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Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

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Shingrix Education For Providers, Lindsey Hanks Buzzeo Sep 2019

Shingrix Education For Providers, Lindsey Hanks Buzzeo

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Shingles is a prevalent disease within the overall population, and incidence in North America continues to increase. Shingles is commonly found in older adults 60 years of age and older and can recur two or three times. Shingrix was released in 2017 as a recombinant vaccine for prevention of shingles. Despite its benefits, this vaccine has not been recommended by many prescribing providers. Research has shown that an effective education program improves attitudes and misconceptions related to vaccines and can increase prescribing rates. An education program was created to share with prescribing providers to improve overall knowledge and recommendation rates ...


Exploring The Reflective Experiences Of Disadvantaged Children In 4-H: A Phenomenological Study, Cherise Marcella Mbaye Sep 2019

Exploring The Reflective Experiences Of Disadvantaged Children In 4-H: A Phenomenological Study, Cherise Marcella Mbaye

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to understand how adults, who grew up as disadvantaged children, were influenced by their experiences in a 4-H program located in rural southern Virginia. The research question central to the study was, “How do adults who grew up as disadvantaged children describe their experiences in a local 4-H program within rural southern Virginia?” The theory guiding this study was Markus and Nurius’ (1986) “possible selves” theory (p. 954). I collected data from 11 participants via interviews, focus groups, and replicas of artifacts. Post data collection, I used preset and in vivo coding ...


A Case Study On The Implementation Of Additional Daily Physical Activity Beyond The State-Required Guidelines, Frances Eugenia Phipps Aug 2019

A Case Study On The Implementation Of Additional Daily Physical Activity Beyond The State-Required Guidelines, Frances Eugenia Phipps

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to provide an in-depth understanding of teachers’, principals’ and educational stakeholders’ viewpoints of students in 3rd, 4th and 5th grades pertaining to the incorporation of additional daily physical activity into the school day above the state-mandated 30 minutes in an elementary school in rural Western North Carolina. Research questions included: How does additional daily physical activity implemented in the school day influence student cognitive development? Why has additional daily physical activity time been incorporated into the school day? How does extended play benefit students beyond cognitive impact? Personal semi-constructed interviews with 11 ...


A Correlational Study On The Relationship Between Pupil Control Ideology, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes, And Teacher Efficacy Among Urban Teachers, Kyria Parker-Hart Aug 2019

A Correlational Study On The Relationship Between Pupil Control Ideology, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes, And Teacher Efficacy Among Urban Teachers, Kyria Parker-Hart

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Teacher efficacy describes teachers’ beliefs in their ability to impact student achievement, regardless of external factors. The present study’s purpose was to determine factors that influence teacher efficacy such as color-blindness and pupil control ideology. The goals were to determine the following: If there was a relationship between color-blind beliefs and teacher efficacy, do color-blind racial attitudes moderate the relationship between pupil control ideology and teachers’ sense of efficacy, and can beliefs about student behavior and color-blindness predict levels of teacher efficacy? The Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, Pupil Control Ideology Scale, and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were ...


Relating Millennial Teachers' Age To Frequency And Variety Of Instructional Technology Use In Elementary Math, Ladonna Marie Tate Aug 2019

Relating Millennial Teachers' Age To Frequency And Variety Of Instructional Technology Use In Elementary Math, Ladonna Marie Tate

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Mathematics instruction continues to be of immediate concern in the United States. The availability of technology has become commonplace in today’s classrooms. However, the integration of technology-assisted instruction involves a paradigmatic shift in traditional mathematical practices. Instructional technology, such as interactive whiteboards, handheld tablets, laptops, software, and desktop-based devices, serves as a tool to aid students in communicating mathematically and conceptualizing mathematical reasoning. Research posits that when teachers can personally adapt to the use of innovation, instructional technology in the classroom can be a rigorous tool used for the development of individualized, student-centered learning. As generational shifts of power ...


The Influence Of Successful Completion Of A Spanish Course On Middle School Students’ Reading Comprehension, Jason Ray Cheek Aug 2019

The Influence Of Successful Completion Of A Spanish Course On Middle School Students’ Reading Comprehension, Jason Ray Cheek

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This quantitative, causal-comparative study investigated the effect of foreign language education on reading comprehension by students’ biological sex. The theoretical framework for this study is Piaget and Barlett’s Schema Theory. Participants in this study consisted of middle school students within a PK-8 school. A convenience sample of 200 students was selected, 100 males and 100 females. All students were given a pretest and posttest using the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI). Independent variables consisted of enrollment in a Spanish course and biological sex while the dependent variable was reading comprehension skills as determined by assessment results on the SRI. An ...


