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2018

Autism

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Strategies For Encouraging Positive Social Engagements In Physical Education For Children With High-Functioning Autism And Asperger's Syndrome, Ashley Paasch Dec 2018

Strategies For Encouraging Positive Social Engagements In Physical Education For Children With High-Functioning Autism And Asperger's Syndrome, Ashley Paasch

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This synthesis reviews the literature on strategies for encouraging positive social engagement in physical education for children with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s syndrome. The types of interventions looked at in this synthesis included the use of task analysis, social stories, video modeling and other interventions that have been used to help with the development of the social skills necessary to be successful in their environment. The results showed that these interventions have a positive effect on increasing positive social engagement among children with high-functioning Autism and Asperger’s syndrome. It is concluded that the interventions examined implemented in a ...


The Effect Of Social Stories On The Positive Play Behaviors And Social Interactions Of Preschool Students With Developmental Disabilities, Lauren Lee Divittorio Dec 2018

The Effect Of Social Stories On The Positive Play Behaviors And Social Interactions Of Preschool Students With Developmental Disabilities, Lauren Lee Divittorio

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this single subject design study was to determine the effectiveness of social stories on the positive play behaviors and social interactions of preschool students with developmental disabilities. The satisfaction of staff members with the implementation of social stories in the classroom was also examined. Preschool students in the study showed an increase in positive social interactions including turn-taking, using verbal and non-verbal communication to express their feelings during play, and overall positive play behaviors after implementation of social stories. Staff members reported positive social validity of the intervention. Implications for using social stories with preschool students with ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Inclusion And Students With Autism, Nancy Keener Dec 2018

Teacher Perceptions Of Inclusion And Students With Autism, Nancy Keener

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Inclusion is considered the least restrictive environment for most students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ and administrators’ perceptions of inclusion in general education classrooms for students with autism. This included an examination of how schools determined placement for students with autism, the academic and social influences of placement in the general classroom, perceptions of teachers and administrators about inclusion for students with autism, teaching strategies that worked for students with autism in the general classroom, and the influence other students in the classroom have on students with autism. Participants in the study were from ...


A Support Program For College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Functioning Of Participants Versus Non-Participants And The Role Of Program-Sponsored Mentoring, Ayla Raven Mapes Dec 2018

A Support Program For College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Functioning Of Participants Versus Non-Participants And The Role Of Program-Sponsored Mentoring, Ayla Raven Mapes

Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly more students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are attending college. In response, many colleges are now offering these students the extra support of an Autism Support Program (ASP), many of which include a mentoring component. This study is one of only a handful of attempts to examine these programs empirically. Using a small sample of college students who identified as having ASD, I compared participants and non-participants of a university ASP. An online survey was used to assess demographic characteristics and pre-college academic performance, as well as students’ functioning across the following domains: social, adaptive, academic, emotional, and having ...


Using Photography Activity Schedules To Facilitate Independent Completion Of Academic Tasks For Young Children With Autism, Nicole Taylor Dec 2018

Using Photography Activity Schedules To Facilitate Independent Completion Of Academic Tasks For Young Children With Autism, Nicole Taylor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to perform a series of academic tasks, like academic worksheets, independently. Photographic activity schedules are one technique that has been demonstrated to promote independent behavior in individuals with ASD. This study used a multiple baseline design across participants to examine how activity schedules impacted the accurate and independent completion of a series of academic tasks (i.e., worksheets) for young children with ASD. Participants included three young children with ASD 6 and 7 years old who performed a series of academic tasks in the presence of an adult, but struggled to display ...


Negotiating Strategies: An Effective Way For Parents Of Children With Disabilities To Communicate For Services, Dorothea Cartwright Dec 2018

Negotiating Strategies: An Effective Way For Parents Of Children With Disabilities To Communicate For Services, Dorothea Cartwright

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this project was to examine and explore negotiating strategies for parents with children with disabilities. The research showed there were insufficient materials for teaching negotiating strategies to parents to assist them in obtaining critical or basic services for their special needs children. Many families lack financial resources, have English-language barriers, and have educational challenges when facing school administrators that possess these vital resources. These circumstances mean that parents may feel intimidated and disempowered when meeting with school officials. By providing a simple and easy-to-use guide of Negotiating Strategies, parents can be empowered and encouraged to use their ...


