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Research-Based Instructional Strategies To Support Newcomers In The Mainstream Classroom, Melissa Gonzalez Aug 2019

Research-Based Instructional Strategies To Support Newcomers In The Mainstream Classroom, Melissa Gonzalez

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

After Hurricane Maria hit the island of Puerto Rico in September of 2017, the Rochester City School District received an influx of Newcomer students; over 600 students were placed in the District. Teachers at Enrico Fermi School No. 17 shared, by way of survey, that they did not feel comfortable nor adequately prepared to teach these students. When teachers complete a teacher certification program, they are taught many strategies to use in the classroom; however, strategies specific to Newcomers are not included in those teachings. The effects of not having trained and qualified teachers for Newcomers in the mainstream classroom ...


Implementing Comprehensible Input In The World Language Classroom, Anna Disabatino May 2019

Implementing Comprehensible Input In The World Language Classroom, Anna Disabatino

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Using Comprehensible Input (CI) strategies to accomplish Second Language Acquisition (SLA) as defined by Krashen (1982) is gaining traction throughout World Language classrooms. By providing input to students that is comprehensible, yet slightly challenging, they can be introduced to new grammar and linguistic concepts that will enhance the acquisition process. However, teachers must use a variety of CI strategies in the classroom in order to be most successful. The CI strategies must also be tailored to the level that is taught; CI strategies should look different in a classroom of students at the novice level than they do in a ...


Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices For Educators Of Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students, Tyler Jarosinski Jul 2018

Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices For Educators Of Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students, Tyler Jarosinski

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Schools within the United States have grown tremendously over the last decade in cultural and linguistic diversity. Teachers have a responsibility to teach all students, regardless of their unique backgrounds or language abilities; however, English language learners and students of color are not receiving the same academic success as their White and English-dominant peers. Rochester City School District Regents exam data illustrates observable racial achievement disproportionality that suggests certain groups of students are not receiving an equitable education. To combat this disproportionality, a handbook and professional development plan was created for Rochester-area teachers at World of Inquiry School (WOIS) to ...


A Global Mind Is A Nurtured Mind: The Demand To Consider And Cure The Deprivation Of Multicultural Education, Amber D'Ambrosia Dec 2017

A Global Mind Is A Nurtured Mind: The Demand To Consider And Cure The Deprivation Of Multicultural Education, Amber D'Ambrosia

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The leaders of tomorrow are the bright and knowledgeable students of today. The problem with how these students are being prepared for their role as future leaders stems from the lack of diversity in literature, and the overall lack of multicultural education in American public schools. The dominant narratives being published, circulated, and studied in schools do not appropriately reflect, nor appropriately engage the multifaceted population of students accessing the discourse. The United States must no longer be notorious for its belief in its own cultural and historical superiority, but instead should begin making strides toward evolving the educational experiences ...


Modification Of Linguistic Instructional Strategies For Application In Chemistry: Progressing Beyond Scientific Literacy To Chemical Fluency, Genevieve Marie Criss Dec 2016

Modification Of Linguistic Instructional Strategies For Application In Chemistry: Progressing Beyond Scientific Literacy To Chemical Fluency, Genevieve Marie Criss

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This thesis project presents multiple instructional supports, designed from modifications of bilingual and linguistic educational methods, to promote the development of chemical fluency in chemistry language learners. These chemical language-focused supports will be presented in the form of six language modules, which feature specifically tailored linguistic strategies and specialized resources. Each module is specifically designed to support and align with the chemical language needs in the first six units of a typical Regents Chemistry classroom in New York state. Linguistic strategies for use in these modules include: 1) translation supports as used in bilingual education, with particular reference to code-switching ...


The Importance Of The Implementation And Learning Of Spanish Language Arts, Adrializ Serrano May 2016

The Importance Of The Implementation And Learning Of Spanish Language Arts, Adrializ Serrano

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

In the United States, there are “roughly about 54 million” people who are Hispanic or of Hispanic heritage (Hispanic or Latino Populations, 2015). Of this population, there are a substantial number of children who are enrolled in schools across the country. As these students become enrolled in school, the need to accommodate for their linguistic and academic needs is greater. The purpose of Dual Language bilingual programs is to develop students' native language, while developing their second language through language arts and content instruction in both languages. The students who part take in an effective Dual Language program are privileged ...


