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Full-Text Articles in Education

Using Virtual Exchange To Advance Media Literacy Competencies Through Analysis Of Contemporary Propaganda, Renee Hobbs, Christian Seyferth-Zapf, Silke Grafe Nov 2018

Using Virtual Exchange To Advance Media Literacy Competencies Through Analysis Of Contemporary Propaganda, Renee Hobbs, Christian Seyferth-Zapf, Silke Grafe

Journal of Media Literacy Education

With the rise of so-called fake news as a global phenomenon, interest in propaganda analysis has advanced along with the recognition of the fundamentally social process of interpretation. In this essay, we explore the use of cross-national dialogue among German and American undergraduate students who are seeking to better understand how media messages are interpreted and how they inform and guide the civic actions of citizens. We describe and analyze five lessons that used a virtual exchange using a variety of digital media platforms, texts and technologies to support the cross-national study of contemporary propaganda. We observed that cross-national dialogue ...


Exploring Echo-Systems: How Algorithms Shape Immersive Media Environments, James N. Cohen Nov 2018

Exploring Echo-Systems: How Algorithms Shape Immersive Media Environments, James N. Cohen

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In the lead up to the 2016 election, fake news often “outperformed” actual news in users’ social media feeds (Silverman, 2016). This paper attempts to analyze the process in which fake news proliferates social networking sites and presents a method of understanding and articulating ways in which personalized feeds are shaped by algorithm-based user feedback. The algorithm systems are embedded programs that analyze past user data and search history in combination with other users’ searches and history to calculate digital outcomes, anticipate possible recommendations, and present consumers with feeds that represent their own unique immersive media environments.

As of August ...


Both Facts And Feelings: Emotion And News Literacy, Susan Currie Sivek Nov 2018

Both Facts And Feelings: Emotion And News Literacy, Susan Currie Sivek

Journal of Media Literacy Education

News literacy education has long focused on the significance of facts, sourcing, and verifiability. While these are critical aspects of news, rapidly developing emotion analytics technologies intended to respond to and even alter digital news audiences’ emotions also demand that we pay greater attention to the role of emotion in news consumption. This essay explores the role of emotion in the “fake news” phenomenon and the implementation of emotion analytics tools in news distribution. I examine the function of emotion in news consumption and the current status of emotion within existing news literacy training programs. Finally, I offer suggestions for ...


Fake Or Visual Trickery? Understanding The Quantitative Visual Rhetoric In The News, Rohit Mehta, Lynette Deaun Guzmán Nov 2018

Fake Or Visual Trickery? Understanding The Quantitative Visual Rhetoric In The News, Rohit Mehta, Lynette Deaun Guzmán

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In online and video/television spaces, news media discourses incorporate multimodal design as a discursive move capable of steering meaning toward desirable implications. Around the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, while polarized news outlets made their positionality on the candidates obvious, more neutral or central news outlets revealed their preferences through subtle multimodal design choices. One of these design choices is using a quantitative visual rhetoric: persuasive multimodal moves that draw on quantification through visual, spatial, and textual manipulation—involving the choice of data representation, visual images, and illustrations, (im)balance between numeric and alphabetic texts, and general quantitative narrative ...


The Complexity Of Learning To Teach News Media In Social Studies Education, Mardi Schmeichel, Jim Garrett, Rachel Ranschaert, Joseph Mcanulty, Shannon Thompson, Sonia Janis, Christopher Clark, Stephanie Yagata, Briana Bivens Nov 2018

The Complexity Of Learning To Teach News Media In Social Studies Education, Mardi Schmeichel, Jim Garrett, Rachel Ranschaert, Joseph Mcanulty, Shannon Thompson, Sonia Janis, Christopher Clark, Stephanie Yagata, Briana Bivens

Journal of Media Literacy Education

This research reports on data generated through an initial teacher certification program for secondary social studies teachers that introduced a specific and program-spanning focus on news media literacy. Growing out of the urgent need for pedagogies that address and promote critical engagement with the kinds of news media sources upon which civic decisions are made, our project follows teacher candidates from their initial certification coursework through the culminating student teaching semester. Our work with teacher candidates over this time was explicitly intended to intervene in and develop teacher candidates’ understandings of news media literacy, its place in social studies education ...