The Effectiveness Of Using Video Modeling Techniques To Improve Motor Skills For Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Atya Abdullah Hadadi Dec 2018

The Effectiveness Of Using Video Modeling Techniques To Improve Motor Skills For Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Atya Abdullah Hadadi

Theses and Dissertations

Beside the main syndromes of socialization and communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorders, they also have impairments in motor skills, such as ball skills (catching and throwing) and postural stability (standing and walking balance). The main objective of this dissertation is to improve motor skills for preschooler children with ASD through use of video-modeling techniques. A secondary objective of this research was to find a correlation between the development and improvement of ball skills and balance tasks. Twenty-six children with ASD were divided into two groups. Twenty-six children with ASD from 3-5 years old participated in two groups: one ...


Supporting Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Post-Secondary Education Settings: Common Barriers And Needed Accommodations And Supports, Ryan T. Paskins Dec 2018

Supporting Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Post-Secondary Education Settings: Common Barriers And Needed Accommodations And Supports, Ryan T. Paskins

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are enrolling in colleges and universities at an increasing rate. Although there is greater attendance in PSE settings, the graduation rate of this population is below the standard average. Improved services to help these students achieve their college and university goals are needed. Disability service professionals provide services to these students, yet oftentimes are not prepared to do so. In an effort to take a step toward addressing this concern, the current study began the exploratory process of identifying whether services provided by campus disability resources centers (DRC) align with the best practices that ...


Developing And Validating The Teacher Self-Efficacy For Teaching Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Inclusive Classrooms (Tse-Asdi) Scale, Corinne Gaffney Catalano Aug 2018

Developing And Validating The Teacher Self-Efficacy For Teaching Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Inclusive Classrooms (Tse-Asdi) Scale, Corinne Gaffney Catalano

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

This is a multi-method study to develop and validate an instrument to measure teachers’ self-efficacy for teaching students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in inclusive early childhood classrooms, Teacher Self-efficacy for Teaching Students with ASD Inclusive Classrooms Scale: TSE-ASDI. I conducted literature and expert reviews as well as cognitive pre-testing with my target populations of pre-service and in-service early childhood teachers. I conducted a quantitative study using exploratory factor analysis, reliability analyses, correlational analyses, and by comparing mean differences in scores when grouped by teaching status, special education preparation and experience with individuals with ASD. My measure development process provided ...


Promoting Sociodramatic Play Between Children With Autism And Their Typically Developing Peers Using Activity Schedules, Azure J. Pellegrino Aug 2018

Promoting Sociodramatic Play Between Children With Autism And Their Typically Developing Peers Using Activity Schedules, Azure J. Pellegrino

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate behavioral deficits and excesses that can adversely affect their play skills. Teaching children with ASD to use activity schedules with embedded scripts have led to increased appropriate game play with other children with autism and typically developing peers; however, there is sparse research on promoting more dynamic social play in children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of teaching the use of activity schedules with embedded scripts on the sociodramatic play of preschoolers with ASD with their typically developing peers. We also examined the extent to ...


The Effects Of Error Correction With And Without Reinforcement On Skill Acquisition And Preferences Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Chengan Yuan Aug 2018

The Effects Of Error Correction With And Without Reinforcement On Skill Acquisition And Preferences Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Chengan Yuan

Theses and Dissertations

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often require early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) to improve their skills in a variety of domains. Error correction is a common instructional component in EIBI programs because children with ASD tend to make persistent errors. Ineffective error correction can result in a lack of learning or undesirable behavior. To date, research has not systematically investigated the use of reinforcement during error correction for children with ASD.

This study compared the effects of correcting errors with and without reinforcement and their impact on preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Four boys with ...


Survey On Services Provided To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In U.S. Public Schools, Kendra Mcpherson Aug 2018

Survey On Services Provided To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In U.S. Public Schools, Kendra Mcpherson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is of utmost importance that students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the public school setting across the United States are receiving the best, most researched services and treatments. This study aimed to find out what services and treatments are most commonly being used for students with ASD in the public schools, to see whether or not those practices are supported by research, and to discover how involved parents and families are in the services being provided to their students. This study found that of the top 25 most commonly used practices, 17 of those were supported by ...


