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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effects Of Task Fluency And Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules On Student Choice Allocation Between Math Tasks, Maliha Zaman Dec 2010

The Effects Of Task Fluency And Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules On Student Choice Allocation Between Math Tasks, Maliha Zaman

Theses and Dissertations

Students may avoid working on difficult tasks because it takes them longer to complete those tasks, which results in a delay to reinforcement. Research studies show that reinforcer and response dimensions can be manipulated within a concurrent operants framework to bias choice allocation toward more difficult tasks. The current study extends previous literature on concurrent choice assessments by examining the effects of reinforcement schedules and fluency interventions on the choice allocation between low and high effort math tasks. The study was conducted with 4 second graders in an elementary school. The choice assessment conducted prior to fluency training (Phase 1 ...


Magic, Monsters, And Merlin: An Exploration Of The Fantasy Genre In A Fifth Grade Setting, Traci Bowles Oct 2010

Magic, Monsters, And Merlin: An Exploration Of The Fantasy Genre In A Fifth Grade Setting, Traci Bowles

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this exploratory investigation were to determine how fantasy literature helps children explore, process, and discuss real world issues and topics and what other applications the genre had in the classroom. This study was conducted by implementing a genre study in a fifth grade classroom. Seventeen students participated in the research model. Data collected included audiotaped discussions, student projects and artifacts, and my personal teacher research journal. The data was analyzed recursively across all data sets to determine patterns and themes. Data was coded according to the four main patterns and counted across data sets. If the pattern ...


Student Motivation: The Impact Intrinsic Motivation And Extrinsic Rewards Have On Elementary Students, Renee Tybus Sep 2010

Student Motivation: The Impact Intrinsic Motivation And Extrinsic Rewards Have On Elementary Students, Renee Tybus

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to determine what happens when intrinsically motivating strategies and an extrinsic reward program are implemented in a fifth-grade inclusion classroom. The intrinsic strategies of enthusiasm, incorporating student choice into the lessons, and cooperative learning groups were used to help teach students during their literacy block. Additionally, an extrinsic reward program was put into effect once the three strategies had already been conducted. Qualitative inquiry strategies such as student motivation surveys, teacher observation checklists, focus group discussions, student written feedback, and observations recorded in my own teacher research journal, were all used to facilitate ...


How Do First Graders Define A Family?, Kelly Ann Mcgrail Sep 2010

How Do First Graders Define A Family?, Kelly Ann Mcgrail

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to determine how first grade students define a family. Qualitative research was used as the methodology for this inquiry. The participants were thirteen first grade inclusion students in a school that is located in Southern New Jersey. An instructional unit depicting various family constellations was implemented along with authentic discussions, a student survey, an interactive bulletin board, a classroom library containing family books, and writing prompts contained in My Family Journal. The data collected and analyzed was from student discussion, the subjects' work, direct observation of pupils, the instructional unit, and a teacher research ...


What Happens When Writing Notebooks Are Used In A First Grade Classroom?, Shelley Kole Aug 2010

What Happens When Writing Notebooks Are Used In A First Grade Classroom?, Shelley Kole

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to investigate what happened when writing notebooks are implemented in a first-grade regular education classroom. Writing notebooks were used along with the Writer's Workshop curriculum in which students learned how to revise, edit, and use professional literature as examples for writing techniques. Qualitative inquiry strategies such as student surveys, student written work, and observations were used to collect data. The data revealed that the students gained an ownership of their writing notebooks which enabled students to take risks in their writing and led to an increased motivation and interest among students to ...


Early Intervention In Conflict Resolution For Lower Elementary Students In A Self-Contained Classroom, Colleen Roughgarden Aug 2010

Early Intervention In Conflict Resolution For Lower Elementary Students In A Self-Contained Classroom, Colleen Roughgarden

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the effects of teaching conflict-resolution strategies to lower elementary students in a self-contained classroom. The students received conflict-resolution strategies and social skill development through an instructional unit involving children's literature along with student self-evaluations, appropriate outlets for tattletales, and the formation of a classroom club against bullying. This qualitative research study was conducted in a kindergarten and first grade self-contained classroom located in southern New Jersey. In order to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of the students, all names have been altered. There were seven students in the class ...


