle L. Bannister-Tyrrell, Sofia Mavropoulou, Marguerite Jones, Jeffrey Bailey, Anne O'Donnell-Ostini, Rinchen Dorji Jan 2018

Initial Teacher Preparation For Teaching Students With Exceptionalities: Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge And Perceived Competence, Michelle L. Bannister-Tyrrell, Sofia Mavropoulou, Marguerite Jones, Jeffrey Bailey, Anne O'Donnell-Ostini, Rinchen Dorji

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This research study surveyed 100 undergraduate teacher education students in a regional university in Australia, explored self-reported perceptions of their knowledge about students with exceptional needs, and their competence to be effective educators of these students in an inclusive classroom. Additionally, we included a measure of general attitude toward teaching in an inclusive classroom. What made this exploratory study atypical was broadening the concept of ‘exceptionality’ to the inclusion of items related to students with physical and cognitive challenges, superior academic gifts and those deemed to be twice exceptional. The results were unexpected in that teachers’ age, parental status and ...


Why Do You Work With Struggling Students? Teacher Perceptions Of Meaningful Work In Trauma-Impacted Classrooms, Tom Brunzell, Helen Stokes, Lea Waters Jan 2018

Why Do You Work With Struggling Students? Teacher Perceptions Of Meaningful Work In Trauma-Impacted Classrooms, Tom Brunzell, Helen Stokes, Lea Waters

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study contributed new findings to the construct of meaningful work (MW) and negative impacts on MW. In other professional samples, finding meaning in work has been shown to be an effective buffer when facing workplace adversity. However, prior investigation has neither identified nor explored the specific sources and mechanisms of meaningful work that teachers derive from educating trauma-affected students. Within a cross-sectional sample of primary and secondary teachers (N = 18) working in trauma-affected classrooms, two interrelated sources of MW: (1) practice pedagogy and (2) teacher wellbeing were further analysed for discussion via Rosso, Dekas, and Wrzesniewski’s (2010) four ...


A Systematic Review Of The Research On The Knowledge And Skills Of Australian Preservice Teachers, Jennifer Stephenson Jan 2018

A Systematic Review Of The Research On The Knowledge And Skills Of Australian Preservice Teachers, Jennifer Stephenson

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Since knowledge and skills related to curriculum content and pedagogy are crucial for teachers, it is of interest to explore the research relating to what preservice teachers know and can do. Refereed journal articles published between 2005 and 2015 that reported on the assessment of the knowledge or skills of Australian preservice teachers are reviewed. Data were extracted from 52 articles relating to the context of the research, participants in the research and the adequacy of the knowledge and skills of preservice teachers. Most authors expressed some concern about the level of knowledge and skills of preservice teachers and where ...


"Professional Learning On Steroids”: Implications For Teacher Learning Through Spatialised Practice In New Generation Learning Environments., Jennifer Charteris, Dianne Smardon Jan 2018

"Professional Learning On Steroids”: Implications For Teacher Learning Through Spatialised Practice In New Generation Learning Environments., Jennifer Charteris, Dianne Smardon

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

There is growing interest in innovative educational space design and the relationality of spatialised teaching practices. This paper addresses the characteristics of spatialised professional learning in newly redesigned or purpose built new generation learning environments (NGLE). The case study is situated within Aotearoa/New Zealand context, a country where there has been considerable policy focus and investment in NGLE. Data from principals who have established NGLE in their schooling settings is analysed, with consideration given to the preparation of teachers to take up spatialised practices. The study highlights key characteristics of spatialised PLD practice – fostering spatial literacy; professional cross-pollination; co-teaching ...


Early Career Teachers’ Knowledge And Practice In Spelling Instruction: Insights For Teacher Educators, Grace Oakley Jan 2018

Early Career Teachers’ Knowledge And Practice In Spelling Instruction: Insights For Teacher Educators, Grace Oakley

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Children who cannot spell fluently are likely to encounter difficulty in writing texts across the curriculum. Furthermore, spelling is often a component in high stakes tests, the results of which have significant implications for students and schools. In the context of debates on teacher quality, it is pertinent to examine the views of early career teachers on their preparedness to teach spelling. This article reports on a small scale study on the views, knowledge and practices of early career teachers in relation to the teaching of spelling, and their views on their pre-service teacher preparation. Participants were early career teachers ...