Comparison Of Stimulus Delivery Methods Via An Ipad To Teach The Expressive Labeling Of Action Verbs To Children With Autism, Amy M. Heaps Aug 2018

Comparison Of Stimulus Delivery Methods Via An Ipad To Teach The Expressive Labeling Of Action Verbs To Children With Autism, Amy M. Heaps

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Delays in communication are one of the defining characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Educators have begun using technology to teach students with ASD to label different items. However, more research needs to be conducted with technology (such as iPads and other tablets) to find the most effective teaching procedures. We wanted to find the most effective way to teach children with ASD age-appropriate action verbs, such as drawing and painting. Five preschool-aged students with ASD participated in this study. We taught these participants to label action verbs using pictures and short video clips, to test which method was the ...


The Comparison Of The Effects Of Direct Instruction And Project-/Problem-Based Learning To Teach Basic Math Skills For Students With Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Maiko Hosokawa Jun 2018

The Comparison Of The Effects Of Direct Instruction And Project-/Problem-Based Learning To Teach Basic Math Skills For Students With Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Maiko Hosokawa

Culminating Projects in Special Education

The attention toward the mathematics achievement of U.S. students in general education, when they took the national and international assessments, has risen (Przychodzin et al., 2004). However, a limited amount of research focusing on effective mathematics instruction was completed (Baker, Gersten, & Lee, 2002).

Mathematics is an important academic area for students with disabilities, including autism, because people with disabilities can increase work or volunteering opportunities and enrich their post-secondary life if they perform functional math skills well (Brown & Snell, 2000). However, Su et al. (2010) described that few studies focusing on learning strategies to support students with autism have ...


Non-Verbal Communication Skills Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Shamma Alokla Jun 2018

Non-Verbal Communication Skills Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Shamma Alokla

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate how special education teachers implement evidence-based practices for non-verbal communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study interviewed six early childhood special education teachers from preschools in the Southern California. According to the teacher interviews, joint attention deficits in children with ASD were overcome using visual aids, toys, and basic sign gestures. Peer tutoring, functional communication training and drawing were found to improve nonverbal communication skills. In addition, children with ASD regularly played with their typically developing peers. In conclusion, a co-teaching model can benefit children with ASD and ...


Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin Jun 2018

Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin

Dissertations

Matching-to-sample is a basic procedure used in most programs for pre-school children with autism. However, a few children fail to acquire this skill with standard matching-to-sample procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for teaching matching-to-sample to those children when the traditional methods are likely to fail. First, simple discriminations with the matching materials were taught, then the discriminations were made more complex across successive sessions. Initially, all discriminations were taught using bins to separate the comparison stimuli. All three children acquired matching-to-sample, which generalized to matching novel two-dimensional stimuli, not placed in bins.


Factors Related To Successful Implementation Of An Aac Device For An Individual With Autism, Michaela Worms May 2018

Factors Related To Successful Implementation Of An Aac Device For An Individual With Autism, Michaela Worms

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Communication impairment is a defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013); therefore, the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) has become an essential part of language intervention for children with autism that experience significant difficulties with communication (Flores et al., 2012). Assessing children’s preferences for AAC options may be important with respect to AAC abandonment, which is a problem in the AAC field (Johnson, Inglebret, Jones, & Ray, 2006). This single-subject study identified factors related to successful implementation, acquisition, and usage of an AAC system. The clinician collected baseline data on the client’s spontaneous ...


An Exploration Of The Rapid Prompting Method For Students With Autism, Shea Manship May 2018

An Exploration Of The Rapid Prompting Method For Students With Autism, Shea Manship

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

The Rapid Prompting Method (RPM) was created by Soma Mukhopadhyay as an attempt to provide a way for individuals with autism to learn and communicate. The method has been said to give students with autism a means of communication. A facilitator quickly provides verbal prompts to the individual, who then spells out messages on a letter board or a keyboard. Very little research has been done on RPM, and it is not considered an evidence-based method. Many professionals believe that RPM is not a valid method of communication, largely due to the striking similarities it has with Facilitated Communication (FC ...