Predictors Of Zero Tolerance Policy Violations Among High School And Middle School Students, Anthony J. Roberson Aug 2019

Predictors Of Zero Tolerance Policy Violations Among High School And Middle School Students, Anthony J. Roberson

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study embarked on identifying social and economic variables to predict violations of zero tolerance policies. The objective of this study was to identify a set of variables that may predict circumstance that lead a student to violate zero tolerance policies. This study explored whether a set of five risk factors: (i) grade level, (ii) retention, (iii) suspension, (iv) race, and (v) gender can predict the criterion variable, zero tolerance policies violation. The research design supports the examination of the null hypothesis of no predictive relationship between the predictor variables grade level, suspension, race, and gender and the criterion variable ...


High Achieving Hispanic And Black High School Students' Experiences In Ap And Honors Courses: A Phenomenology, Kristy Simpson-Alvarez Aug 2019

High Achieving Hispanic And Black High School Students' Experiences In Ap And Honors Courses: A Phenomenology, Kristy Simpson-Alvarez

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to understand high-achieving Hispanic and Black high school students’ experiences with honors and advanced placement (AP) courses in a Georgia private high school. The participants for this study were 11 high-achieving Hispanic and Black high school students as defined by a 3.0 or higher, grade point average (GPA) and enrollment in at least one advanced placement or honors course. Focus group interviews, individual participant interviews, and student journals were used as data collection methods. Data analysis followed van Kaam’s method—horizontalization, reduction and elimination, clustering and thematizing the invariant constituents ...


Comparing Security Self-Efficacy Amongst College Freshmen And Senior, Female And Male Cybersecurity Students, Lane H. Melton Aug 2019

Comparing Security Self-Efficacy Amongst College Freshmen And Senior, Female And Male Cybersecurity Students, Lane H. Melton

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study sought to determine if there was a difference in the self-efficacy of freshman and senior, female and male Cybersecurity students relating to threats associated with various information systems. The design for this quantitative study was non-experimental, causal-comparative and known as group comparison used to determine if there was a causal relationship between variables. The method used to make that determination utilized a self-efficacy survey developed by Phelps (2005), to identify the independent variables specific level of self-efficacy. Research was conducted at a small, southern university with total of 33 participants. Each student was enrolled in the Computer Science ...


Oral Reading Fluency Scores As An Indicator Of Reading Comprehension In Title I Schools, Carrie Barr Mott Aug 2019

Oral Reading Fluency Scores As An Indicator Of Reading Comprehension In Title I Schools, Carrie Barr Mott

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study investigated the relationship between second grade students’ oral reading fluency scores as an indicator of reading comprehension achievement. A correlational design was used with a sample of 302 students from three South Carolina Title I schools. The students’ oral reading fluency (DORF) and overall, informational, and literary comprehension scores (MAP) were recorded. The researcher completed three bivariate linear regression analyses to determine if overall, informational, and literary comprehension could be predicted by students’ oral reading fluency rates. The researcher found that that there is a significant predictive relationship between the predictor and criterion variables. The statistical method used ...


Foster Youth Transitioning To Independent Living And Higher Education: A Phenomenological Study, Janet P. Harrison Aug 2019

Foster Youth Transitioning To Independent Living And Higher Education: A Phenomenological Study, Janet P. Harrison

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of foster youth who aged out of foster care and enrolled in higher educational programs in rural areas of southern Virginia. The theory that guided this study was Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as it applied to higher educational pursuits of foster youth who had, or were about to, age out of foster care. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory also guided this study to identify additional barriers to higher education for foster youth. This phenomenological study used a transcendental research method. Data collection methods included face-to-face and phone ...


The Effectiveness Of Inquiry And Computer Based Learning In Remediation Of Science Students, Kelli Caras Aug 2019

The Effectiveness Of Inquiry And Computer Based Learning In Remediation Of Science Students, Kelli Caras

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The state of Virginia requires science Standards of Learning tests to be conducted as a graduation requirement as well as a measure of teacher performance. In an attempt to increase graduation rates, the state has adopted an expedited retake policy allowing certain students to retest if their scores were close to passing but fell short. No requirement, however, was given as to the means of remediation that the students must attend in order to retest. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of three instructional strategies in improving student performance during the retest. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design was used ...


