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2017

Kinesiology

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Ability Of Functional Performance Tests To Identify Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis, Adam B. Rosen, Alan R. Needle, Jupil Ko Dec 2017

Ability Of Functional Performance Tests To Identify Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis, Adam B. Rosen, Alan R. Needle, Jupil Ko

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Objective:

The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of functional performance tests (FPTs) in differentiating between individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls.

Data Sources:

The National Library of Medicine Catalog (PubMed), the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the SPORTDiscus, from inception to June 2017 were searched. Search terms consisted of: “Functional Performance Test*” OR “Dynamic Balance Test*” OR “Postural Stability Test*” OR “Star Excursion Balance Test*” OR “Hop Test*” AND “Ankle Instability” OR “Ankle Sprain.” Included articles assessed differences in FPTs in patients with CAI compared ...


An Analysis Of Factors Contributing To Anxiety In Athletic Performance, James Vanderhoof Dec 2017

An Analysis Of Factors Contributing To Anxiety In Athletic Performance, James Vanderhoof

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to first investigate factors associated with cognitive and somatic anxiety among athletes. Secondly, this synthesis aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive and somatic anxiety and athletic performance. An exhaustive review of the literature yielded ten studies that were relevant to this review. Six studies examined self-confidence in relationship to anxiety; two studies examined anxiety in relationship to age and experience; two studies examined anxiety in relationship to incentives; one study examined the effects of coaching style on anxiety; and one study examined anxiety in the presence of an audience. The relationships between self-confidence ...


Physical Activity Interventions For Children With Down Syndrome: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Maleda Funk Dec 2017

Physical Activity Interventions For Children With Down Syndrome: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Maleda Funk

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This synthesis highlights the available physical activity interventions/programs for children with Down syndrome. More specifically, the literature review examined evidence-based research in the areas of dance and movement, balance and stability, two-wheel bicycle, strength and agility and barriers and facilitators. The literature review used peer-reviewed and scholarly articles in order to examine the most effective physical activity intervention/programs for children with Down syndrome. Results showed that all physical activity interventions/programs can be effective for children with Down syndrome, especially when developmentally appropriate modifications and adaptations are incorporated. Dance and movement programs, balance and stability exercises using virtual ...


Sport Specialization And The Creation Of Elite Soccer Athletes, Nathan Lawson Dec 2017

Sport Specialization And The Creation Of Elite Soccer Athletes, Nathan Lawson

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

There are many contributing factors to sport specialization at an early age whether these are intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, parental influence and amount of practice time. There are positive and negative effects of sports specialization and sports generalization. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on sport specialization and the creation of an elite athlete in the realm of soccer. The research shows the need for sport specialization early in soccer is not necessary because it is not necessary to reach peak performance early as compared to a sport such as gymnastics. With the physical developments ...


Abusive Behavior In Sport: When Does A Coach Cross The Line?, Margeaux Gupilan Dec 2017

Abusive Behavior In Sport: When Does A Coach Cross The Line?, Margeaux Gupilan

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

The purpose of this synthesis is to review current research about how to identify, prevent and respond to an abusive coach. A total of 12 articles were used for this literature review. Literature suggests that coaches hold a significant position of power over their athletes (Misia, Rhind, & Luzar, 2016). There is reason to believe that coaches who have a certain type of coaching style have a higher chance of being emotionally, mentally, verbally, and physically abusive towards their athletes. This synthesis aims to identify what constitutes tough coaching vs. abusive coaching.

From the literature review, a few major themes were noticed. These themes helped answer the research questions that were drawn up and provided the basis for the conclusions. Based on the literature the three conclusions were (1) the behaviors that reflect coaching abuse are accepted in sports when the intent of the coach is for the development and growth for the athlete; (2) teachers are trained and coaches are not always trained indicating a need for more formal training of coaches; and (3) high level athletes respond to different coaching styles that may include behaviors linked to coaching abuse and may, in fact prefer the behaviors.

Techniques used within sports are purposefully used in ...


Movement Therapy For School Age Children With Autism: A Review Of The Literature, Courtney Bradish Dec 2017

Movement Therapy For School Age Children With Autism: A Review Of The Literature, Courtney Bradish

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

One in every 68 children in the United States has autism spectrum disorder (ASD), affecting boys more than girls (4:1). Physical activity is important for children with ASD because it promotes life-long fitness and prevents chronic conditions. The purpose of this synthesis was to determine the most effective research-based movement therapy for children with autism, as well as discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each therapy presented. The literature review used peer-reviewed scholarly articles to examine evidencebased research in the areas of music therapy, dance therapy, yoga therapy and aquatic therapy. Results indicated family-centered music therapy (FCMT) improves the ...