Under The Umbrella: Redefining The Spectrum Of Autism, Samantha Cartolano May 2018

Under The Umbrella: Redefining The Spectrum Of Autism, Samantha Cartolano

Graduate Student Independent Studies

This research examines the scope of how autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have changed over the history of special education. From Dr. Leo Kanner’s initial study in 1943 to the present-day DSM-5, the diagnostic criteria for an accurate identification of autism in children has been extremely varied, resulting in an increased prevalence rate and confusion as to what actually constitutes ASD. A major discovery by Wing and Gould in 1979 brought to the forefront the concept of a spectrum of disorders within the autism category. Leading to an over-diagnosis of children requiring related services and supports in schools and at ...


The Effects Of Tact Training For Students Diagnosed With Autism: Will Stimulus Equivalence Be Demonstrated Through The Acquisition Of Intraverbal Responses?, Elizabeth A. Hassler May 2018

The Effects Of Tact Training For Students Diagnosed With Autism: Will Stimulus Equivalence Be Demonstrated Through The Acquisition Of Intraverbal Responses?, Elizabeth A. Hassler

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

While there have been numerous studies on the effects of tact training, there is a limited amount of research on the effects of tact training on the emergence of intraverbal responses. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of tact training on the acquisitions of intraverbals demonstrated through stimulus equivalence for students who have a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The research attempted to answer the following questions: Was tact training an effective procedure to increase a student’s verbal repertoire; did tact training of both nouns and verbs increase emergence of noun-verb intraverbal combinations; did ...


Picture Cues And Reading Comprehension: The Impact Of Picture Cues On The Reading Comprehension Of First Grade Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Brittany Rae May 2018

Picture Cues And Reading Comprehension: The Impact Of Picture Cues On The Reading Comprehension Of First Grade Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Brittany Rae

Education Masters

This action research project investigates the effects of picture cues on the reading comprehension abilities of first grade students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data was collected through lesson data, anecdotal notes, student interviews, and parent perceptions surveys. Findings revealed that: picture cues can increase student engagement and comprehension by measure of their ability to answer “wh” questions. Parents perceived an increase in their child’s comprehension with the use of picture cues. Participants reported a preference for reading with picture cues. Implications suggest that picture cues can support reading comprehension in learners with ASD and their ability to accurately ...


General Education Teachers' Self-Efficacy To Teach Autistic Students In Kindergarten Through Fourth Grade General Education Classrooms, Tanya Michelle Wynn May 2018

General Education Teachers' Self-Efficacy To Teach Autistic Students In Kindergarten Through Fourth Grade General Education Classrooms, Tanya Michelle Wynn

Education Dissertations and Projects

Children are being diagnosed with autism at an alarming rate; and as these students enter schools to be educated alongside their peers, general education teachers need to feel prepared to teach them. Many years ago, students with autism were placed in separate classrooms and were not in general education classrooms. As times have changed and autistic students enter into general education classrooms that are taught by general education teachers, this study examined the self-efficacy of those teachers when it comes to educating these students. This research was done in a rural school district, and kindergarten through fourth-grade teachers from three ...


Strategies For Reducing Anxiety Symptoms In Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Melissa Wildt May 2018

Strategies For Reducing Anxiety Symptoms In Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Melissa Wildt

Culminating Projects in Special Education

Eleven studies published between 2011 and 2017 were examined and chosen for inclusion in the Chapter 2 literature review. Studies were chosen if they evaluated the effectiveness of a specific intervention treatment used to reduce behaviors associated with anxiety in students diagnosed with ASD. Studies evaluating effectiveness of medication treatments were not included in the review. Lastly, studies were not limited to the United States, however, most studies were domestic in nature.


Interventions To Reduce Self-Injurious Behaviors In Youth With Autism, Joshua Sasse May 2018

Interventions To Reduce Self-Injurious Behaviors In Youth With Autism, Joshua Sasse

Culminating Projects in Special Education

The high prevalence rate of individuals with autism who display self-injurious behaviors, coupled with the growing number of youth with an autism diagnosis, has created a need for an expanded array of assistive options. This starred paper examines, through literature review, the effectiveness of interventions on self-injurious behaviors in individuals with autism. Behavior, and non-behavior, based interventions are considered from domestic and international sources. Behavior based interventions continue to be an effective option that can be applied to a wide spectrum of students, however there was significant effective use of alternative intervention strategies for specific individual applications. This holds true ...