Comparing The Pedagogical Thinking Of More Successful And Less Successful Adult Esl Instructors Using Stimulated Recall, Jason Paul Roberts Aug 2010

Comparing The Pedagogical Thinking Of More Successful And Less Successful Adult Esl Instructors Using Stimulated Recall, Jason Paul Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

This paper reports a study that examined the pedagogical knowledge (knowledge and beliefs related to the act of teaching) of two more successful and two less successful adult ESL instructors during planning teaching and post teaching reflection. The verbal reports of their teaching were compared to previous studies (Gatbonton, 2000, 2008; Mullock, 2006) that used stimulated recall to categorize adult ESL instructors' pedagogical thoughts during their instruction. The comparison showed that the previous categories were inadequate to cover the data. Additional codes were added in order to codify all the data after which patterns and themes emerged that overarched the ...


A Nonverbal Signal System: Minimizing The Effects Of Student Interruptions, Maximizing Instructional Time, And Sustaining Momentum While Teaching, Mallory Heimlich Aug 2010

A Nonverbal Signal System: Minimizing The Effects Of Student Interruptions, Maximizing Instructional Time, And Sustaining Momentum While Teaching, Mallory Heimlich

Theses and Dissertations

With instructional time being interrupted by both in and out-of-class disturbances, research shows that approximately 30% of instructional day is wasted. Students are more likely to be unengaged and off-task when the teacher is interrupted than at other times and most classroom interruptions are initiated by the students themselves. The goal of this study was to decrease student interruptions and transition time by implementing a nonverbal signal system as a component of the classroom management plan. Student interruptions were tallied and student transitions were timed during social studies and science in a fourth grade classroom. Reflections of the study were ...


A Challenging And Rewarding Process: Implementing Critical Literacy Instruction In A Middle School Classroom, Amy Michelle Geilman Aug 2010

A Challenging And Rewarding Process: Implementing Critical Literacy Instruction In A Middle School Classroom, Amy Michelle Geilman

Theses and Dissertations

This action research study focuses on a teacher's experiences while implementing critical literacy instruction in a seventh grade language arts class. Throughout the unit, a tension between teacher control and student autonomy emerged in three areas: discussion (teacher-directed and student-directed), curriculum (teacher choices and student choices), and student text comprehension (surface and critical). Finding the balance between teacher control and student autonomy was difficult. When these two elements were not balanced, the classroom experience for everyone was mediocre. When they were balanced correctly the entire classroom community had positive experiences that advanced student learning. Critical literacy instruction, though difficult ...


An Exploratory Investigation On How Authentic Writing Affects Students' Attitudes Towards Writing, Kerri Colletto Aug 2010

An Exploratory Investigation On How Authentic Writing Affects Students' Attitudes Towards Writing, Kerri Colletto

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to determine how students' attitudes towards writing are affected when authentic writing activities are implemented into the traditional writing curriculum. The students kept Lifebooks for a period of three weeks and there was an emphasis placed on writing that was personal and meaningful. Qualitative inquiry strategies such as my teacher research journal, student surveys, individual interviews, discussion groups and student work were used to collect data. Sorting and categorizing data within and between data sources revealed that the freedom to choose a topic affects what is written, that having a personal connection affects ...


Adolescent Literate Identity Online: Individuals And The Discourse Of A Class Wiki, Amanda J. Mccollum Aug 2010

Adolescent Literate Identity Online: Individuals And The Discourse Of A Class Wiki, Amanda J. Mccollum

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine students' representations of their literate identities in what Gee (2008) calls Discourse that developed among 105 high school students— 103 10th-grade and two 11th-grade students—using a wiki for class work, collaboration, and social interaction. The theoretical frame for the present study was drawn from of four bodies of literature. Through a reciprocal process of positioning self and others (van Langenhove & Harré, 1999), individuals come to form and display their literate identity (Heath, 1991) within a community of practice (Wenger, 1998). Their interactions reflect norms, values, and accepted ways of being within ...


