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Theses/Dissertations

Western Michigan University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1960

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Relationship Between Student Math Achievement And Teachers Utilizing A Process Involving Interim Instructional Assessments, Douglas B. Greer Aug 2019

The Relationship Between Student Math Achievement And Teachers Utilizing A Process Involving Interim Instructional Assessments, Douglas B. Greer

Dissertations

According to recent national and state level assessments, only about one-third of Michigan students are proficient in secondary math. Previous studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating the impact of an interim assessment process on student achievement, especially with high school mathematics. Moreover, previous studies were not found to utilize Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) to test such a relationship, especially a three level HLM that links secondary students to a primary math teacher. Therefore, the purpose of my study was to ascertain the extent to which math teachers utilized an interim instructional assessment (IIA) process within middle and high schools, and ...


The Use Of Principal Feedback From Teachers To Create Effective Leadership, Kevin Richard Macina Aug 2019

The Use Of Principal Feedback From Teachers To Create Effective Leadership, Kevin Richard Macina

Dissertations

In the past decade, K-12 education has undergone many changes, often brought about by national and state policymakers putting a higher emphasis on student outcomes. There are enhanced accountability expectations for all levels of education that have added to the responsibilities of principals. Research can be found on many different areas regarding effective educational leadership. Studies abound to reinforce the need for principals to lead their schools through decisions and actions that are evidence based and data informed. In that body of work, there is a growing attention to the importance of staff, student, and even parent feedback as an ...


Teachers Use And Perceptions Of The Impact Of Response To Intervention (Rti) On Co-Teaching At The Secondary Level In General Education Classrooms, Hawazen Alasiri Jun 2019

Teachers Use And Perceptions Of The Impact Of Response To Intervention (Rti) On Co-Teaching At The Secondary Level In General Education Classrooms, Hawazen Alasiri

Dissertations

When working together, Response to Intervention (RTI) and co-teaching can serve the needs of teachers and their students in a duet that Murawski and Hughes (2009) called “a logical combination for successful systematic change” (p. 267). According to the U.S. Department of Education, the number of students with disabilities, ages 6–21, who spent most of the school day in general classrooms in regular schools increased from 33% in 1990 to 62% in 2014 (U.S. Department of Education, 2016). With twice as many students with disabilities attending general education classrooms today, it is essential that all stakeholders in ...


Saudi Arabian Female English Language Teachers’ Perspectives On Instructional Supervisors And Supervision, Afaf Mohammed Albalawi Jun 2019

Saudi Arabian Female English Language Teachers’ Perspectives On Instructional Supervisors And Supervision, Afaf Mohammed Albalawi

Dissertations

This study investigates the effectiveness of educational supervision in improving the performance of Saudi female English language teachers from the teachers’ perspectives. Finding and supporting professional English language teachers and supervisors is one of the greatest obstacles facing Saudi Arabia (Alrabai, 2016; Sywelem & Witte, 2013). In Saudi Arabia and other countries, a lack of skills, training, and resources, such as time, money, and meeting spaces, seems to be a common problem for many supervisors and schools (Badah et al., 2013; Tawfiq & Almajali, 2012). Examining the perceptions of English teachers in Saudi Arabia contributes to a deeper understanding that may help supervisors implement their instructional supervisory skills more effectively. Specifically, research questions include: (1) What are the Saudi female English language teachers’ perceptions of their supervisors regarding: (a) the amount of time spent with their supervisor, and (b ...


Superintendent Practices And Initiatives For Building Principal Instructional And Collaborative Leadership Capacity In A High-Performing High-Poverty School, Fatemah Ali Al Ramel Jun 2019

Superintendent Practices And Initiatives For Building Principal Instructional And Collaborative Leadership Capacity In A High-Performing High-Poverty School, Fatemah Ali Al Ramel

Dissertations

This study explores how superintendents build school principal leadership capacity by developing (a) principal capacity to function as instructional leaders and (b) a culture of shared and collaborative leadership. A particular focus for this study is the ways in which superintendents work with principals to build instructional and shared leadership capacity in order to turn low-performing schools that educate high-poverty student populations into schools that outperform their demographic peers. This study describes the activities and strategies that characterize the ways in which superintendents build a strong collaborative leadership team with their school principals, then use that collaborative team to develop ...