Comparison Of Discrete Trial Teaching And The Verbal Behavior Approach In Early Learners With Autism In A School Setting, Irene Chan May 2018

Comparison Of Discrete Trial Teaching And The Verbal Behavior Approach In Early Learners With Autism In A School Setting, Irene Chan

Theses and Dissertations

There are many different interventions available to individuals with autism, and the benefits of each therapy may vary for each student. Two vastly different treatments are discrete trial teaching (DTT) and the verbal behavior approach (VBA). While both are based in the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA), VBA relies more on naturalistic teaching opportunities to teach language in context than DTT, which is conducted in structured instructional sessions. The literature supporting DTT is extensive, with many randomized control trial studies to corroborate its effectiveness. Meanwhile, VBA lacks empirical support as a package; though many studies demonstrate the success of ...


Preparing Multiple-Subject Pre-Service Teachers To Work Effectively With Students Who Have Autism, Makalah Vosmera May 2018

Preparing Multiple-Subject Pre-Service Teachers To Work Effectively With Students Who Have Autism, Makalah Vosmera

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

The Commission on Teacher Credentialing of the State of California mandates that teacher preparation programs prepare effective and knowledgeable pre-service teachers to teach all students. Through the use of literature review, interviews and surveys with graduating Liberal Studies students, this senior capstone examines whether Liberal Studies graduating students are being prepared to work effectively with autistic students or not. The findings indicate that they take introductory education courses on autism spectrum disorder along with other forms of disabilities, but they do not receive sufficient breadth and depth coverage on how to work effectively with autistic students in regular classrooms.


Natural Learning Environments And The Social-Emotional Development Of Students With Sensory Processing Challenges, Denise Elizabeth West May 2018

Natural Learning Environments And The Social-Emotional Development Of Students With Sensory Processing Challenges, Denise Elizabeth West

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

This study examined the impact of a natural learning environment on the social-emotional development of students with Autism and/or Sensory Processing Disorder. For this research, social-emotional development consisted of social behavior, communication, and participation. The elements of a traditional classroom are characterized by confinement, harsh lighting/acoustics, and other habitual triggers for sensory discomfort. A natural learning environment can provide students with natural stimuli, fresh air, natural acoustics, natural lighting, etc. Additionally, the natural learning environment fosters a connection with nature, which research shows is important for the self-discovery, self-advocacy, and self-efficacy of all humans. Considering the artificial nature ...


What Makes A House A Home? Supported Living Environments For Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Rose Meadows May 2018

What Makes A House A Home? Supported Living Environments For Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Rose Meadows

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

My research aims to address how supported living environments for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) can best support their stakeholders. This is an inherently human and personal problem, but existing research tackling this problem utilizing a person-centric and/or resiliency theory lens or framework is lacking. My research will use the perspective of parents/guardians and staff/caregivers in combination with existing knowledge and research to create ideas for how to maximize support in supported living environments for adults with ASD and their families. This is a qualitative study that uses a humanized approach and in-person interviews with stake-holders ...


Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle Apr 2018

Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle

Dissertations

Lovaas (1987) applied behavior analysis to the treatment of autism and demonstrated a 47% “recovery” rate. He also reported that around 10% of the population that received his services made little-to-no improvement. The present study used a response-to-intervention framework to systematically identify and treat students in an early childhood, special-education classroom who were in danger of falling within that 10%. This study set out to identify, classify, and differentiate the treatment based on the student’s response to the standard classroom intervention. Improvements in multiple students’ rates of acquisition based on this system were recorded. This indicated a possibility of ...


Scrapbook Interviewing: Exploring Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder’S Experiences In Physical Education, Amanda Yessick Apr 2018

Scrapbook Interviewing: Exploring Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder’S Experiences In Physical Education, Amanda Yessick

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning that students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascribed to their experiences in self-contained physical education (PE) classes. Four participants with a primary diagnosis of ASD who attended a self-contained PE class in a separate public day school were purposively selected for this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, observational field notes, and reflective notes. Methodological triangulation, researcher reflexivity, and peer debriefing were utilized to support trustworthiness. After interview transcription, thematic development was conducted using a three-step analytic process informed by the purpose and research approach adopted in this study ...