The Stories Of Three High School English Teachers Involved In A Collaborative Study Group, Marjoire Ralph Jul 2010

The Stories Of Three High School English Teachers Involved In A Collaborative Study Group, Marjoire Ralph

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this action research study was to observe, participate in, and tell the story of teachers involved in a professional development experience. Professional development is an important tool to assist teachers in improving their teaching abilities. After a review of the literature on various forms of professional development and some personal experience with a variety of professional development activities, I created a collaborative study group (CSG) that included three teachers. Their work together was studied using a narrative approach to action research. The stories of these three teachers and their experiences with an informal professional development activity are ...


The Nature Of Transfer From The Concepts And Vocabulary Taught In A Character Education Unit To Students Classroom Discourse, Marianne E. Gill Jul 2010

The Nature Of Transfer From The Concepts And Vocabulary Taught In A Character Education Unit To Students Classroom Discourse, Marianne E. Gill

Theses and Dissertations

This action research study was conducted to inform my teaching practices on character education. The purpose of this study was to better understand the nature of transfer from the concepts of character taught in lessons to students' classroom discourse. Data were systematically collected from student comments, class meetings, and student reflection journals during a 13-week character education unit. Their discourse was coded and analyzed for evidence of transfer through an iterative process that allowed for ongoing comparison of the data. Evidence of transfer was identified only once prior to the eleventh week of the study. However,during the eleventh week ...


Understanding The Tensions That Exist Between Two Co-Teachers Education Classroom Using Positioning, Garth Gagnier Jul 2010

Understanding The Tensions That Exist Between Two Co-Teachers Education Classroom Using Positioning, Garth Gagnier

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the tensions that existed between my co-teaching partner and me while working together during the last four years. Additionally, I studied how my partner, the special educator, and I, the general educator, negotiated the tensions that came up during our collaboration. Using a narrative approach to share our stories about our teaching, I investigated how we worked together and contributed to our co-teaching relationship. I analyzed the stories and storylines that we shared using a theoretical lens called positioning. Positioning theory looks at how people interact with each other and the positions ...


Identifying Social Studies Content Embedded Inelementary Basal Readers, Wendy Taylor Workman Jul 2010

Identifying Social Studies Content Embedded Inelementary Basal Readers, Wendy Taylor Workman

Theses and Dissertations

In the current educational climate of federally mandated assessments of student learning, the survival of the elementary social studies curriculum may depend on interdisciplinary instructional methods to link social studies to the accountability-favored discipline of literacy. The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine and identify social studies content embedded within a second grade and a fifth grade basal reader from the 2008 Houghton Mifflin Reading Series. Each of the basals were read and coded using the Utah State Office of Education Social Studies Standards indicators and the National Council for the Social Studies Standards as a priori ...


Mathematics Vocabulary And English Learners: A Study Of Students' Mathematical Thinking, Hilary Hart Jul 2010

Mathematics Vocabulary And English Learners: A Study Of Students' Mathematical Thinking, Hilary Hart

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the mathematical thinking of English learners as they were taught mathematics vocabulary through research-based methods. Four English learners served as focus students. After administering a pre-performance assessment, I taught a 10-lesson unit on fractions. I taught mathematics vocabulary through the use of a mathematics word wall, think-pair-shares, graphic organizers, journal entries, and picture dictionaries. The four focus students were audio recorded to capture their spoken discourse. Student work was collected to capture written discourse. Over the course of the unit, the four focus students used the mathematics vocabulary words that were taught explicitly. The focus students gained ...


Elements Of Professional Development That Influenced Change In Elementary Teachers' Writing Instruction, Jill Brown Shumway Jul 2010

Elements Of Professional Development That Influenced Change In Elementary Teachers' Writing Instruction, Jill Brown Shumway

Theses and Dissertations

Teacher quality has been identified as the most crucial factor in raising student achievement. In order for teachers—and consequently their students—to be successful, teachers must participate in life-long career development. For this reason, a great deal of time and resources are spent on professional development. However, professional development for teachers is not always effective. This study was aimed at identifying those elements that led to success in professional development conducted in one rural Utah school district. The study operated within the theoretical framework of Appreciative Inquiry, which consists of collecting evidence by interviewing successful participants to gather stories ...