A Review Of Literature On The College Experience Of Students Employed In Campus Recreation Programs, Domonique Sak Dec 2017

A Review Of Literature On The College Experience Of Students Employed In Campus Recreation Programs, Domonique Sak

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Student employment has become an educational fact with more students seeking work after every year. The purpose of this synthesis is to demonstrate the impact of college students who work in Campus Recreation in relation to their collegiate experience and level of job satisfaction. There has been plenty of research conducted on students in regards to the collegiate experience or job satisfaction, but not together. Selected by strict criteria, eleven accredited scholarly journal articles were examined that specifically investigated collegiate experience and job satisfaction. Other sources were used to incorporate background information. Furthermore, factors such as academic performance, leadership and ...


In Memoriam 2017, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D. Dec 2017

In Memoriam 2017, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

In Memoriam 2017 - Adolph Kiefer, Louise Priest, Terry Laughlin


Effects Of Aquatic And Land Plyometrics On Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review, Alissa Rhode, David C. Berry Dec 2017

Effects Of Aquatic And Land Plyometrics On Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review, Alissa Rhode, David C. Berry

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The purpose of this study was to systematically review literature to determine whether aquatic plyometric training (APT) increases athletic performance compared to land-based plyometric training (LPT). We identified 6 articles from PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and single-citation matching from January, 1995 through January, 2017 using search words “aquatic plyometric training OR aquatic plyometric OR aquatic plyometrics.” After screening (title, abstract), 6 articles were reviewed for inclusion criteria: (1) full-report/abstract, (2) peer-reviewed RCTs/clinical trials, (3) English language, (4) focused on healthy individuals (free of current, lower-extremity, musculoskeletal injuries) ages 16-30 years, and (6) included strength, power, and/or vertical jump ...


Effects Of Running Up The Score In Sport, Jonathan Santana Dec 2017

Effects Of Running Up The Score In Sport, Jonathan Santana

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This synthesis highlights the effects of running up the score in sport. To examine this matter to the fullest extent, there were seven peer-reviewed articles chosen that involved the ethics of running up the score and several arguments for and against the issue. Several topics included in the articles were the anti-blowout thesis, humiliation, sportsmanship and competition. The review of literature provides information, and conclusions that support the idea that running up the score may be ethical or unethical depending on the circumstances of the game.


Physical Activity Events For Children: Do The Benefits Justify Time Away From Academics?, Laura L. Wright Dec 2017

Physical Activity Events For Children: Do The Benefits Justify Time Away From Academics?, Laura L. Wright

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis project was to research the effect that physical activity events have on children’s academic achievement. A comprehensive literary search was completed to find studies that implemented recess, classroom based physical activity, physical education, extracurricular physical activity or sports into the lives of K-12 students. Fourteen academic research reports, journal articles and scholarly peer reviewed articles between the years of 2000-2016 were chosen for the review of literature.

The differences that exist between the forms of physical activity and their impact on academic performance were examined. A strong research base for physical activity improving children ...


Effects Of Sport Specialization On Youth And Interscholastic Athletes, Joseph Innes Dec 2017

Effects Of Sport Specialization On Youth And Interscholastic Athletes, Joseph Innes

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Athletes are beginning to specialize in one specific sport more recently than ever before. There are two types of athletes, a single sport athlete, and a multi-sport athlete. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on sport specialization. More specifically the various effects specializing versus participating in multiple sports has on an athlete, both physically and mentally. Research has shown that there are positive and negative effects to both sport specialization and diversification. Further research on this topic can give athletes a better idea on what is best for them overall.


Evidence-Based Best Practices In Physical Activity For Children With Serious Disabilities A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Roselym M. Miranda-Mercado Dec 2017

Evidence-Based Best Practices In Physical Activity For Children With Serious Disabilities A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Roselym M. Miranda-Mercado

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Serious disabilities are diagnosed in approximately 1 in 100 of children who have serious disabilities (Jasma, 1988). The development of the psychomotor domain in children with serious disabilities is typically below the development of their peers without special needs (Jasma, 1988). Generally, children with serious disabilities tend to be sedentary or lack opportunities to participate in physical activity compared with their peers without disabilities (Jasma, 1988). Traditional assessments such as TGMD-3 (Test of Gross Motor Development) or Brockport Physical Fitness Test, are not designed or do not have accommodations for children with serious disabilities (Grenier, & Miller, 2018). The purpose of ...