Delaying Kindergarten Entrance By Participating In Pre-Kindergarten And Academic Achievement In Elementary School: Red-Shirting And Achievement Scores, Rachael Postle-Brown Apr 2019

Delaying Kindergarten Entrance By Participating In Pre-Kindergarten And Academic Achievement In Elementary School: Red-Shirting And Achievement Scores, Rachael Postle-Brown

Dissertations

The purpose of this ex post facto causal comparative study is to examine the academic achievement of students entering the educational system, that is, kindergarten, either through pre-kindergarten or no pre-kindergarten. Allowing me to examine “red shirting,” a practice of giving children an additional year, in pre-kindergarten, to mature physically, socially, and academically before entering kindergarten. This study is important to school district personnel and parents whom need to make informed decisions concerning pre-kindergarten programs.

In this study, I compare the elementary academic achievement of students through 3rd grade, who delayed kindergarten entrance with those who did not delay ...


University Auxiliary Services: A Review Of Factors Impacting Privatization Decisions, Rita S. Gordon Apr 2019

University Auxiliary Services: A Review Of Factors Impacting Privatization Decisions, Rita S. Gordon

Dissertations

The dynamics of higher education funding present unique challenges and opportunities for administrators. One method university administrators employ to contain expenses and provide additional revenue is privatization of academic and non-academic services.

The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the specific factors considered in a decision to privatize bookstore and/or dining service operations, and perceptions about whether the post-privatization decision met pre-privatization expectations. Gordon’s (2019) Privatization Decision Framework was created based upon existing research and then used to develop survey questions. Twelve pre-privatization decision factors, nine post-privatization contracted relationship expectation factors, overall satisfaction with the privatization ...


The Efficacy Actions Of Priority School Leaders During The Dynamic Change Of School Reform, Micole D. Dyson Apr 2019

The Efficacy Actions Of Priority School Leaders During The Dynamic Change Of School Reform, Micole D. Dyson

Dissertations

There are increasing demands and challenges from the state and federal government for continual academic improvement for all schools. Each year, the Michigan Department of Education creates a “Top to Bottom” list of schools, with the lowest-performing schools designated as priority schools. This priority designation invariably creates the need for principals to examine their own self-efficacy beliefs as they work with teachers to improve these schools.

The purpose of this basic qualitative study is to identify and describe principals’ beliefs in their abilities to organize and execute complex actions to achieve changes within priority schools. Identifying and naming a leader ...


Design Parameters For Planning Cluster Randomized Trials Of Cognitive Skill Interventions: An Empirical Analysis Using The Collegiate Learning Assessment, Yu Du Apr 2019

Design Parameters For Planning Cluster Randomized Trials Of Cognitive Skill Interventions: An Empirical Analysis Using The Collegiate Learning Assessment, Yu Du

Dissertations

Recently, higher education has started to place a premium on rigorous research that uses randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to test the impact of educational interventions. This may be due in part to concerns about a deficiency of high-quality evidence of the effectiveness of programs, policies, and practices to improve undergraduate students’ outcomes. Given the naturally nested structure in higher education, e.g., students nested in colleges/universities, researchers in higher education start considering a specific type of RCT called a cluster randomized trial (CRT), which have been frequently used in K-12 impact research. In a CRT, whole clusters, such as ...


Contemporary Artists Of Color And Non-Western Artists In The Middle School Art Curriculum, Katherine L. Stiffler Apr 2019

Contemporary Artists Of Color And Non-Western Artists In The Middle School Art Curriculum, Katherine L. Stiffler

Master's Theses

In my thesis, I review research on how to integrate multiculturalism into both the art classroom and curriculum. I also discuss the exclusion of art by non-Western artists and artists of color from museums and galleries. Finally, I explain why I chose the cultures and artists for my topic of study.

I include research on nine contemporary artists. These non-Western and artists of color have been selected to be used as inspiration for creating art in the middle school art room. Each artist has a unique style and story, both of which contribute to creating a well-rounded curriculum. Finally, I ...


Student-Provided Technology In The Classroom, Matthew Lafleur Apr 2019

Student-Provided Technology In The Classroom, Matthew Lafleur

Master's Theses

With technology becoming more ingrained in the day-to-day business of 21st century life, it is only natural for such technology to find its way into the hands of our youth and eventually the classroom setting. Student provided technology, specifically the popular smart phone, is proving to be a useful tool in students’ education to some but still seen as a potential danger to many others in the profession. With the world becoming more digitally connected, smart phones have the potential to be a great learning tool or an even greater source of distraction for students.

Art teachers across the ...