"It's Raining Money": Identity, Class, And The Unfolding Curriculum At Three Schools Through The Lens Of Socioeconomic Status, Amy Lynn Pfeiler-Wunder Jul 2010

"It's Raining Money": Identity, Class, And The Unfolding Curriculum At Three Schools Through The Lens Of Socioeconomic Status, Amy Lynn Pfeiler-Wunder

Theses and Dissertations

Using a multilayered qualitative approach I draw from hermeneutical phenomenology informed by autoethnography through a case study to illuminate the culture and community of three elementary art rooms through the lens of socioeconomic status. Through my own story of having limited art education as a child from a rural working class background I simultaneously tell the story of students from three economically diverse schools in the same district. Focusing on their experiences within the space of the art room, I explore the ways children negotiate identity, notions of class, and interpret the shared district art curriculum.

A rich description of ...


How Do Intrinsic Motivational Strategies Impact Student's Engagement In Learning?, Kaitlyn Howarth Jun 2010

How Do Intrinsic Motivational Strategies Impact Student's Engagement In Learning?, Kaitlyn Howarth

Theses and Dissertations

Intrinsic motivation is one of the key factors in student's academic performance in the classroom. Thus, my research question becomes "how do intrinsic motivational strategies impact student's engagement in learning?" Researchers believe there are three common factors that are thought to promote intrinsic motivation: teacher enthusiasm, student choice and cooperative learning. These factors are three techniques believed to help foster intrinsic motivation in students and were implemented in the classroom. After five weeks of implementation, research found that students were making positive changes in the classroom by reading for pleasure, challenging themselves more, and participating more in class ...


The Effects Of Reflective Thinking On Middle School Students’ Academic Achievement And Perceptions Of Related Instructional Practices: A Mixed Methods Study, David Denton Jun 2010

The Effects Of Reflective Thinking On Middle School Students’ Academic Achievement And Perceptions Of Related Instructional Practices: A Mixed Methods Study, David Denton

Theses and Dissertations

The problem investigated in this study was whether instructional practices, which characterize reflective thinking, aided in the alignment of curriculum, instruction, and assessment at the classroom level. Participants included 259 seventh grade students, 126 female and 133 male, from 10 intact social studies classrooms. The investigator used an explanatory mixed methods design, which included a quantitative and qualitative phase.

The first phase involved testing the effects of an intervention, administered for 23 days, on students’ academic achievement according to a content-specific test. In addition, this phase involved a questionnaire used to assess student perceptions of the intervention. Results of the ...


Narrating The Literate Identities Of Five Ninth Grade Boys On The School Landscape, Mary Frances Rice Jun 2010

Narrating The Literate Identities Of Five Ninth Grade Boys On The School Landscape, Mary Frances Rice

Theses and Dissertations

I conducted a narrative inquiry with five ninth grade boys in my English class that I identified as displaying multiple literacies. The classes I taught the boys in were two sections of honors ninth grade English. The boys came from a variety of backgrounds and lived in various neighborhoods in the approximately 20,0000-member community where we all live. The site of this research was the junior high school in Utah where the boys attend school and I had been employed for six years. After the research was collected, I conducted several negotiation sessions with the boys and their parents ...


Improving Math Fact Acquisition Of Students With Learning Disabilities Using The "Touch Math" Method, Carol Dombrowski Jun 2010

Improving Math Fact Acquisition Of Students With Learning Disabilities Using The "Touch Math" Method, Carol Dombrowski

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of "Touch Math" compared with a number grid for computation. The study also considered the effects of these interventions on the self-efficacy of students with learning disabilities towards mathematics. Computation probes and math self-efficacy surveys were administered to the students prior to, and at the end of the intervention sessions. A quasi experimental alternating treatment design was utilized for interventions which lasted for ten days each. Probe and intervention practice sessions presented addition first then subtraction on separate worksheets. Seven elementary students with learning disabilities receiving specialized instruction through a pull-out program participated. Significant difference ...