Creating A Curriculum For Heritage Language Learners Of Spanish, Joanna Menzie Dec 2015

Creating A Curriculum For Heritage Language Learners Of Spanish, Joanna Menzie

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The number of Heritage Language Learners (HLLs), specifically those who speak Spanish, is more prominent in the researcher’s school system. Language educators have wondered if the Foreign Language (FL) classroom is the correct placement for HLLs, or if there is a curriculum that could be put in place to better benefit the HLLs. Based on surveys completed by four second language teachers, there were many problems they faced when it came to how to teach HLLs and what they (both educators and HLLs) have been experiencing in the classroom. The specific needs of HLLs was not known by many ...


English As A Second Language Students’ And Teachers’ Perceptions Of Effective Literacy Instruction, Cody A. Hamilton Jul 2014

English As A Second Language Students’ And Teachers’ Perceptions Of Effective Literacy Instruction, Cody A. Hamilton

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The population of English as a second language (ESL) students in K-12 public schools continues to grow with every school year. I conducted this study in a rural elementary school in western New York in order to determine ESL students’ and teachers’ perspectives of effective ESL literacy instruction. During the four week study I conducted interviews with and observations of two ESL teachers and four ESL students.

The findings indicate that effective literacy instruction provides ESL students with rich literacy opportunities, which includes the use of students’ interest to promote their engagement. The use of hands-on activities during literacy instruction ...


Code Switching: A Tool In The Classroom, Karen Marie Algarin-Ruiz May 2014

Code Switching: A Tool In The Classroom, Karen Marie Algarin-Ruiz

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

There has been a tremendous growth of the Hispanic population in the United States leading to a large population of Spanish heritage speakers in our schools. Language diversity in the United States has been maintained primarily because of continuing immigration from non-English speaking countries (Gollnick & Chinn, 2009). Many school districts have adopted several types of programs to educate this growing population. One of the major issues being faced in the classroom concerns language development of learners using code switching. “Code switching, or the alternation of two languages within a single clause, sentence or turn is a complex, rule-governed use of ...


Teachers' Attitudes Towards Code Switching Within A Bilingual Classroom, Wendy N. Olmo-Castillo May 2014

Teachers' Attitudes Towards Code Switching Within A Bilingual Classroom, Wendy N. Olmo-Castillo

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Within the United States, the number of native Spanish speaking students entering our schools has increased as the years have passed (Alanis & Rodriguez, 2008). Once they are in the school system, these students are labeled as English Language Learners (ELLs) or Limited English Proficient (LEP) with each entering with varying levels of the English language as well as their native language, Spanish. As more of these students come in, the more students our schools need to accommodate for their linguistic and academic needs. Thus, the purpose of bilingual programs is to develop students' native language and develop their second language ...


Educating English Language Learners In The Elementary Classroom, Elizabeth R. Wallace May 2014

Educating English Language Learners In The Elementary Classroom, Elizabeth R. Wallace

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition [NCELA] (2013), English Language Learners (ELL) are the fastest-growing student population in schools across the United States. Between the years of 1989-2006, the ELL population more than doubled from just over 2,000,000 to over 5,000,000 (NCELA, 2008). The NCELA as cited by Oliveira (2011), reports that “more than 10% of the K-12 student population across the United States is comprised of ELLs, which accounts for over five million students in our schools (p. 59). This rapid increase in ELL students in the nation’s schools has greatly ...


Culturally Responsive Teaching Within The Common Core Math Modules, Jaclyn D. Flores Apr 2014

Culturally Responsive Teaching Within The Common Core Math Modules, Jaclyn D. Flores

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The Common Core State Standards aim to provide each child throughout the United States with the same educational opportunities regardless of economic status, gender, or state of residence. Within the goals of the common core standards the main priority is for all students to graduate and be college and career ready. This drastic shift in education has brought upon its own challenges and restrictions. Many teachers have been left wondering, how can they teach the new common core math modules while continuing to teach considering the students’ culture and individual needs? Every child has their own unique needs whether educational ...