Teachers Taking Up Explicit Instruction: The Impact Of A Professional Development And Directive Instructional Coaching Model, Lorraine Hammond, Wendy M. Moore Jan 2018

Teachers Taking Up Explicit Instruction: The Impact Of A Professional Development And Directive Instructional Coaching Model, Lorraine Hammond, Wendy M. Moore

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In this study we measured the impact of a professional development model that included directive coaching on the instructional practices of Western Australian primary school teachers taking up explicit instruction. We developed and validated protocols that enabled us to measure teachers’ fidelity to the salient elements of explicit instruction and interviewed participants about the impact of the coaching program on student learning, their feelings of self-efficacy and attitudes to being coached. Numerical scores to indicate teachers’ demonstration of explicit instruction lesson design and delivery components changed positively over the five observed lessons and directive coaching had a positive impact on ...


Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Science In A New Zealand Intermediate School, Yvonne Ualesi, Gillian Ward Jan 2018

Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Science In A New Zealand Intermediate School, Yvonne Ualesi, Gillian Ward

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Concern has been raised globally that a lack of interest by teachers towards teaching science has a negative impact on the children they teach. While attention has been paid to the teacher as a contributing factor to students’ attitudes, less has been written about the attitudes of teachers. To bridge this gap, the current study examines six Year 8 teachers’ attitudes towards teaching science in a New Zealand intermediate school. Biographical data was gathered and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted that explored the teachers’ attitudes. van Aalderen-Smeets et al.’s (2012) framework, which takes a multidimensional view of attitudes, is ...


Interculturality And Teacher Education. A Study From Pre-Service Teachers’ Perspective, Eva F. Hinojosa Pareja, M. Carmen López López Jan 2018

Interculturality And Teacher Education. A Study From Pre-Service Teachers’ Perspective, Eva F. Hinojosa Pareja, M. Carmen López López

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Due to the multicultural nature of society and the failure of some of the educational models adopted to respond to cultural diversity, there is a need to pay greater attention to teachers’ training. This study examines Teacher Education students’ beliefs about cultural diversity and their relationship with pre-service teacher training as key aspects in designing intercultural teacher training proposals and improving educational practice. This quantitative, descriptive study was carried out with 1464 participants enrolled in teacher training programs. The results show that future teachers have positive beliefs about cultural diversity in general terms, but their positions diverge when dealing with ...


Music Activities Delivered By Primary School Generalist Teachers In Victoria: Informing Teaching Practice, Fiona King Jan 2018

Music Activities Delivered By Primary School Generalist Teachers In Victoria: Informing Teaching Practice, Fiona King

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The purpose of this paper is to share teacher practice in the inclusion and delivery of music education experiences for children, to inform teacher education and to guide professional learning. It draws on a larger investigation into the music activities delivered by three primary school classroom (generalist) teachers in Victoria, Australia. There is a gap in the literature regarding the music activities and experiences facilitated by teachers in day-to-day classroom learning. The case study investigation inquired into the content, pedagogy, planning and the place of music activities provided to children aged six to eleven. Teacher education is addressed in this ...


Cultural And Intercultural Education: Experiences Of Ethnoeducational Teachers In Colombia., Irma A. Flores H., Nancy Palacios Mena Jan 2018

Cultural And Intercultural Education: Experiences Of Ethnoeducational Teachers In Colombia., Irma A. Flores H., Nancy Palacios Mena

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This article focuses on the analysis of the pedagogical component of ethno-educational experiences developed in different departments of Colombia. A qualitative methodology that integrated a systemic explanatory analysis model was chosen for this study together with a content analysis of these experiences from a systemic point of view, in order to consider those educational practices as the expression of interests, struggles, relationships and social dynamics. The text includes a fragment on the emergence of ethno-educational processes in Latin America and examines the conceptualization of the term, the objectives, the emphasis given in literature to political empowerment, the struggle for preserving ...


