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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effects Of A Drama-Based Language Intervention On The Development Of Theory Of Mind And Executive Function In Urban Kindergarten Children, Heather Smith Oct 2010

The Effects Of A Drama-Based Language Intervention On The Development Of Theory Of Mind And Executive Function In Urban Kindergarten Children, Heather Smith

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

Because theory of mind (ToM; Samson, 2009) and executive function (EF; Meltzer, 2010) are important skill domains for children’s academic and social success in school, researchers have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions designed to enhance the development of these skills (e.g., Peskin & Astington, 2004; Dowsett & Livesey, 2000). Using an experimental design, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Georgia Wolftrap (GWT) program, a drama-based language intervention, at improving ToM and EF in a sample of kindergarten students from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. Researchers (Cole & Mitchell, 1998; Noble, Norman, & Farah, 2005) have indicated that low SES is associated with underdeveloped ToM and EF. Thirteen lessons designed to enhance children’s understanding and use of symbols by exploring literature through imaginative role-play were implemented in place of the regular language arts curriculum. This intervention was hypothesized to engender growth in ToM ...


School Size, School Poverty And School-Level Mobility: Interactive Threats To School Outcomes, Sharon M. Thompson Oct 2010

School Size, School Poverty And School-Level Mobility: Interactive Threats To School Outcomes, Sharon M. Thompson

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

ABSTRACT

SCHOOL SIZE, SCHOOL POVERTY AND SCHOOL-LEVEL

MOBILITY: INTERACTIVE THREATS

TO SCHOOL OUTCOMES

by

Sharon M. Thompson

School-level mobility is the flow of students moving in and out of schools and has been defined as the rate of student entries and withdrawals per 100 students enrolled in a school during the year (Pike & Weisbender, 1988). Stakeholders report that school mobility disrupts the delivery, pace and effectiveness of classroom instruction, causes problems associated with classroom adjustment, and renders long-term negative effects on schools’ Adequate Yearly Progress rankings (Bruno & Isken, 1996; GAO, 2007; Kerbow, 1996; Lash & Kirkpatrick, 1990; Rhodes, 2005; Sanderson, 2003). Despite these findings very few studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mobility (particularly at the school level) and how it combines with other school-level factors such as school size and school poverty to create threats ...


Effects Of Language On The Development Of Executive Functions In Preschool Children, Greer A. Ezrine Aug 2010

Effects Of Language On The Development Of Executive Functions In Preschool Children, Greer A. Ezrine

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between language skills and the development of executive functions in a normative preschool population over a 3 year period. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine models of individual change and correlates of change in the growth of 7 executive skills in a sample of 39 children ages 3 to 5. Results of the analyses revealed significant positive linear growth trajectories over time for 5 of the 7 executive skills measured (p < .05). Maturation alone accounted for a significant amount of variance in nonverbal working memory (Block Span, Stanford Binet-5th Edition (SB-5)) and problem solving skills (Tower, NEPSY). Growth in verbal working memory (Memory for Sentences, SB-5) was predicted uniquely by initial receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–3rd Edition) and oral language (Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language) skills, even after considering age. Language variables did not predict rate of change in the 6 other executive skills measured. Thus, the pattern of results extends previous cross-sectional research by documenting that executive skills grow systematically with age in individual children during the preschool period. Furthermore, results suggest that during the preschool years, language ability is an important predictor of growth in working memory for verbal information—a capacity associated both theoretically and empirically with the transition from other- to self-regulation in early childhood. Findings are discussed in relationship to the literature on school readiness and the development of self-regulation. Implications for future research and practice are also suggested.


The Interrelationships Among Coping Resources, Gender Role Stree, Self-Efficacy, And Anxiety In University Women Enrolled In Graduate Counseling Programs, Jessica B. Kordansky Aug 2010

The Interrelationships Among Coping Resources, Gender Role Stree, Self-Efficacy, And Anxiety In University Women Enrolled In Graduate Counseling Programs, Jessica B. Kordansky

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

College-age women are affected by anxiety disorders at a significant rate. The data suggest that enhancing a sense of control over the negative effects of life events has a greater positive effect on women than men (Matheny, Ashby, & Cupp, 2005). While there is a literature base for stress coping among undergraduate students (McCarthy, Fouladi, Juncker, & Matheny, 2006), little data exists which explores the implications of stress coping among female graduate students in counseling programs. Using a population of university women in graduate counseling programs, this study explored the interrelationships between coping resources, gender role stress, self-efficacy, and anxiety. Specifically, the effects of coping resources (using the Coping Resources Inventory for Stress-Short Form, CRIS-SF; Matheny, Curlette, Aycock, Pugh, & Taylor, 2007), gender role stress (using the Feminine Gender Role Stress Scale, FGRS; Guillespie & Eishler,1992), self-efficacy (using the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, SES; Tipton & Worthington, 1984), a form of emotional distress (using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-Trait version, STAI-A; Speilberger, 1983), and self-report measures of demographic data were examined. Results indicate that all measures are significantly interrelated, with the exception of FGRS. Furthermore, CRIS primary scale, Confidence, and FGRS scales, Physical Unattractiveness and Emotional Detachment were most predictive of trait anxiety, as evidenced in the final regression. Research and clinical implications for these findings suggest ...