The Effect Of The Lack Of Resources In Spanish For Students In Dual Language Bilingual Education Programs, Megan E. Cooley Apr 2014

The Effect Of The Lack Of Resources In Spanish For Students In Dual Language Bilingual Education Programs, Megan E. Cooley

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The goal of this study is to demonstrate the effect that a lack of adequate and appropriate Spanish learning resources has on the consistently widening achievement gap between Spanish-speaking students and English-speaking students in two Dual Language programs. Data collected come from surveys given to 16 teachers in two Dual Language programs in two elementary schools in Rochester, NY. The data in the study confirms that Spanish-speaking students in both programs are at a disadvantage over their English-speaking peers when it comes to Spanish resources. Additionally, this lack of adequate and appropriate materials impairs English-speaking students’ ability to learn Spanish ...


Culturally Responsive Teaching, Yajaira Walker Dec 2013

Culturally Responsive Teaching, Yajaira Walker

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The idea of having Culturally Responsive Teaching has become wide spread. Colleges with Teacher Certification courses have a course to offer as a program requirement, people are gathering to discuss ideas for Cultural Responsiveness, and school districts are hiring experts in the field to help them implement this type of teaching pedagogy within their schools.

We need to know what it means to be a Culturally Responsive Teacher. We need to know how to implement Culturally Responsive Teaching and how to identify it. Since this is occurring, it is also time to look into our own curriculum and make sure ...


The Invisible Students In The Classroom: How To Include The Introverts Without Excluding The Extroverts, Sharron E. Dow Nov 2013

The Invisible Students In The Classroom: How To Include The Introverts Without Excluding The Extroverts, Sharron E. Dow

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This paper focuses mainly on the introverted and extroverted temperaments and how that affects an adolescent’s learning in school and their interaction in the world. There are many cultural misconceptions of introversion which are unknowingly perpetuated by school personnel, who are often extroverts. This argument also includes the fact that America praises the extrovert while diminishing the introvert, thusly preventing the introverted students from full academic achievement as well as restricting connection to their community. There is evidence in American history that the extroverted ideal was developed over time and originated from Dr. Carl Jung’s research on personality ...


Creating High Quality Assessments For A Bilingual Population, Leigh Sanna Jan 2013

Creating High Quality Assessments For A Bilingual Population, Leigh Sanna

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Lack of teacher training in test writing in both colleges and professional development programs has resulted in poorly designed assessments, particularly for culturally diverse and bilingual populations, that do not align with the high standards expected of standardized tests. Weak teacher-made assessments can result in improper student placement, ill-fitting lessons and interventions, and unnecessary frustration and confusion among test takers. These low quality tests can also serve as false predictors for student performance on standardized tests. The danger caused by skewed scores is such that if teachers do not have a reliable means by which to predict students’ future success ...


Rti Implementation And Differentiation For Primary School English Language Learners, Shelly Sue Budziszewski Dec 2012

Rti Implementation And Differentiation For Primary School English Language Learners, Shelly Sue Budziszewski

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This paper explores how one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher assistant implemented RTI scripted ELA interventions at the primary (K–2) level. Using a variety of research analysis methods, the lesson plan record and detailed journal from the period in which the self-study was conducted were thoroughly analyzed. The analysis resulted in the identification of at what point I recognized a need for changes to the RTI plans for my ELL students, how specifically the RTI plans were modified to better accommodate my ELLs’ needs, and finally, what resulted from the modifications that I implemented. Through this self-study ...


Bilingual Education : Searching For The Ideal Elementary Bilingual Program, Vanessa J. Brumaghim Dec 2009

Bilingual Education : Searching For The Ideal Elementary Bilingual Program, Vanessa J. Brumaghim

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Bilingualism refers to an individual’s ability to proficiently use multiple languages. Bilingual education, then, refers to all programs that seek to teach using two specific languages. Bilingual education’s goals are to not only academically but also culturally embrace the student learner and prepare them for the competitive, global market. This research project heralds the merits and challenges of each teaching model (two-way immersion, transitional, and developmental) being utilized in the United States. It argues the challenging question of best practices for these models as they are employed for future generations of K-12 learners, taking into account the various ...