Does Any Good Come From A Coach That Yells? Reflective Experiences From Former Athletes, David C. Barney, Alema Tauiliili Nov 2017

Does Any Good Come From A Coach That Yells? Reflective Experiences From Former Athletes, David C. Barney, Alema Tauiliili

Faculty Publications

Yelling in society is a common occurrence. Parents yell at their children, bosses yell at their employees and coaches yell at their athletes. Yet, in many cases the yelling coach exhibits unkind, loud in nature, and very personal statements. The purpose of this study was to better understand former athlete’s perspectives regarding their thoughts and experiences of their coaches yelling at them. For this study yelling will imply saying loud, unkind, personal comments towards the athlete. For this study 124 former athletes were surveyed regarding their experiences with a yelling coach. Generally, it was found that the former athletes ...


Measuring Australian Children’S Water Safety Knowledge: The National Water Safety Quiz, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin, Justin Scarr Oct 2017

Measuring Australian Children’S Water Safety Knowledge: The National Water Safety Quiz, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin, Justin Scarr

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Water safety knowledge levels of Australian children are poorly understood. Royal Life Saving developed an online National Water Safety Quiz (NWSQ) as an interactive means of determining water safety knowledge amongst Australian primary school children (ages 5 to 12 years). Over a period of 8 months, a total of 4,215 children participated in the NWSQ. The NWSQ identified areas of water safety where knowledge was poor including the topics of CPR, swimming, and river safety. Children achieved a better result as they aged. Females out-performed males overall and specifically from ages 10-12 years. Children from independent schools performed better ...


Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviours Of New Zealand Youth In Surf Beach Environments, Stacey M. Willcox-Pidgeon, Bridget Kool, Kevin Moran Ph.D. Oct 2017

Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviours Of New Zealand Youth In Surf Beach Environments, Stacey M. Willcox-Pidgeon, Bridget Kool, Kevin Moran Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

New Zealand youth are over-represented in drowning statistics yet little is known about their understanding of water safety, especially in surf beach context. This study aimed to ascertain current youth surf safety knowledge, specifically rip current awareness, explore self-reported competencies and confidence when surf swimming, and examine youth behaviour when at the beach. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among senior high school students (n = 599) in Auckland, New Zealand. Over half (58%) reported they were unable to swim > 100 m in a pool. Males and students of European-New Zealand and Maori (New Zealand’s indigenous population) heritage were most likely ...


Healthy Families: A Family-Based Community Intervention To Address Childhood Obesity, Danae Dinkel, Melissa Tibbits, Emily Hanigan, Kelly Nielsen, Leah Jorgensen, Kay Grant Oct 2017

Healthy Families: A Family-Based Community Intervention To Address Childhood Obesity, Danae Dinkel, Melissa Tibbits, Emily Hanigan, Kelly Nielsen, Leah Jorgensen, Kay Grant

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Healthy Families, a family-based community intervention, in improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors of overweight/obese children and their families as well as to explore the lessons learned. Results showed families who completed the program had significant improvements for children and parents in areas such as nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy in making healthy eating choices as well as participating in physical activity. Additionally, families reported decreasing their intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Participating families and community partners provided valuable lessons for other communities seeking to implement a similar program.


From Swimming Skill To Water Competence: A Paradigm Shift, Robert Keig Stallman Oct 2017

From Swimming Skill To Water Competence: A Paradigm Shift, Robert Keig Stallman

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This guest editorial leads off and introduces the subsequent scientific review.


From Swimming Skill To Water Competence: Towards A More Inclusive Drowning Prevention Future, Robert Keig Stallman, Kevin Moran Dr, Linda Quan, Stephen Langendorfer Oct 2017

From Swimming Skill To Water Competence: Towards A More Inclusive Drowning Prevention Future, Robert Keig Stallman, Kevin Moran Dr, Linda Quan, Stephen Langendorfer

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Brenner, Moran, Stallman, Gilchrist and McVan, (2006) recommended that “swimming ability be promoted as a necessary component of water competence, but with the understanding that swimming ability alone is [often] not sufficient to prevent drowning” (p. 116). Tradition and expert opinion are no longer enough. Science can now help us select essential competencies. What does research evidence show us about the protective value of specific individual personal competencies? Since the term “water competence’’ was coined by Langendorfer and Bruya (1995) and adapted for drowning prevention by Moran (2013), it has gained in use and acceptance. As a construct, it is ...