The Selfie Phenomenon: Exploring The Evolution Of The Self-Portrait In The Photography Classroom, Sarah J. Bentley Apr 2019

The Selfie Phenomenon: Exploring The Evolution Of The Self-Portrait In The Photography Classroom, Sarah J. Bentley

Master's Theses

This is a qualitative research project exploring the role of the selfie as a form of cultural expression in the twenty-first century and uncovering the meaningful connections students may discover between selfies and traditional self-portraits, whether modern or historic. Reflections through books, articles, and blogs will be explored. Topics such as the effects of social media on student identity and interactions, purposes of the selfie in youth culture, and current topics and trends of selfie-taking will be examined. A photography curriculum overview is included to facilitate this theme.


Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller Dec 2018

Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller

Honors Theses

Injuries that force athletes to lose participation in their sport and or training have a tremendous impact on their mental health. Mental health issues can be detrimental, but often times go unnoticed. For example in 2010, Kenny McKinley, a wide receiver for the Denver Broncos, was found dead after killing himself with a gun. After suffering a knee injury, he had become progressively depressed. Investigators reported that there are statements saying that McKinley didn’t know what he would do without football. According to NCAA’s Sports Science Institute (2017), the psychological response to injury can trigger mental health issues ...


The Effects Of Exercise On The Cognitive Function Of Patients With Alzheimer’S Disease, Amanda Savitski Dec 2018

The Effects Of Exercise On The Cognitive Function Of Patients With Alzheimer’S Disease, Amanda Savitski

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is America’s most common neurodegenerative disease affecting over 5.4 million Americans (Fernández et al., 2017). A literature review was completed to assess the possible relation between physical activity and the progression of AD. Articles were collected from various peer-reviewed, published journals using the available databases of Western Michigan University library which included PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the National Institute of Health (NIH). Keywords used for the database searches included “Alzheimer”, “Alzheimer’s Disease”, “neurodegeneration”, “aging brain”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. Based upon the literature reviewed, aerobic exercise appears to slow the progression of AD ...


Effective Teaching Methods For Elementary Students With Add/Adhd, Jane Bensen Dec 2018

Effective Teaching Methods For Elementary Students With Add/Adhd, Jane Bensen

Honors Theses

This paper first describes ADHD, or attention deficit/hyperactive disorder, then discusses the effects on students with ADD/ADHD when elements of choice (specifically alternate seating and book choice) and strength-based strategies are used in the classroom. Research is conducted as a literature review through peer-reviewed articles on ERIC educational database. The literature shows that incorporating choice in the classroom, including offering alternative seating, is a beneficial practice for students with ADD/ADHD. Additionally, strengthbased strategies are a beneficial way to highlight and work with traits that students with ADD/ADHD possess in the classroom in a positive way. Some ...


The Importance Of Athletic Trainers At The High School Level And Barriers To Hire, Nathan Southerington Dec 2018

The Importance Of Athletic Trainers At The High School Level And Barriers To Hire, Nathan Southerington

Honors Theses

The goal of the study is to unveil the significance of the athletic training profession at the high school level and identify any barriers that restrict high schools from employing athletic trainers (ATs). While ATs are a commodity in collegiate and professional sports, many high schools around the nation struggle to employ these health care professionals. Surveys were sent to both superintendents and athletic directors (ADs) throughout the state of Michigan, to establish common hindrances to hiring athletic trainers in secondary schools. The survey covered topics such as common barriers to hiring ATs, reasons they prefer to hire ATs, school ...


Mirror Therapy, A Pain Management Therapy, Gabriella Andrews Dec 2018

Mirror Therapy, A Pain Management Therapy, Gabriella Andrews

Honors Theses

This project was undertaken to explore the use of mirror therapy (MT) as a palliative for stroke patients and amputees experiencing phantom limb pain. MT is a relatively new treatment and while it has limited research, it is starting to be used more within the rehabilitation setting. Research suggests MT has beneficial effects occur with phantom limb pain as well as post-stroke patients. This study will explain the history, uses, and research behind MT not only as a form of therapy but also a non-medicinal pain reliever.

Included are interviews from physical therapists (PT) and occupational therapists (OT) along with ...


Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell Dec 2018

Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell

Dissertations

There has been a decline in public good will toward institutions of higher education for nearly four decades. Resultantly, the public, media, and politicians call for greater transparency. It would be beneficial for institutions of higher education to utilize strategic means to communicate their stories, successes and brand directly to various publics. A critical, albeit often an overlooked public, are the employees of the university. They can serve as ambassadors for the university interacting with outside publics. In this capacity, not only do employees need to know information about their organization to function well at their positions, they also need ...