Elementary Foreign Language Instruction: Teacher And Student Perspectives, Sara M. Dierks Aug 2008

Elementary Foreign Language Instruction: Teacher And Student Perspectives, Sara M. Dierks

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The United States acknowledges that its monolingual population is problematic but fails to take action to support foreign language education in its schools through policy and funding. Given the culturally diverse communities that populate our nation as well as the globalization of our economy, an increased need for foreign language instruction is apparent. A majority of school districts have historically focused foreign language instruction in the middle to high school years. This research project examines student and instructor perceptions and attitudes towards learning Spanish in the elementary grade levels. It formulates questions and offers observations on the importance and benefit ...


Developing An Effective Bilingual Literacy Program For Adolescents With Learning Disabilities, Kelly M. Wise Mar 2007

Developing An Effective Bilingual Literacy Program For Adolescents With Learning Disabilities, Kelly M. Wise

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Literacy intervention for bilingual adolescent special education students is a much needed reality but rarely identified as a primary need for school districts who serve this academic population. This thesis project defines and discusses the challenges inherent in serving such a diverse population, given the many variations of dialect in Spanish-speakers, and the learning disabilities of the students. The project states that teachers need to be knowledgeable about: the linguistic background of the students, the sociocultural influences, the process of second language acquisition and the relationship of native language proficiency as it bears on the development of English skills, the ...


Developing Technical Vocabulary And Scientific Writing Skills Of English Language Learners In General Education Science Classrooms, Shawn D. Kerr Dec 2006

Developing Technical Vocabulary And Scientific Writing Skills Of English Language Learners In General Education Science Classrooms, Shawn D. Kerr

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Through weekly tutoring sessions with a 1: 1 teacher to ESL student ratio different instructional techniques and strategies were tested for their practicality, applicability, and success for developing the vocabulary comprehension and scientific writing skills. The sessions served a two-fold purpose: (1) to test various strategies and techniques relevant to the topic, and (2) to provide additional support to an at-risk student that cannot be provided by the school. The student participant was a 10th grade ESL student, who has been in the U.S. for 8 years, yet continues to struggle with science, particularly with vocabulary and writing skills ...


How To Help English As A Second Language Students Increase Understanding Of Earth Science Core Content Knowledge And Science Literacy With The Use Of After School Vocabulary Review Sessions, Sean Metz Apr 2006

How To Help English As A Second Language Students Increase Understanding Of Earth Science Core Content Knowledge And Science Literacy With The Use Of After School Vocabulary Review Sessions, Sean Metz

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

With the population of English as a second language (ESL) student entering our school systems increasing, and the importance for all students to have a mastery of science concepts, there needs to be a solution to help these ESL students that struggle with science. My students are all in ninth grade taking earth science and struggling with the content of the Regents course. After a conversation with each of the seven ESL students I decided to begin after school vocabulary intervention review sessions. For the second half of the year the students would meet one day each week and review ...


Is There A Difference Between The Degree To Which African-Americans Are Studied In Represented Rural, Suburban, And Urban School Districts?, Patricia Chatman May 2002

Is There A Difference Between The Degree To Which African-Americans Are Studied In Represented Rural, Suburban, And Urban School Districts?, Patricia Chatman

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which African-American history is presented in a variety of elementary, middle, and high schools. Ninety surveys were distributed in urban, suburban, and rural school districts in western New York. The subjects were classroom teachers who responded to the surveys. The survey was designed to find out how teachers are representing African-Americans in their classroom. An analysis of the data from the surveys indicates all the subjects in the study are representing African-Americans in their classrooms. However, teachers in urban schools have a greater representation of presenting African-Americans than teachers ...


Views Of African American Males On Their Educational Experiences, G. Najmah Abdulmateen May 1995

Views Of African American Males On Their Educational Experiences, G. Najmah Abdulmateen

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study examined the opinions of African American males on the American educational system through an analysis of their expressions about their educational experiences. The researcher interviewed 40 African American Males in the following categories: second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth and twelfth grades, high school graduates and high school dropouts. There were five subjects interviewed for each category. A set of eight questions was used to ascertain the opinions of these young men. The researcher compiled a listing of the raw data as well as charts that quantify the interview results. The findings indicate that school districts should examine their ...