Periodization Programs And Their Effects On The Physiological Outcomes Of Collegiate Athletes, Raymond Irish Oct 2017

Periodization Programs And Their Effects On The Physiological Outcomes Of Collegiate Athletes, Raymond Irish

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Many different strength and conditioning professionals are attempting to find more efficient ways to train their athletes to improve strength, power, body mass and body composition. There are many different types of training models that are used within the realm of strength and conditioning. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on periodization programs and their effects of physiological outcomes on collegiate athletes. Research has shown that both Linear and Nonlinear periodization models improved physiological outcomes of the subjects presented. With that being said, there was no sufficient evidence to which model is more efficient. Further ...


Relationship Between Health Risk And School Attendance Among Adolescents, Erin E. Centeio, Jessica Duncan Cance, Jeanne M. Barcelon, Darla M. Castelli Sep 2017

Relationship Between Health Risk And School Attendance Among Adolescents, Erin E. Centeio, Jessica Duncan Cance, Jeanne M. Barcelon, Darla M. Castelli

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Background/Purpose: The prevalence of childhood obesity and school truancy are contemporary health issues, as millions of children do not attend school, when required. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between intent to be physically active, aerobic fitness, and school absences. Methods: Data from 1907 adolescents from the United States were collected during physical education. Participants completed a valid Theory of Planned Behavior survey and the FitnessGram, with the demographic data obtained from school records. Linear regressions controlling for gender, grade, free/reduced lunch, body mass index, and intent to be physically active were calculated. Results ...


Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, And Validation Of The Korean Version Of The Identification Functional Ankle Instability (Idfai), Jupil Ko, Adam B. Rosen, Cathleen N. Brown Sep 2017

Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, And Validation Of The Korean Version Of The Identification Functional Ankle Instability (Idfai), Jupil Ko, Adam B. Rosen, Cathleen N. Brown

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Purpose: To cross-culturally adapt the Identification Functional Ankle Instability for use with Korean-speaking participants.

Methods: The English version of the IdFAI was cross-culturally adapted into Korean based on the guidelines. The psychometric properties in the Korean version of the IdFAI were measured for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, criterion-related validity, discriminative validity, and measurement error 181 native Korean-speakers.

Results: Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) between the English and Korean versions of the IdFAI for test–retest reliability was 0.98 (standard error of measurement = 1.41). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.89 for the Korean versions of IdFAI. The ...


Diagnosis Of A Chiari Malformation After A Concussion In A Junior College Football Player With A History Of Chronic Headaches: A Case Report, Takeaki Ando, Shannon Gehr, Melanie L. Mcgrath, Adam B. Rosen Sep 2017

Diagnosis Of A Chiari Malformation After A Concussion In A Junior College Football Player With A History Of Chronic Headaches: A Case Report, Takeaki Ando, Shannon Gehr, Melanie L. Mcgrath, Adam B. Rosen

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

The purpose of this report is to present the case of a National Junior Collegiate Athletic Association football player diagnosed with Chiari malformation postconcussion. A Chiari malformation is characterized by the cerebellum presenting below the level of the foramen. The uniqueness of this case stems from the patient’s health history, length of symptoms, and diagnosis. The effectiveness of treatment options, and the primary means to reduce the risk of catastrophic head injury in those with Chiari malformations are debatable. Clinicians should be familiar with the potential for the presence of a Chiari malformation with persistent symptoms postconcussion.


Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro Sep 2017

Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With walking as ontological shifter I pursue an alternative to the dominant modernist episteme that offers either/or onto-epistemologies of opposition and their reifying engagements. I propose this type of walking is an intentional turning towards a set of radical positions that, as integrative aesthetic and therapeutic practice, brings multiplicity and synchronicity to experience and being in an expanded sociality. This practice facilitates the conditions of possibility for recurring points of contact between the interiority perceived as ‘body’ and the exteriority perceived as ‘world.’ While making evident the self’s at once incoherence with it-self, it opens to a space ...