Winning The War On State-Sponsored Propaganda: Results From An Impact Study Of A Ukrainian News Media And Information Literacy Program, Erin Murrock, Joy Amulya, Mehri Druckman, Tetiana Liubyva Nov 2018

Winning The War On State-Sponsored Propaganda: Results From An Impact Study Of A Ukrainian News Media And Information Literacy Program, Erin Murrock, Joy Amulya, Mehri Druckman, Tetiana Liubyva

Journal of Media Literacy Education

From 2015-2016, IREX implemented a media literacy training program called Learn to Discern (L2D) that trained Ukrainian citizens to critically analyze news media messages and identify misinformation. In 2017, IREX conducted a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of news literacy skills, knowledge, and behavior using a stratified random sample of L2D participants and non-participants (n=412). The groups were matched for gender, age, region and education levels. A news literacy assessment was administered to both groups via an online survey. The assessment required participants to analyze an objective news article and a disinformation-based news article; demonstrate knowledge of the news media environment ...


Civic Media Literacy In A Transmedia World: Balancing Personal Experience, Factual Accuracy And Emotional Appeal As Media Consumers And Circulators, Ellen Middaugh Nov 2018

Civic Media Literacy In A Transmedia World: Balancing Personal Experience, Factual Accuracy And Emotional Appeal As Media Consumers And Circulators, Ellen Middaugh

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Amid growing concerns over the role of “fake news” in civic and political life, efforts to understand how to best prepare youth to evaluate and reason about online sources have gained a sense of urgency. However, less attention has been paid to how such skills are used in the context of the broader array of information behavior that is typical of civic and political participation today—particularly in the circulation of information. Through thematic analysis of interviews and think aloud tasks with n=24 urban high school students reasoning through the processes of search, credibility analysis and circulating information for ...


Media Literacy And Climate Change In A Post-Truth Society, James S. Damico, Mark Baildon, Alexandra Panos Nov 2018

Media Literacy And Climate Change In A Post-Truth Society, James S. Damico, Mark Baildon, Alexandra Panos

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In this article we draw from ecolingusitics (Stibbe, 2015) and a civic media literacy framework (Author, in press; Masyada & Washington, 2016) to consider what happened when three pairs of preservice teachers with different academic backgrounds and climate change beliefs jointly evaluated the reliability of two media sources that make opposing arguments about climate change. An ecolinguistics perspective attends to the environmental impact of the “stories-we-live-by” (Stibbe, 2015) and a civic media literacy lens highlights the centrality of dialogue and deliberation along with critical reading when evaluating the reliability of information sources about complex socioscientific topics like climate change. Our findings ...


Media Literacy, Democracy, And The Challenge Of Fake News, Lance E. Mason, Dan Krutka, Jeremy Stoddard Nov 2018

Media Literacy, Democracy, And The Challenge Of Fake News, Lance E. Mason, Dan Krutka, Jeremy Stoddard

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In this essay, the authors offer a context for discussions about fake news, democracy, and considerations for media literacy education. Drawing on media ecology and critical media studies, they highlight the longer history of fake news and how this concept cannot be separated from the media technologies in which cultures grow. They discuss current iterations of this phenomenon alongside the effects of social media and offer a preview of the special issue.


Book Review: Exploring Critical Digital Literacy Practices: Everyday Video In A Dual Language Context, Lucie Roemer Oct 2018

Book Review: Exploring Critical Digital Literacy Practices: Everyday Video In A Dual Language Context, Lucie Roemer

Journal of Media Literacy Education

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Teaching Climate Change To Adolescents: Reading, Writing, And Making A Difference, Antonio Lopez Oct 2018

Book Review: Teaching Climate Change To Adolescents: Reading, Writing, And Making A Difference, Antonio Lopez

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Teaching Climate Change to Adolescents: Reading, Writing, and Making a Difference, is a book for English language arts and media literacy teachers that provides abundant resources for educators wanting to incorporate climate change instruction into their classrooms. This review explores the usefulness of the book and discusses more broadly the barriers and opportunities for incorporating environmental issues into media literacy education.


