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2011

Psychology

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Articles 31 - 60 of 227

Full-Text Articles in Education

Perceptions Of Beauty Among Female Chinese Students In The United States And China, Carly R. Staley, Ginny Qin Zhan Aug 2011

Perceptions Of Beauty Among Female Chinese Students In The United States And China, Carly R. Staley, Ginny Qin Zhan

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

This pilot study compared the perceptions of beauty among Chinese women who were exchange students in the United States with Chinese women who were students in their homeland. We interviewed 19 women in China and 19 women in the United States to determine differences in responses. In accordance with the sociocultural approach and the social comparison approach, we expected Chinese women in the United States to have a be more acculturate, more frequently conclude that American women were more beautiful than Chinese women, be more likely than those studying in China to report body dissatisfaction, be more likely to dislike ...


Effects Of Tiered Training On General Education Teachers' Use Of Specific Praise, Michele T. Thompson Aug 2011

Effects Of Tiered Training On General Education Teachers' Use Of Specific Praise, Michele T. Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

Research suggests a compelling correlation between teacher behavior and effective learning environments (Sutherland & Morgan, 2003; Brophy & Good, 1986). Focusing on the evidence-based teaching skill of offering behavior-specific praise (BSP), the researcher worked with 3 elementary-level general educators in a tiered model of instruction, commonly known as response to intervention (RtI). Although RtI commonly provides targeted instructional support to students, this study, a systematic replication of Myers, Simonsen and Sugai (2011), used the RtI framework to provide professional development to teachers. The researcher also tracked the behavior of 3 students, identified by the teachers as having behavioral difficulties, who became the focus of ...


Minority Disproportionality In New Jersey, Shannon Kemp Aug 2011

Minority Disproportionality In New Jersey, Shannon Kemp

Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to examine whether New Jersey districts exhibited minority disproportionality, or the overrepresentation of minority students in special education eligibility categories and placements. A dataset with a random sample of 200 school districts was compiled with special education data from the New Jersey Department of Education. Through analyses of four ethnicities, White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian, it was discovered that Black and Hispanic students were significantly more likely to be placed in special education as compared to their peers. Asian students were significantly less likely to be represented in special education in comparison to their non-Asian counterparts. Black ...


An Exploratory Investigation Of Family Structure And Adult Attachment Orientation, Alison Rossi Aug 2011

An Exploratory Investigation Of Family Structure And Adult Attachment Orientation, Alison Rossi

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the possible role family structure plays on adult attachment orientation. Eighty-six students enrolled in introductory level psychology courses at Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey, participated in this study. Indicated in previous studies as valid to measure experiences in romantic relationships, the personality traits of attachment-related Anxiety and attachment-related Avoidance were analyzed by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire (ECR-R). Independent t-Tests were used to determine if differences exist in young-adult participants of both the intact-families (n=66) or divorced-families (n=20) groups, as particularly measured by the attachment-related Anxiety and attachment-related Avoidance ...


Balancing Student Participation In Large College Courses Via Randomized Credit For Participation, Daniel Fox Mccleary Aug 2011

Balancing Student Participation In Large College Courses Via Randomized Credit For Participation, Daniel Fox Mccleary

Doctoral Dissertations

The current study was an extension of research reported by Krohn (2010), which showed that daily credit for self-reported participation in designated credit units tended to balance participation across students (i.e., fewer non-participants, more credit-level participants, and fewer dominant participants). The purpose of the current study was to determine if similar results would be achieved by randomly selecting half of the discussion days in designated credit units for participation credit.

The study was done in 3 large sections of an undergraduate class (approximately 54 students per class). Students self-recorded their in-class comments each day on specially designed record cards ...


Prosocial Behavior As A Protective Factor For Children's Peer Victimization, Emily R. Griese Aug 2011

Prosocial Behavior As A Protective Factor For Children's Peer Victimization, Emily R. Griese

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role prosocial behaviors may serve for victimized children. Although a significant portion of the victimization literature focuses on the association of victimization with negative outcomes, research findings suggest a need to examine the heterogeneity also apparent in children’s responses to victimization. By beginning to examine the variability in children’s responses to peer victimization, researchers can gain insight into the dynamic process of peer victimization and begin to define what factors might distinguish children who show resiliency to negative effects from victimization from those who do not. Research examining ...