School Mental Health Professionals' Experiences Of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees: A Phenomenological Approach, Stephanie E. Eberts Aug 2010

School Mental Health Professionals' Experiences Of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees: A Phenomenological Approach, Stephanie E. Eberts

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

Abstract The need for increased training in the area of trauma and crisis intervention has been the subject of discussion in the literature (Mathai, 2002) and in the creation of new training standards (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs [CACREP], 2009). With an increasing number of challenges facing children today, school mental health professionals are positioned to be among the first to intervene on their behalf (Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Paisley & McMahon, 2002). In order for interventions to be successful, school mental health professionals must be able to recognize the signs of trauma (Canada, Heath, Money, Annadale, Fischer & Young, 2007 ...


The Relationship Between Religiosity And Religious Coping To Stress Reactivity And Psychological Well-Being, Andrew M. Ward May 2010

The Relationship Between Religiosity And Religious Coping To Stress Reactivity And Psychological Well-Being, Andrew M. Ward

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

A significant body of research has identified the deleterious effects of stress on psychological well-being (e.g., Tataro, Luecken, & Gunn, 2004). Religiosity and religious coping have been identified as variables that may impact a person’s experience with stress (Ano & Vasconcelles, 2005). Aukst-Margetic and Margetic (2005) suggest that the connection between stress, religious variables, and well-being can be understood through the frame of psychoimmunodocrinological research, which examines the relationship between neurohormonal functioning (e.g., cortisol level) with psychological factors that may impact health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute stress reactivity, as measured by changes in ...


The Lived Experience Of Economically Disadvantaged, Black Students Attending Predominantly White, Elite Private Boarding Schools, Tameka R. Jackson May 2010

The Lived Experience Of Economically Disadvantaged, Black Students Attending Predominantly White, Elite Private Boarding Schools, Tameka R. Jackson

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of economically disadvantaged, Black students attending predominantly White, elite private boarding schools. Data were collected utilizing semi-structured interviews with 9 participants, with each interview lasting approximately 90 minutes. The recursive method of data collection and analysis was informed by six steps outlined by Creswell (1998), as well as Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Findings revealed 9 themes associated with participants' experiences: classroom experiences, value of Black peer networks, caught between two worlds, racial perceptions, desire to connect with people of all races, socioeconomic challenges ...


The Effects Of Counselor Trainee Stress And Coping Resources On The Working Alliance And Supervisory Working Alliance, Philip B. Gnilka Mar 2010

The Effects Of Counselor Trainee Stress And Coping Resources On The Working Alliance And Supervisory Working Alliance, Philip B. Gnilka

Counseling and Psychological Services Dissertations

Counselor trainees’ stress and coping resources have the potential to influence the relationships formed with supervisors and clients. Two hundred thirty two (N = 232) Master-level counselor trainees completed surveys designed to measure perceived stress, coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Working Alliance Inventory – Short Form Therapist Version (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989), the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory – Trainee Version (SWAI-T; Efstation, Patton, & Kardash, 1990), the Perceived Stress Scale – Short Form (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983), and the Coping Resources Inventory for Stress – Short Form (CRIS; Curlette & Matheny, 2008). The working alliance was negatively correlated with Perceived Stress (r = -.25, p < .01) and positively correlated with the coping resources Situational Control, (r = .23, p < .01), Emotional Control (r = .18, p = .01), Social Support From Family (r = .19, p < .01), Mental Tension Control (r = .18, p < .01), and Making Plans (r = .15, p < .05). The supervisory working alliance was negatively correlated with Perceived Stress (r = -.23, p < .01) and positively correlated with the coping resources Situational Control (r = .17, p < .01), Emotional Control (r = .18, p < .01), Social Support From Friends (r = .14, p < .05), Mental Tension Control (r = .22, p < .01), Asserting One’s Rights (r = .13, p < .05), and Trusting Oneself (r = .14, p < .05). After controlling for the primary internship setting, Stress (∆R2 = .055, â = -.21, p < .001) and Social Support from Family (∆R2 = .021, â = -.21, p < .025) explained 7.6% of the variance in the working alliance, F (10, 221) = 3.71, p < .001. After controlling for the number of counseling sessions and total number of weekly individual counseling hours, Perceived Stress (∆R2 = .047, â = -.14, p < .10) and Situational Control (∆R2 = .026, â = .18, p < .025) explained 7.3% of the variance in the supervisory working alliance, F (4, 170) = 7.73, p < .001. Implications for counselor training and implications for research are discussed.