Mediating Religious Literacy Among Primary School Children In Gujarat: Classroom As A Liminal Space, Kiran Vinod Bhatia Oct 2018

Mediating Religious Literacy Among Primary School Children In Gujarat: Classroom As A Liminal Space, Kiran Vinod Bhatia

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Articulation of religious guidelines in the political milieu never takes place in a disembodied form; rather politically inscribed religious discourses are embedded within and conveyed through specific institutional channels, including media organizations and education institutions. My experiences of working as a media educator in villages in Gujarat have helped me understand how the learning of such discriminatory practices begin early as students use various linguistic and socio-cultural cues in order to make sense of the society. A classroom, however, provides the required space to entertain differences such that we can delimit the social hierarchies that are naturalized in the minds ...


Empowering Indigenous Learners Through The Creation Of Graphic Novels, Deborah Begoray, Alexis Brown Oct 2018

Empowering Indigenous Learners Through The Creation Of Graphic Novels, Deborah Begoray, Alexis Brown

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In this paper, we examine how Indigenous and non-Indigenous adolescents identify media influences as health/wellness related. We conducted research over a six-week period in two alternative high school settings: a culture-based Indigenous education program at one school and an arts-based program at another school, both in the same small, Western Canadian city. We taught students from both programs the principles of critical media health literacy. Small groups of students from the Indigenous program wrote narratives. Then small groups of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in an arts-based education program converted these stories into graphic novel/comic book format. Findings indicated ...


Deconstructing Media In The College Classroom: A Longitudinal Critical Media Literacy Intervention, Andrea M. Bergstrom, Mark Flynn, Clay Craig Oct 2018

Deconstructing Media In The College Classroom: A Longitudinal Critical Media Literacy Intervention, Andrea M. Bergstrom, Mark Flynn, Clay Craig

Journal of Media Literacy Education

While many studies have addressed the impact of media literacy interventions on knowledge of specific topic areas, few have explored improvements in media literacy skills as outcome measures. This study analyzed the impact of a media literacy intervention on participants’ critical thinking skills and understanding of media literacy principles by addressing the topics of body image and media representations of gender and race. A two-group, longitudinal experimental design was implemented using college-aged student participants across multiple course sections (n = 198) at a public university in the southeast. Results were significant for several media literacy measures for the treatment group after ...


How Brazil’S Unified University Entrance Exam (Enem) Impacts Media Literacy Education, Danilo Venticinque, Andrew Whitworth Oct 2018

How Brazil’S Unified University Entrance Exam (Enem) Impacts Media Literacy Education, Danilo Venticinque, Andrew Whitworth

Journal of Media Literacy Education

This article discusses the outcomes of research into the media literacy aspects of ENEM (Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio), Brazil's unified university entrance exam, which contains a significant number of exam questions based on excerpts from newspaper articles, online news and other media sources. Through content analysis, these questions are classified according to the platform (digital or print) and source (traditional media, niche media and government agencies). The results show a strong prevalence of traditional media, either in print or digital platforms, and a tendency to present the government in a positive light, avoiding issues such as the series ...


Food For Thought: A Novel Media Literacy Intervention On Food Advertising Targeting Young Children And Their Parents, Rachel M. Powell, Tyra Gross Oct 2018

Food For Thought: A Novel Media Literacy Intervention On Food Advertising Targeting Young Children And Their Parents, Rachel M. Powell, Tyra Gross

Journal of Media Literacy Education

The prevalence of obese children has tripled during the past three decades. While lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating have been the primary focus of public health efforts, media has a significant influence on food choices and food consumption.

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine if a media literacy intervention would increase knowledge and decrease the persuasive nature of unhealthy food advertisements. Parents (n=12) and their children (n=15) were recruited from two Boys and Girls clubs. They participated in a 2-hour educational, intervention workshop. The parents completed a pretest and a posttest assessing changes ...