Investigating The Potential Effect Of Race And Culture On Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions Of Corporal Punishment And Its Subsequent Effect On Mandated Reporting, John Kesner, Vera Stenhouse Jan 2018

Investigating The Potential Effect Of Race And Culture On Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions Of Corporal Punishment And Its Subsequent Effect On Mandated Reporting, John Kesner, Vera Stenhouse

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In the United States, not only are parents permitted to utilize corporal punishment in disciplining their children, but 19 states still permit the use of corporal punishment in schools. Teachers are legally bound to report suspected maltreatment, yet their school may engage in a discipline practice which they may consider abuse. This potential conflict depends on the teacher’s definition of “acceptable” physical discipline and abuse. Thus, teachers’ attitudes teachers towards corporal punishment and child maltreatment are critical.

Preservice teachers were surveyed about their attitudes towards corporal punishment, knowledge of child maltreatment and mandated reporting, personal experiences with corporal punishment ...


Learning Outcome Literacy: The Case Of Five Elementary Mathematics Teachers, Dilsad Güven Akdeniz, Ziya Argün Jan 2018

Learning Outcome Literacy: The Case Of Five Elementary Mathematics Teachers, Dilsad Güven Akdeniz, Ziya Argün

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

: Learning outcome (LO) literacy is conceptualized as a necessary skill for planning teaching and learning activities effectively. The skill has two main components: understanding and interpreting learning outcomes. The current study aimed to identify learning outcome literacy of elementary mathematics teachers with regard to this conceptualization. It is a case study based on the qualitative design. Participants were 5 mathematics teachers working at different elementary (5th - 8th grade) schools in Turkey. Observations and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection based on 10 learning outcomes selected from algebra and number learning domains in local mathematics curriculum. Content analysis ...


The Western Sydney Rustbelt: Recognizing And Building On Strengths In Pre-Service Teacher Education, Loshini Naidoo, Jacqueline Ann D'Warte Jan 2017

The Western Sydney Rustbelt: Recognizing And Building On Strengths In Pre-Service Teacher Education, Loshini Naidoo, Jacqueline Ann D'Warte

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Preparing pre-service teachers to address the disparities in educational attainment that occur in settings with complex demographics such as high poverty and super diversity (Vertovec, 2007) require a theoretically driven contextual and spacial (Soja, 1996) understanding of disadvantage. This understanding highlights the structural and systemic inequalities that exist between the rich and the poor and limit social and economic mobility for disadvantaged students in schools. This paper uses a conceptual and spacial understanding to focus on the strategies implemented by a primary and secondary pre-service teacher program to support and improve pre-service teacher learning of disadvantaged schools. We detail approaches ...


Children With Speech Sound Disorders At School: Challenges For Children, Parents And Teachers, Graham R. Daniel, Sharynne Mcleod Jan 2017

Children With Speech Sound Disorders At School: Challenges For Children, Parents And Teachers, Graham R. Daniel, Sharynne Mcleod

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Teachers play a major role in supporting children’s educational, social, and emotional development although may be unprepared for supporting children with speech sound disorders. Interviews with 34 participants including six focus children, their parents, siblings, friends, teachers and other significant adults in their lives highlighted challenges for these children in school, and challenges for their parents and teachers in meeting these children’s developmental and educational needs. These challenges were centred on the need for specific expertise in the school setting, and access to additional classroom and professional services to support these students’ engagement in the learning and social ...