The Theory Of Information As A Testing Technique To Determine Spanish Reading Proficiency, Sandra G. Kukuvka, Jean M.T. Hurst Aug 1994

The Theory Of Information As A Testing Technique To Determine Spanish Reading Proficiency, Sandra G. Kukuvka, Jean M.T. Hurst

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to expand on previously-limited investigations into the use of information theory as a Spanish language assessment technique, within an English-speaking setting, by providing a larger data base and employing a wider variety of reading passages. A further purpose was to attempt the development of a Spanish reading proficiency test that could be used in the classroom to provide a broad picture of a student's ability to comprehend reading material at or near his/her level of language learning. At no time was this study an attempt to analyze specific strengths or weaknesses in ...


A Historical Look At "The Journal Of The National Association For Bilingual Education", Christine Jennie Mitchell Aug 1994

A Historical Look At "The Journal Of The National Association For Bilingual Education", Christine Jennie Mitchell

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This paper examines the history of The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE), beginning with its first editor—Alma Flor Ada. It traces the shifting focus of the journal’s articles during each of its editorial eras, noting the changes between heavily politically-focused editors/eras and those focusing on issues such as evaluation and assessment, and psycho-social linguistics. The author provides a brief description of each editor’s tenure, noting their editorial philosophy as well as their major contributions to the journal. The author concludes that the journal’s continuing focus on evaluation/assessment and political articles ...


A Case Study: An Investigation On Influences Affecting The Reading Levels Of Bilingual Students, Enildo D. Avila May 1994

A Case Study: An Investigation On Influences Affecting The Reading Levels Of Bilingual Students, Enildo D. Avila

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study examines the reading of native Spanish-speaking Hispanic students, focusing on any influences or factors that might impede their ability to gain competence in their target language—English. It focuses on eight students from a middle school in Rochester, NY. Four students scoring in the lower half of the Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) test and four students scoring in the upper half were selected for examination. Each student participated in a personal interview to determine whether there are any influences that impact them in the affective domain. The study reveals four primary concerns that may impact student success, including ...


An Investigation Of Racial Attitudes Among White Pre-Service Teachers, Diantha B. Joiner May 1994

An Investigation Of Racial Attitudes Among White Pre-Service Teachers, Diantha B. Joiner

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine White American prospective teachers' racial attitudes about African Americans. In the age of multiculturalism, it is important to address the issue of racism and racial attitudes among educators. Racism continues to influence many aspects of American society, particularly education. Though the face of racism has changed from its blatant forms, it is now manifested in more subtle forms, and has thus been named "new" racism. This study investigated the level of "new" racism among White American prospective teachers enrolled in a teacher education program. Jacobson's "New" Racism Scale was used to ...


Self-Concept Assessment Of Linguistically Diverse Students, Rebecca Rauscher-Bethlendy Dec 1993

Self-Concept Assessment Of Linguistically Diverse Students, Rebecca Rauscher-Bethlendy

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not students of linguistically diverse backgrounds tend to have lower self-concepts, particularly in the academic setting, than those students who are from "standard" English linguistic backgrounds. This study took into account the students' linguistic backgrounds; the language most frequently used in the home, whether it is "standard" English, Black English, Spanish, or any other language. It was the premise of this researcher that if a child's first language or dialect deviates from the "standard," which is typically valued and emphasized in the classroom and the society at large, then ...


Diagnostic Theory Of Information As A Testing Technique To Ascertain Spanish Reading Proficiency, Ivette V. Robles Aug 1992

Diagnostic Theory Of Information As A Testing Technique To Ascertain Spanish Reading Proficiency, Ivette V. Robles

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of information theory as a testing reading proficiency of bilingual students. This study is not an attempt to analyze mistakes or to debate which reading proficiency test is the best in testing Spanish language abilities or expertise. This test was constructed to determine the readability and the validity of information theory as a testing tool. A second purpose was to determine whether this technique could help increase the student's ability to comprehend reading material at his/her level of language learning. A third purpose was to try to develop ...