Decolonial Multiculturalism And Local-Global Contexts: A Postcritical Feminist Bricolage For Developing New Praxes In Education, Katharine Matthaei Sprecher Aug 2011

Decolonial Multiculturalism And Local-Global Contexts: A Postcritical Feminist Bricolage For Developing New Praxes In Education, Katharine Matthaei Sprecher

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents a conceptual bricolage that explores complex, reflexive, and interrelated dimensions of educational praxes. My work is grounded in the assertion that the ever-changing, local-global nature of contemporary societies requires new approaches to curricula, pedagogies, policies, and practices in U.S. schools to meet the challenges and opportunities of a global era. Presenting my research and findings as four articles, I begin with a dialectical analysis of theoretical and pedagogical literatures to develop an adaptable framework for decolonial multicultural education. In Article 1, I demonstrate how this framework synergizes aspects of social reconstructionist and critical multicultural, global, and ...


Assessing Effectiveness Of Multicultural Readings In Increasing Ethnocultural Empathy For Undergraduate Students, Tripti Bhaskar Aug 2011

Assessing Effectiveness Of Multicultural Readings In Increasing Ethnocultural Empathy For Undergraduate Students, Tripti Bhaskar

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examined how multicultural readings included in the introduction to psychology curriculum were linked to an increase in students’ multicultural interest and sensitivity. Specifically, this study investigated the impact of reading and discussing multicultural articles on students’ ethnocultural empathy, universality-diverse orientation, and openness to diversity. Second purpose of the study was to examine possible individual differences associated with response to the intervention. Participants in the current study were undergraduate students enrolled in five sections of the introduction to psychology class, which were randomly assigned as control and experimental groups. The multicultural readings are four original research articles that examine ...


Examining The Relationship Between Fact Learning And Higher Order Learning Via Retrieval Practice, Pooja Kay Agarwal '01 Aug 2011

Examining The Relationship Between Fact Learning And Higher Order Learning Via Retrieval Practice, Pooja Kay Agarwal '01

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of higher order skills is a desired outcome of education. Some believe that higher order learning can be improved directly, whereas others argue that higher order learning can be improved via the enhancement of factual or conceptual knowledge. The relationship between fact and higher order learning is often speculated, but empirically unknown.

This project examines whether retrieval practice via quizzing, a strategy typically used to enhance fact learning, can be used as a strategy to improve higher order skills in both laboratory and applied settings. In the current study, higher order skills were considered to comprise the understand ...


The Family Environment And Children With An Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Longitudinal Examination Of The Relation Between Parental Expressed Emotion And Child Externalizing Behaviors, Stephanie Bader Aug 2011

The Family Environment And Children With An Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Longitudinal Examination Of The Relation Between Parental Expressed Emotion And Child Externalizing Behaviors, Stephanie Bader

Dissertations

The current study, a longitudinal study using Bader (2009) as Time 1 data, used questionnaire data to explore the longitudinal relation between parental expressed emotion, a well-established predictor of symptom relapse in various other disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar, and behavior disorders), with change in externalizing behaviors in 84 children, ages 8 to 18, with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both components of expressed emotion, criticism/hostility and overinvolvement, were explored, though hypotheses were only made in regard to criticism/hostility. It was found that high levels of parental criticism/hostility, not parental overinvolvement, at Time 2 uniquely related to ...


Parent Efficacy And Parent Involvement In Parents Of Preschool Children, Jennifer Murkli Aug 2011

Parent Efficacy And Parent Involvement In Parents Of Preschool Children, Jennifer Murkli

Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the relationship between parent involvement and parent efficacy in parents of preschool children. Twenty parents from a suburban, a predominantly White private preschool participated in the study. Parent self-reports of involvement and efficacy beliefs as they pertain to their preschooler's learning and development were assessed. On average, parents reported medium parent efficacy and medium parent involvement. Results of the study demonstrated a significant relationship between parent involvement and parent efficacy. The relationship was moderate with a positive direction. Thus, the relationship demonstrated to a modest degree that greater parent efficacy is related to greater parent ...