High School Science Teachers’ Professional Development And Self-Efficacy In Using Technology Tools In The Classroom, Zahrah Hussain Aljuzayri Dec 2018

High School Science Teachers’ Professional Development And Self-Efficacy In Using Technology Tools In The Classroom, Zahrah Hussain Aljuzayri

Dissertations

Few studies have considered the relationship between professional development (PD) and self-efficacy with technology tool use, especially for high school science teachers. There is also a lack of research that considers relationships between teachers' demographic factors and teachers' self-efficacy, use of technology tools in the classroom, or their professional development. The goal of this quantitative study was to attempt to correlate science teacher self-efficacy, the PD science teachers have had for classroom technology, and how often they use that technology in the classroom. We also wanted to identify possible impacts of teachers' demographic factors on efficacy, use, and PD. Participants ...


Assessing The Supports And Variables Needed For Graduation Of Students Receiving Special Education Service: A Longitudinal Study, Jennifer Dewaard Dec 2018

Assessing The Supports And Variables Needed For Graduation Of Students Receiving Special Education Service: A Longitudinal Study, Jennifer Dewaard

Dissertations

Graduation from high school is an important measure of success for both schools and individuals. While requirements for graduation change, the rate at which students receive a diploma within four years is on the rise. But students who receive special education services continue to have a lower graduation rate than the general population. It is imperative for both schools and individual students to increase this rate and close the gap for those receiving a diploma.

The purpose of this study is to examine that gap between graduation rates for the total population of a high school in West Michigan compared ...


Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle Dec 2018

Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle

Dissertations

Student persistence and retention continues to be a major issue facing most institutions of higher education. With ever more diverse student populations, researchers studied a multitude of groups and sub-groups of students based on ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, or age. These studies looked at how these various student groups can be supported and retained. Students who returned to school after having been academically dismissed are one group which has been consistently underreported. Reentry practices remained largely unchanged and still require the student to initiate the process. This phenomenological study examined the experiences of students accepted into the Reclaim the W ...


Are Experienced Principals More Likely To Implement The Attributes Of The Three-Minute Walkthrough Program Than Less-Experienced Principals?, Trent Mosley Dec 2018

Are Experienced Principals More Likely To Implement The Attributes Of The Three-Minute Walkthrough Program Than Less-Experienced Principals?, Trent Mosley

Dissertations

Today, in this era of accountability, school improvement rests heavily on the shoulders of building principals. Apart from being managers of school operations, disciplinarians, and community leaders, these individuals are also expected to be strong instructional leaders (Crum & Sherman, 2008). Principals now must engage in strategies that will lead the cycle of continuous improvement. One such strategy that has emerged is classroom walkthroughs (Cervone & Martinez, 2007). Classroom walkthroughs serve as a vehicle through which principals can engage teachers in a process that can lead to positive effects on teaching strategies through instructional conferences (Blasé & Blasé, 1998; King, 1991).

Approximately 2,000 principals in the continental United States were identified as having been trained in the Three-Minute Walkthrough Program during the 2010-2016 school years. With support from the Three-Minute Walkthrough Program developer, Dr. Carolyn Downey, and the International office of Phi Delta Kappan (PDK), the names of program participants were identified and requested to participate in a study that ...


The Effect Of Item Stem And Response Option Length On The Item Analysis Outcomes Of A Career And Technical Education Multiple Choice Assessment, Tina M. Koepf Dec 2018

The Effect Of Item Stem And Response Option Length On The Item Analysis Outcomes Of A Career And Technical Education Multiple Choice Assessment, Tina M. Koepf

Dissertations

Critical decisions in Career and Technical Education (CTE) can be based on assessment outcomes, requiring an essential focus on continuous improvement initiatives to provide increased multiple choice (MC) assessment validity. Previous research has determined that the presence of flawed test items negatively impacts student success; therefore, an MC taxonomy has been established and used in the assessment industry. While rigorous and successful Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs that enroll high-level academic students exist, many CTE programs enroll students with a wide spectrum of academic ability. Because many CTE students often have inferior reading skills, it is necessary to take ...


Asd Program Development In Special Education Teacher Preparation: An Exploratory Study, Christine Dewildt Aug 2018

Asd Program Development In Special Education Teacher Preparation: An Exploratory Study, Christine Dewildt

Dissertations

The process of developing a program for an endorsement in a teacher preparation program is complex, with various influences and requirements involved. Regulatory compliance, standards for practice, and university influences are key considerations within program development. Curricular factors and content delivery must also be considered. This study explored the process of program development leading to an endorsement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at a university, shedding light on what some of the key aspects to program develop entail.