What Efl Student Teachers Think About Their Professional Preparation: Evaluation Of An English Language Teacher Education Programme In Spain, Juan De Dios Martínez Agudo Jan 2017

What Efl Student Teachers Think About Their Professional Preparation: Evaluation Of An English Language Teacher Education Programme In Spain, Juan De Dios Martínez Agudo

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Given the importance of programme evaluation in the EFL teacher education, this research paper of exploratory-interpretive nature mainly focuses on both strengths and weaknesses identified through the analysis and/or critical evaluation of an EFL teacher education programme carried out in Spain. Both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were used in the study. The current TEFL programme has several strengths, but also certain significant shortcomings in light of the high percentage of undecided responses. The TEFL programme was evaluated positively by participant student teachers in general, in terms of pedagogic competence and promotion of reflection, although more input on English ...


The Changing Roles Of Science Specialists During A Capacity Building Program For Primary School Science, Sandra Herbert, Lihua Xu, Leissa Kelly Jan 2017

The Changing Roles Of Science Specialists During A Capacity Building Program For Primary School Science, Sandra Herbert, Lihua Xu, Leissa Kelly

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Science education starts at primary school. Yet, recent research shows primary school teachers lack confidence and competence in teaching science (Prinsley & Johnston, 2015). A Victorian state government science specialist initiative responded to this concern by providing professional learning programs to schools across Victoria. Drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT), this paper reports the analysis of transcripts of interviews with 17 science specialists from eleven schools. It presents the various perceived and enacted science specialist roles, and how they changed over time. The CHAT analysis of the transcripts revealed seven different stages describing trajectories of the science specialism. The variation ...


Primary Mathematics Trainee Teacher Confidence And Its Relationship To Mathematical Knowledge, Stephen J. Norton Jan 2017

Primary Mathematics Trainee Teacher Confidence And Its Relationship To Mathematical Knowledge, Stephen J. Norton

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The purpose of this paper is to examine trainee primary school teachers’ confidence in their mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and confidence to teach specific primary mathematics concepts (mathematics pedagogical content knowledge –MPCK) which was correlated to their actual MCK on specific tasks. For this correlational study survey and test data were collected from a cohort of 210 trainee teachers. It was found that confidence to do and to teach mathematics was reasonably strongly correlated with competence. Trainee teachers’ confidence varied greatly depending on the specific mathematics they were attempting. When presented with specific tasks, trainees were well aware of the ...


Teaching As A Career Choice: Triggers And Drivers, Ee Ling Low, Pak Tee Ng, Chenri Hui, Li Cai Jan 2017

Teaching As A Career Choice: Triggers And Drivers, Ee Ling Low, Pak Tee Ng, Chenri Hui, Li Cai

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Why people are drawn to teaching has been a focal research area. However, previous studies seem to centre on the traditional conceptualisations of intrinsic, altruistic, and extrinsic motivations as well as some other similar categorisations. This study attempts to discuss the issue from a different conceptual stance, proposing a distinction between the “triggers” and the “drivers”. The influences on the motivation for joining teaching were explored through in-depth interviews with 26 student teachers. Results show that student teachers’ motivations for joining teaching in Singapore may differ in important ways from that of their counterparts in other places. More importantly, the ...


Transforming Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs And Understandings About Design And Technologies, Marnie Best Jan 2017

Transforming Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs And Understandings About Design And Technologies, Marnie Best

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Design and Technologies challenges students to think differently: to think critically and creatively. Yet, how, when and why students are exposed to Design and Technologies curriculum in school classrooms is at the prerogative of their teacher. For this reason, it is imperative that pre-service teachers are inspired by and engaged through relevant, rigorous and responsive courses throughout their undergraduate teaching program. Situated within the Bachelor of Education (Primary and Middle) degree at the University of South Australia, Australia, this study captures pre-service teachers’ emerging beliefs, attitudes and understandings of Design and Technologies. Drawing on the comparative responses of pre-service teachers ...


Technology Integration In Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Practices Of Student Teachers, Ping Liu Mar 2016

Technology Integration In Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Practices Of Student Teachers, Ping Liu

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that the primary technological means used to enhance teaching was to provide visuals for attention, engagement and interaction. All participants chose to integrate technology but varied substantially in their teaching practices. They applied technology for a number of reasons: student engagement, time management, motivation and meeting individual students’ needs. Variables such ...