Foregrounding Morality: Encouraging Parental Media Literacy Intervention Using The Tares Test For Ethical Persuasion, Kevin J. Pearce, Stanley Baran Oct 2018

Foregrounding Morality: Encouraging Parental Media Literacy Intervention Using The Tares Test For Ethical Persuasion, Kevin J. Pearce, Stanley Baran

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In the United States, children are exposed to literally hundreds of thousands of television commercials a year and virtually every aspect of kids’ lives are replete with commercial messages. The negative effects of this exposure are well documented. Yet, there remains very little regulation or limit on advertising to children beyond that which exists for adults. Additionally, only about 1/3 of U.S. parents wish for stronger controls. This presents a challenge for media literacy scholars and practitioners. Research has shown that, when presented with information about the negative effects of commercial messages, parents are more likely to adopt ...


Media Literacy And Response To Terror News, Daniel Bergan, Heysung Lee Oct 2018

Media Literacy And Response To Terror News, Daniel Bergan, Heysung Lee

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Increased fear and threat toward terrorism in the current American society is largely due to vivid news coverages, as explained by cultivation theory and mean world syndrome. Media literacy has potential to reduce this perception of fear and threat, such as people high on media literacy will be less likely to be affected by terror news. We focus on representation and reality for investigating the relationship between influence of terror news and media literacy, one component of media literacy framework developed by Primack and Hobbs (2006), which deals with how media messages reflect or exclude the reality. Our study divided ...


Teaching Girls Online Skills: Results Of The Wikid Grrls Intervention, Stine Eckert, Jade Metzger-Riftkin, Joanna Nurmis Oct 2018

Teaching Girls Online Skills: Results Of The Wikid Grrls Intervention, Stine Eckert, Jade Metzger-Riftkin, Joanna Nurmis

Journal of Media Literacy Education

In 2013-2016 we designed and implemented Wikid Grrls, a 10-week after-school workshop series to teach online skills to middle school girls in U.S. schools. We interviewed and surveyed 80 participants before and after the workshops. Girls’ online skills and confidence in them increased measurably for the duration of the workshop series. Participants expressed great interest in learning more, but media literacy programs at their schools regarding online skills were lacking. Using feminist theories and the reader-to-leader framework, we argue that such media literacy interventions bring immediate learning rewards for participants. Yet, we conclude that to narrow gender gaps in ...


Media Literacy Policy In Flanders – Belgium: From Parliamentary Discussions To Public Policy, Leo Van Audenhove, Hadewijch Vanwynsberghe, Ilse Mariën May 2018

Media Literacy Policy In Flanders – Belgium: From Parliamentary Discussions To Public Policy, Leo Van Audenhove, Hadewijch Vanwynsberghe, Ilse Mariën

Journal of Media Literacy Education

The discussion on media literacy in Flanders starts in the Flemish Parliament in 2006. It will take until 2013 before the Flemish Government will set up the Knowledge Center for Media Literacy—Mediawijs. Flanders is therefore rather late in establishing a dedicated institute for media literacy. The same can be said for developing a formal policy framework in relation to media literacy. This article starts with a theoretical discussion of three major trends in the current media literacy debate. The article moves on to describe and analyze Flanders media literacy policy debates and policy formulation. It highlights the development and ...


Teaching Social Justice: Intergenerational Service-Learning In Digital Media Course, Margaret O. Finucane, Linda M. Seiter, Nathan C. Gehlert May 2018

Teaching Social Justice: Intergenerational Service-Learning In Digital Media Course, Margaret O. Finucane, Linda M. Seiter, Nathan C. Gehlert

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Digital media play an increasingly dominant role in reinforcing and challenging power inequality in social and institutional relationships. This paper describes how a service-learning component engaged students in community-based interactions that not only deepened their understanding of course content but also increased their commitment to diversity, community issues, and personal development. A close look at three case studies shows that integrating service learning into a first year seminar on digital media and social justice had positive outcomes for students when intentionally paired with community partners offering course-related projects.


What Do Preservice Teachers Think About Teaching Media Literacy?: An Exploratory Study Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Sarah Gretter, Aman Yadav May 2018

What Do Preservice Teachers Think About Teaching Media Literacy?: An Exploratory Study Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Sarah Gretter, Aman Yadav

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Despite the numerous benefits of media & information literacy for students in today’s digital society, the lack of teacher preparation in teaching media & information literacy skills suggests that the societal rationale for students becoming media literate and the sustainable preparation of teachers in that area may differ. The purpose of this exploratory study was to explore the factors and beliefs underlying preservice teachers’ intention to teach media & information literacy in their future classroom according to the Theory of Planned Behavior. Findings suggest that preservice teachers’ have positive attitudes towards media & information literacy as an essential skill for students, yet do ...