Alternative Teaching Approaches To Promote Student Motivation In Physical Education At The Secondary Level, Brittany Brace Aug 2017

Alternative Teaching Approaches To Promote Student Motivation In Physical Education At The Secondary Level, Brittany Brace

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing body of literature on alternative teaching approaches in physical education and their relationship to student motivation at the high school level. The self-determination theory was used throughout the critical mass of articles as a guide to measure student motivation levels. Themes were organized by varying teaching approaches used within each study. Prevalent research focused on the sport education model (SEM) as a major alternative teaching model that was useful when measuring student motivation. To provide concrete findings, more research needs to be conducted in regards to other alternative teaching styles ...


How Do Interventions Through The Self-Determination Theory Affect Middle And High School Student’S Participation In Physical Education Class?, Nicholas Droegmoeller Aug 2017

How Do Interventions Through The Self-Determination Theory Affect Middle And High School Student’S Participation In Physical Education Class?, Nicholas Droegmoeller

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

Students today seem less likely to participate in physical education class because they are either disinterested, unmotivated, or are disengaged in the activity. At the secondary level, students’ disengagement in class may be due to lack of motivation. The self-determination theory has been used to help increase students’ motivation to participate in physical activity. The purpose of this synthesis research is to examine how middle and secondary students’ participation in physical education class is impacted by interventions based on the self-determination theory. It will include three different motivational conditions; psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) in an autonomy support ...


What Are The Ergogenic Effects Of Music During Exercise?, Brianne Corigliano Aug 2017

What Are The Ergogenic Effects Of Music During Exercise?, Brianne Corigliano

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This synthesis demonstrates the positive effects of music on exercise. It focuses on the potential benefits of listening to music during exercise. It uses a theoretical framework focusing on the dissociative effect of music resulting in reduced perceived exertion, accompanied by greater output, enhanced performance, improved skill and improved mood. It also looks at the effects of variable intermediaries of the tempo and the volume of the music being used. It uses twelve, peer-reviewed, quantitative research journal articles published within the past forty years as the “critical mass.” Using the theoretical framework the synthesis demonstrates that the dissociative effect of ...


Will Physical Activity Increase Academic Performance?, Samantha Kreso Aug 2017

Will Physical Activity Increase Academic Performance?, Samantha Kreso

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis project is to collectively assess and analyze the critical mass of research articles to determine if physical activity can increase academic performance. The studies that met the inclusion criteria of examining the effects of physical activity on academic performance were included in this project. The articles were analyzed by using a synthesis grid, which helped to organize and examine the methods, results and discussions. Themes, such as effects on executive functioning, effects on academic core subjects and weekly hours, were accumulated from the articles. Based upon the critical mass; the results indicate that there can ...


The Impact Of Stand-Biased Desks On After-School Physical Activity Behaviors In Children, Nathan Tokarek Aug 2017

The Impact Of Stand-Biased Desks On After-School Physical Activity Behaviors In Children, Nathan Tokarek

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess changes in after-school time spent performing sedentary behavior (SB), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) among elementary school children in response to the introduction of stand-biased desks in the classroom. Thirty-one 6th grade participants randomly assigned by their teacher to a traditional (CON) or stand-biased (INT) desk provided complete accelerometer data. After-school PA and SB were measured on four consecutive weekdays at baseline and 10-weeks. Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests were used to detect significant differences (p<0.10) in changes in the proportion of after-school wear time performing SB and PA between groups. Results suggested no significant differences in changes in after-school time performing SB (p=0.770), LPA (p=0.740), or MVPA (p=0.470). Significant differences in the change in moderate PA (INT: -1.4%; CON: -0.2%, p=0.093) were detected. Stand-biased desks were not detrimental to children’s after-school PA and SB.


Single-Limb Landing Biomechanics Are Altered And Patellar Tendinopathy Related Pain Is Reduced With Acute Infrapatellar Strap Application, Adam B. Rosen, Jupil Ko, Cathleen N. Brown Aug 2017

Single-Limb Landing Biomechanics Are Altered And Patellar Tendinopathy Related Pain Is Reduced With Acute Infrapatellar Strap Application, Adam B. Rosen, Jupil Ko, Cathleen N. Brown

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Background

Patellar tendinopathy, a common condition of the knee, is often treated with patellar tendon straps to control pain during dynamic activity. Little is known regarding their effect on pain, landing kinematics and kinetics with their application. The purpose of this study was to determine if patellar tendon straps influenced pain, kinematics at landing and ground reaction forces in individuals with patellar tendinopathy versus healthy controls.

Methods

Thirty participants with patellar tendinopathy and 30 controls participated. They completed single-limb landings with and without patellar tendon straps while pain, three-dimensional kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces were measured. A multivariate analysis ...