In Quest Of A Dropout Theory: Examining The Utility Of An Ecological Approach Through Survey Research, Tiffany G. Tyler Aug 2011

In Quest Of A Dropout Theory: Examining The Utility Of An Ecological Approach Through Survey Research, Tiffany G. Tyler

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examined the utility of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory as a metatheory of dropout. Using the NELS: 1988 dataset, the present study examined the relationship between dropout attributions and Bronfenbrenner's construct, the microsystem. Attention was given to accounting for students' attributions regarding their identity (e.g., demographic and profile characteristics) with environmental and regional contexts as possible moderators. In particular, the present study examined the responses given as reasons for dropout in view of how those responses could be categorized with Bronfenbrenner's theoretical structure and the extent to which the resulting categorization could predict dropout, considering related ...


Resilience, Character Strengths And Flourishing: A Positive Education Workshop For Singapore Teachers, Sha-En Yeo Aug 2011

Resilience, Character Strengths And Flourishing: A Positive Education Workshop For Singapore Teachers, Sha-En Yeo

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive education, or teaching the skills of well-being through direct instruction and the curriculum, aims to teach children the skills to build resilience, capitalize on strengths and systematically build the pillars for a flourishing life. Positive education can succeed amidst a supportive school environment and well-equipped teachers that inculcate the right values and character. Given that school-going children spend more than fifty percent of their time in school, it is thus imperative that teachers be trained with the skills of well-being. This paper provides an introduction to positive psychology (the foundation for positive education), describes the need for positive education ...


The Relationship Between Nighttime Reading With Children By Their Caregivers And Reading Achievement, Ashley Williams Jul 2011

The Relationship Between Nighttime Reading With Children By Their Caregivers And Reading Achievement, Ashley Williams

Theses and Dissertations

The hypothesis of this research project was to determine if there was a significant relationship between children who were read to by their caregivers in previous years and children who were not read to by their caregivers in previous years. The relationship between reading achievement and gender was also examined in this research study. Twelve fourth grade students (six male, six female) were asked to complete a questionnaire about their reading practices and take a brief two part reading assessment, consisting of word recognition and reading comprehension. A two way between groups ANOVA revealed that there was not a significant ...


The Importance Of Cultural Competence When Evaluating Bilingual Students, Maria-Ines Castro Jul 2011

The Importance Of Cultural Competence When Evaluating Bilingual Students, Maria-Ines Castro

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of language and culture on Hispanic student test taking performance. Specifically, the researcher hypothesized that Hispanic students' test taking performance would be impacted by the language used on the assessment given, and the test administrator's awareness, knowledge, and skills related to cultural competence. Twelve bilingual-Hispanic students from Rowan University-Camden completed a Nelson-Denny Reading Test for the purpose of this research project. The same test was presented to all students in an English version and a Spanish version. A Mixed Design with repeated measures indicated that there was no significant ...


Self-Advocacy Training In Secondary Schools For Students With Learning Disabilities, Ashleigh R. Smith Jul 2011

Self-Advocacy Training In Secondary Schools For Students With Learning Disabilities, Ashleigh R. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

To be successful in the general education students with disabilities may require accommodations. Students with disabilities need to develop self-advocating skills to be able to request the accommodations needed in the general education. This article describes a study in which six high school students with learning disabilities were explicitly taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed, select the appropriate accommodation, request the accommodation and then implement the accommodation in the general education classroom. The study indicated that students were able to advocate for themselves by requesting accommodations from their general education teacher. Based on data collected though this study ...


Portrayal Of Characters With Disabilities In Newbery Books, Casey Lin Pehrson Jul 2011

Portrayal Of Characters With Disabilities In Newbery Books, Casey Lin Pehrson

Theses and Dissertations

Commonly practiced in school settings, bibliotherapy promotes healing and problem solving. In schools, bibliotherapy should be utilized to educate and empower students and to enhance the classroom experience. In order to achieve this purpose, teachers need a variety of books to specifically target students' unique needs. Award-winning books, such as those receiving the prestigious Newbery Medal, are important resources for teachers. This study examined the portrayal of characters with disabilities in 249 Newbery Medal and Honor books published between 1922 and 1974. From this sample, 20 books featured a combined total of 21 characters with a disability, as defined by ...


Resolving Incidents Of Bullying Among High Functioning Adolescents With Asd: Parent Perspectives, Wan-Ting Chuang Jul 2011

Resolving Incidents Of Bullying Among High Functioning Adolescents With Asd: Parent Perspectives, Wan-Ting Chuang

Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative study was conducted investigating the perceptions of seven parents of high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) regarding incidents of bullying in which the child was involved. Results of the study indicated that all of the children had been bullied at one time or another, and that the majority had difficulty in demonstrating appropriate social skills. The parents viewed supportive peers to be a positive factor, fostering the children's satisfactory social adjustment. Parent interventions for their child included social skills instruction and empathy training. Research implications for educators included the need to establish systemic organized school-wide ...