Computer Assisted Instruction Or Mnemonic Strategy Instruction: Which Approach Produces Better Outcomes With Helping Students Develop Multiplication Fact Fluency?, Laura Flynn May 2010

Computer Assisted Instruction Or Mnemonic Strategy Instruction: Which Approach Produces Better Outcomes With Helping Students Develop Multiplication Fact Fluency?, Laura Flynn

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact mnemonic strategy instruction and computer assisted instruction had on helping students gain multiplication fact fluency. Thirteen, third grade students were provided with either mnemonic strategy instruction or computer assisted practice for six weeks to see which instructional approach assisted the children with fluency gains with multiplication facts. The two groups were assessed weekly with timed fact probes to evaluate progress. Baseline scores and ending scores were analyzed with a percent of change formula to reveal either an increase or decrease in fluency. The results of the comparison between the two ...


Becoming Teachers: Examining How Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Language To Construct Professional Identities, Learn Within Relationships, And Take Risks In The Classroom, Anne Swenson Ticknor May 2010

Becoming Teachers: Examining How Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Language To Construct Professional Identities, Learn Within Relationships, And Take Risks In The Classroom, Anne Swenson Ticknor

Theses and Dissertations

This longitudinal qualitative study examined how four preservice elementary teachers used language to construct professional identities, learn within relationships, and take risks in the classroom during their final three semesters in teacher education coursework and field experiences. My female participants were former students of mine in the same section of Methods of Elementary School Reading and Language Arts. We developed rapport and established relationships with each other that revolved around our class experiences, including many critical discussions about teachers, teaching, and literacy. I employed feminist methods to maintain our established relationships by participating in conversations, meeting with small groups of ...


Developing Orthographic Awareness Among Beginning Chinese Language Learners: Investigating The Influence Of Beginning Level Textbooks, Hui-Mei Fan May 2010

Developing Orthographic Awareness Among Beginning Chinese Language Learners: Investigating The Influence Of Beginning Level Textbooks, Hui-Mei Fan

Theses and Dissertations

The present study is based on the theoretical assumptions that frequency of characters and their structural components, as well as the frequency types of structural components, are important to enable learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) to discover the underlying structure of Chinese characters. In the CFL context, since reliable target language input is limited largely to textbook materials and teacher instruction, it is important to more rigorously examine the inventory of Chinese characters that is typically presented in CFL textbooks.

The purpose of this study was to systematically describe and classify Chinese characters from ten CFL textbooks ...


The Nature Of Classroom Instruction And Physical Environments That Support Elementary Writing, Monica Thomas Billen Apr 2010

The Nature Of Classroom Instruction And Physical Environments That Support Elementary Writing, Monica Thomas Billen

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to document the nature of elementary writing instruction and classroom physical environments in eight Utah school districts. One hundred seventy-seven full-day observations were completed throughout a one-week period. Results indicated teachers included at least one of the following types of writing: writing workshop/writing process, non-process writing, and writing conventions and mechanics. Process writing time was dominated by instruction from the teacher. Other elements of the writing workshop were implemented, but in a fragmented way. Only five teachers combined aspects of the workshop simultaneously. Non-process writing activities were dominated by prompts and formulas that ...


Establishing Reliability Of Reading Comprehension Ratings Of Fifth-Grade Students' Oral Retellings, Laura Elizabeth Bernfeld Mar 2010

Establishing Reliability Of Reading Comprehension Ratings Of Fifth-Grade Students' Oral Retellings, Laura Elizabeth Bernfeld

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to rate the oral retellings of fifth-grade students to determine to what degree passages, raters, and rating occasions affect those ratings, and to identify what combination of those elements will produce reliable retelling ratings. Thirty-six fourth-grade students read and orally retold three contemporary realistic fiction passages. Two raters rated these retellings on two separate occasions using the Reader Retelling Rating Scale. These ratings were analyzed quantitatively using generalizability software. Two research questions were answered by the generalizability (G) and decision (D) studies. The G study answers the first question regarding the percentages of the ...