Youth And The City: Reflective Photography As A Tool Of Urban Voice, Roman Gerodimos May 2018

Youth And The City: Reflective Photography As A Tool Of Urban Voice, Roman Gerodimos

Journal of Media Literacy Education

YYoung people’s engagement with urban public space has been facing a number of obstacles that reflect a lack of understanding of their needs, values and priorities. The emergence of digital devices and social media as integral elements of youth culture adds further urgency to the need to understand how young people themselves visually articulate their perceptions of life in the city. Bringing together elements from urban studies, youth studies and digital media literacy, this paper puts forward a pedagogic and research approach that aims to facilitate youth engagement with urban landscapes and the community. Participatory photography was used a ...


Too Much Of A Good Thing? How Teachers’ Enthusiasm May Lead To Protectionism In Exploring Media & Gender, Elizaveta Friesem May 2018

Too Much Of A Good Thing? How Teachers’ Enthusiasm May Lead To Protectionism In Exploring Media & Gender, Elizaveta Friesem

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Challenges of media and gender literacy classes include the danger of steering students towards “right” interpretations of media texts while simplifying the complex relationship between audiences and media texts. The current paper describes a case study that focused on two high school teachers who were motivated by their protectionist concerns to analyze media representations of gender with students. The study aims to answer the question: Can teachers’ enthusiasm lead to protectionism in media and gender classes, and if so, what does that look like? The author concludes that teachers passionate about shielding students from problematic ideologies may miss out on ...


The Promises, Challenges, And Futures Of Media Literacy, Monica Bulger, Patrick Davison May 2018

The Promises, Challenges, And Futures Of Media Literacy, Monica Bulger, Patrick Davison

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Media literacy has become a center of gravity for countering fake news, and a diverse array of stakeholders – from educators to legislators, philanthropists to technologists – have pushed significant resources toward media literacy programs. Media literacy, however, cannot be treated as a panacea. This paper provides a foundation for evaluating media literacy efforts and contextualizing them relative to the current media landscape. Media literacy is traditionally conceived as a process or set of skills based on critical thinking. It has a long history of development aligned along the dialectic between protection and participation. Contemporary media literacy tends to organize around five ...


Poverty, Literacy, And Social Transformation: An Interdisciplinary Exploration Of The Digital Divide, Amy J. Bach, Todd Wolfson, Jessica K. Crowell May 2018

Poverty, Literacy, And Social Transformation: An Interdisciplinary Exploration Of The Digital Divide, Amy J. Bach, Todd Wolfson, Jessica K. Crowell

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Harnessing scholarship focused on literacy and poverty, in this article we aim to complicate the common understanding of the digital divide. First, we argue that the dominant literature on the digital divide misses broader connections between technological exclusion and broader forms of economic and social exclusion. Accordingly, and following recent qualitative research on the digital divide, we believe future scholarship must examine the complicated relationships between poverty, inequality, and the digital divide and we look to poverty scholarship to understand the complicated and shifting nature of poverty. Finally, we make the case that scholars and practitioners focused on digital literacy ...


Radio Waves And Curriculum Pathways: Jamaican “At Risk” Learners Construct Media, Paulette J. Feraria May 2018

Radio Waves And Curriculum Pathways: Jamaican “At Risk” Learners Construct Media, Paulette J. Feraria

Journal of Media Literacy Education

This paper explores radio play as an alternative space for learning language and literacy for Jamaican students labelled as ‘at-risk’ learners. Through the creation of a make-believe radio station in the classroom, students developed oral language skills as a necessary precursor for social literacy. They connected reading and writing activities and the simulated classroom radio station promoted the development of learners’ self-efficacy. The students’ use of the learning space as newscasters, hosts, writers and reporters revealed that those who took risks in learning language and literacy in these spaces subverted the label of ‘at-risk-learners’ and repositioned themselves as risk-takers in ...