This study explored the complex process of teacher preparation program development in ASD through inquiry rooted in a qualitative approach. At the ...


Using Mindset Pedagogy To Promote Growth And Increase Efficacy In Student Writers, Sara Hoeve Aug 2018

Using Mindset Pedagogy To Promote Growth And Increase Efficacy In Student Writers, Sara Hoeve

Dissertations

This dissertation offers four in-depth, vivid profiles of twelfth grade writers and the ways in which writing mindsets impact self-beliefs and inform the writing process. The multiple case study explores the impact of a mindset pedagogy, which is defined as an instructional paradigm that emphasizes the malleable nature of writing, as an ability that can be developed with effort, learning, and dedication over time. This belief contrasts the notion that writing ability is fixed trait that cannot be significantly developed over time.

Derived from Dweck's mindset theory, my dissertation argues for a discipline-specific construct of the "writing mindset,” which ...


Counselor Educators’ Perceptions Of Nontraditional Master’S-Level Counseling Students And How Those Perceptions Shape Teaching Practices, Pamela J. Jordan Aug 2018

Counselor Educators’ Perceptions Of Nontraditional Master’S-Level Counseling Students And How Those Perceptions Shape Teaching Practices, Pamela J. Jordan

Dissertations

Graduate students age 40 and older, defined as “nontraditional” for this study, consistently represent approximately 20% of the graduate student population (United States Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics, 2015). Master’s degree programs in counseling may attract a higher percentage of these students, as some studies suggest that careers in fields such as counseling are sought out by adults changing careers at midlife and later (Bluestone & Melnik, 2010; Schaefers, 2012). These nontraditional students bring to the classroom their own characteristics of age, life stage, and experience, and they have distinct strengths and challenges that set them apart from traditional ...


Effective Teaching And Learning: Flipped Learning In The Classroom, Mohammed Fahad Alsobaie Jun 2018

Effective Teaching And Learning: Flipped Learning In The Classroom, Mohammed Fahad Alsobaie

Dissertations

It is important that adequate knowledge concerning how flipped learning can be implemented in a classroom to support students learning in elementary schools (Backlund, Hirsh & Segolsson, 2017). This is a qualitative study, which used a general qualitative approach to explore teachers’ perspectives and their experiences about flipped learning effectiveness in classrooms at the elementary school level. The population and sample in this study were five elementary school teachers in urban locations in the Midwest region of the United States who utilize flipped learning in their classrooms. The data on the use and impact of flipped learning on teaching and learning ...


Ten Elementary School Teachers’ Voices: How They Build Effective Literacy Learning In The Lives Of Their 2nd Grade Children, Merfat Ayesh Alsubaie Jun 2018

Ten Elementary School Teachers’ Voices: How They Build Effective Literacy Learning In The Lives Of Their 2nd Grade Children, Merfat Ayesh Alsubaie

Dissertations

It is important to support teachers to adapt and apply effective literacy instruction strategies. Teachers may receive support from many sources, such as pre-service developers, principals, supervisors, literacy coaches, parents, colleagues and peer teachers. Perhaps most importantly, the teaching of literacy requires the support of the principal, literacy coach, and others who can collaborate with the classroom teacher to implement effective literacy instruction and strategies (Vallejo & Wren, 2009; Cole, 2008). All of these supports play a role in effectively achieving high literacy levels among students (Cole, 2008). Thus, teachers should work to maximize the benefit they receive from these supports.

This is ...


Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin Jun 2018

Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin

Dissertations

Matching-to-sample is a basic procedure used in most programs for pre-school children with autism. However, a few children fail to acquire this skill with standard matching-to-sample procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for teaching matching-to-sample to those children when the traditional methods are likely to fail. First, simple discriminations with the matching materials were taught, then the discriminations were made more complex across successive sessions. Initially, all discriminations were taught using bins to separate the comparison stimuli. All three children acquired matching-to-sample, which generalized to matching novel two-dimensional stimuli, not placed in bins.


The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen Jun 2018

The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen

Dissertations

This qualitative study explores the experiences of new student affairs professionals who have begun their careers at community colleges. Research in the field of higher education has examined the preparation and socialization of new professionals within the field of higher education student affairs. However, this body of research has primarily focused on the experiences of those who go on to work in four-year colleges and universities. Little has been examined regarding those who graduate from these programs and whose first professional role is in a community college setting.

Through this phenomenological inquiry, the participants share rich details about their socialization ...