Paraeducators In Secondary Transitional Settings: Their Knowledge, Responsibilities, And Training Needs, Michelle Holbrook Jul 2011

Paraeducators In Secondary Transitional Settings: Their Knowledge, Responsibilities, And Training Needs, Michelle Holbrook

Theses and Dissertations

The authors queried 336 paraeducators working in 34 high schools or special programs offering transitional services for adult students with disabilities. The survey included (a) the contexts in which they support students with disabilities, (b) their knowledge about core competencies in educating these students, (c) the job-related tasks they perform most frequently, (d) their perceived ability to perform these tasks effectively, and (e) their need for further training across these knowledge and task areas. The study replicated a study conducted by Carter, O'Rourke, Sisco, and Pelsue (2009) surveying paraeducators working in K-12 settings. The authors found that paraeducators worked ...


Abnormal Eating Patterns And The Relationship To Dissociative Experiences, Gionna Botto Jul 2011

Abnormal Eating Patterns And The Relationship To Dissociative Experiences, Gionna Botto

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a relationship exist between abnormal eating patterns and dissociative experiences, as well as if a relationship exist between bulimia nervosa and food preoccupation symptomatologies. This study used a non-clinical non-diagnosed population of university students (n=100) to determine results. The participants were given two self-report scales, the Eating Attitudes Test and the Scale of Dissociative Activities in order to provide data to the researcher. The data was correlated, using Pearson's Correlation to determine results. The results in this study indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between dissociative experiences ...


The Effects Of Video Self-Modeling On The Math Performance Of Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities, Cami Elizabeth Burton Jul 2011

The Effects Of Video Self-Modeling On The Math Performance Of Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities, Cami Elizabeth Burton

Theses and Dissertations

The current study examined the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) via an iPad on the mathematics performance of students with developmental disabilities. The learning task was presented from the consumers' point of view; students learned to estimate the amount of money they should use to pay for a given item and the amount they should receive back to help ensure that they are treated honestly by merchants. Through VSM, video clips showing the step-by-step problem solving process were synchronized onto an iPad. Students were shown how to use the iPad and access the video clips in order to watch themselves ...


Reliability And A Measure Of Sexual Interest: Examining The Temporal Stability Of Scores On Affinity 2.5, Kristina S. Withers Hansen Jul 2011

Reliability And A Measure Of Sexual Interest: Examining The Temporal Stability Of Scores On Affinity 2.5, Kristina S. Withers Hansen

Theses and Dissertations

Affinity 2.5 is a computer-based instrument designed to measure sexual interest using viewing time of images depicting fully-clothed males and females of different ages. Participants are asked to rate the sexual attractiveness of the person in the image according to a 15-point scale while their viewing time of each image is surreptitiously monitored. The validity of viewing time as a measure of sexual interest is based on social cognition theory and is established in the review of literature. The number of images comprising Affinity 2.5 represents a 42.9% increase from the previous version of the assessment, Affinity ...


Effects Of A Parent Training Workshop On Parent Perceptions Of Children With Developmental Disabilities, Stephanie Priscilla Call Jul 2011

Effects Of A Parent Training Workshop On Parent Perceptions Of Children With Developmental Disabilities, Stephanie Priscilla Call

Theses and Dissertations

Children with developmental disabilities often exhibit problem behaviors, such as physical aggression, tantrums, and self-injury. These behaviors can detrimentally affect the family's lifestyle. Research has shown that such families should take an active role in developing and implementing a behavior plan. However, families need support to promote effective changes in their child's behavior. This study investigated how a positive behavior support workshop that used the Family HOPE program affected behavior problems and parent/child relationships in families with children with developmental disabilities. Parents of eight children with disabilities and challenging behaviors participated in this research. A Project Director ...


Utah Pacific Islander Former Gang Members: Meanings Of Everyday Lived Experiences, Natasha Leeann Afalava Jul 2011

Utah Pacific Islander Former Gang Members: Meanings Of Everyday Lived Experiences, Natasha Leeann Afalava

Theses and Dissertations

Gangs continue to extend a strong influence around the United States, impacting most urban areas and spreading into suburban and rural communities. With approximately one million members actively involved, gangs account for up to 80% of crimes in some communities. Amidst crime and antisocial activities associated with gangs, gangs continue to be a strong allure for youth. Much research has investigated reasons for youth joining gangs; however, there is a lack of research exploring the kinds of experiences youths receive while living the gang life. According to Utah statistics, Pacific Islander youth are at high risk of joining a gang ...


Vision Accuracy: Comparisons, Mark Roman Jul 2011

Vision Accuracy: Comparisons, Mark Roman

Theses and Dissertations

Solomon Asch conducted a Line Judgment Task in the 1950s that led researchers to believe that conformity can be assessed through experimentation. The purpose of this study was to modify that of Asch's experiment and to assess the answers that college undergraduate students would give. Twelve trials of line comparison tasks were utilized as well as answers from five confederates. It was hypothesized that out of the 47 participants, more of them would answer incorrectly to the incorrectly answered trials of the confederates than those to those trials that the confederates answered correctly. There were a total of five ...


The Effect Of Postpartum Depression On Child Cognitive Development, Joshua Lees Jul 2011

The Effect Of Postpartum Depression On Child Cognitive Development, Joshua Lees

Theses and Dissertations

The incidence of postpartum depression (PPD) in Western societies is approximately 10-15% and its cause is multi-faceted. Because mothers largely constitute infants' social environment and mediate their experience of the external world, it is imperative to investigate the effects of PPD on child growth and development. Within this paper, the author explores previously conducted Post-Partum Depression research, in regards to its effects on child cognitive development. Following this literature review, a brief experimental study is conducted and explained on a sample population of mothers' of special needs children, serviced by an Early Intervention provider. During this experimental analysis, the researcher ...


The Relationship Between Locus Of Control And Birth Order In College Students' Academic Success, Shannara Williams Jul 2011

The Relationship Between Locus Of Control And Birth Order In College Students' Academic Success, Shannara Williams

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between locus of control and birth order. Does your birth position predict your locus of control? Also, does birth order have an effect on the academic achievement of college students (n=54)? A few subjects were disqualified from the study based on the fact that they were the only child. A demographics survey was designed to determine the academic success based on grade point average. The Rotter's Locus of Control survey was used to determine the locus of control of the college students. Neither hypothesis investigated yielded the predicted ...


An Analysis Of Graduate School Recruitment Via Website Resources, Dylan K. Matsumori Jul 2011

An Analysis Of Graduate School Recruitment Via Website Resources, Dylan K. Matsumori

Theses and Dissertations

Institutions of higher learning are experiencing increased difficulty managing the quantity and quality of their graduate student populations (Kallio, 1995). Currently the most important informational resource for potential students engaged in the graduate school search process is the Web (Huddleston & Drexel, 2006). Previous research has focused on things such as website design and technological advances but has failed to address the core content needed by applicants (Huddleston & Drexel, 2006). Research has focused on website design from the perspective of administrators and web designers with little consideration of the individuals who are in the process of applying to or identifying a ...


Interactive Software And Its Effects On Hostility, Warren Shya Jul 2011

Interactive Software And Its Effects On Hostility, Warren Shya

Theses and Dissertations

The researcher will be exploring the relationship between violence in video games and the emotional responses to them. The goal of the study is to confirm the previous body of research that a short term increase in aggression and hostility exists after a violent video game is played. The study will also expand on the current existing body of data by examining other variables such as gender, age, typical time spent in a week playing videogames, overall familiarity with video games, the game genre that is normally played, and what consoles and systems are typically used to be played on ...


Individual Case Study: Verbalizing Emotions To Reduce Aggressive Outbursts In An Autistic Adult, Samantha Levine Jul 2011

Individual Case Study: Verbalizing Emotions To Reduce Aggressive Outbursts In An Autistic Adult, Samantha Levine

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this individual case study were to (a) to decrease the maladaptive behaviors displayed by the participant and (b) have the participant verbalize his feelings before they build up to cause the maladaptive behavior. The study used positive reinforcement and rewards to reinforce the positive behaviors displayed by the participant as well as to deter negative behaviors. The participant made vast improvements in expressing his emotions and also showed great improvement in controlling his maladaptive behaviors. Implications of a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed as well as an explanation of other studies performed for individuals with ...