The Transition From Classroom Teacher To Instructional Coach: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Karin Elizabeth Graham Aug 2019

The Transition From Classroom Teacher To Instructional Coach: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Karin Elizabeth Graham

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental, phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of 13 teachers who have transitioned from the role of classroom teacher to instructional coach. All participants were actively involved in at least one of two online instructional coaching forums. At this stage in the research, the teacher to instructional coach transition experience can be described as the decisions and circumstances that led a classroom teacher to pursue the role of instructional coach. The instructional coach can be defined as a collaborative teaching partner that helps build teacher capacity and provides teachers individualized professional development to meet their ...


Christian Teachers’ Experiences Motivating High School Students In The Pacific Northwest: A Transcendental Phenomenology, Michael Anthony Rickman Aug 2019

Christian Teachers’ Experiences Motivating High School Students In The Pacific Northwest: A Transcendental Phenomenology, Michael Anthony Rickman

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study sought to describe experiences of Christian high school teachers motivating students in the Pacific Northwest to be autonomous learners, competent in skills and achievements, and relationally balanced within a Christian environment. The literature indicates two phenomena exist. First, student motivation decreases as they progress; and second, a gap exists in the literature related to Christian schoolteachers’ experiences motivating students. The research question is “How do Christian high school teachers describe their experiences motivating students to be autonomous, competent, and relational?” Purposeful sampling produced nine participants from Christian high schools in the Pacific ...


Elementary School Building Leaders’ Experiences With Leading Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports (Pbis) Initiatives In Upstate South Carolina: A Phenomenological Study, Jason Michael Ramey Aug 2019

Elementary School Building Leaders’ Experiences With Leading Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports (Pbis) Initiatives In Upstate South Carolina: A Phenomenological Study, Jason Michael Ramey

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of elementary school building leaders with leading Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) initiatives in upstate South Carolina. The theories guiding this study were the growth mindset theory (Dweck, 2006) and the transformational leadership theory (Bass, 1996) as they tie into the experiences of building leaders through their journey. The central research question in this study was: What are the building leaders’ experiences leading PBIS initiatives in an upstate South Carolina elementary school? This study sought to discover the experiences of building leaders who were implementing PBIS. The ...


Understanding Father Involvement Regarding The Academic Success Of African American Males In Urban High Schools, Temujin H. Taylor Aug 2019

Understanding Father Involvement Regarding The Academic Success Of African American Males In Urban High Schools, Temujin H. Taylor

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

There is a great deal of evidence that parental involvement is positively related to how children and adolescents perform in school (Flouri & Buchanan, 2004; McLanahan, Tach, & Schneider, 2013). Few studies (Battle & Scott, 2000; Reynolds, Howard, & Jones, 2015) have specifically looked at the influence of fathers and non-biological father figures on the educational outcomes of African American adolescents. Father involvement is crucial to the academic success of African American males. The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of involved African American fathers regarding the academic success of their high school age sons? For the purpose of this study, father involvement is broadly defined as engagement (interacting with the child directly), accessibility (being available for the child, but not interacting directly with the child), and responsibility (monitoring and providing for the child; Lamb, Pleck, Charnov, & Levine, 1985). Social ecological theory will be used to guide the study. Bronfenbrenner (1979) theorized that socio-cultural systems and environmental factors influence a child’s development. Data was collected primarily from African American fathers who were involved in their high school age sons’ academics through interviews, a focus group session, and document analysis. Phenomenological data analysis procedures as described by Moustakas’ (1994) seven step model were utilized. The findings suggests that ...


The Impact Of A Felon's Overall Well-Being On Education, Employment, And Recidivism, Shandrika S. Mcnair-Williams Aug 2019

The Impact Of A Felon's Overall Well-Being On Education, Employment, And Recidivism, Shandrika S. Mcnair-Williams

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examines the relationship between the self-reported mental well-being of a felon concerning their educational choices, employment opportunities, and recidivism. The study is a correlational quantitative study that used a multiple regression to analyze the data. Data were examined from visitors to the North Carolina Employment Security Commission. The data were collected from the convenience sample of 106 unemployed or underemployed felons seeking employment and/or training. The study found that there was no statistical significance between the self-reported mental well-being of a felon and their employment choices or recidivism. A significant regression equation was found with a statistically ...


The Role Of Band For Former Military-Connected Students When Transitioning Schools: A Phenomenological Study, Beverly Purifoy Goehring Aug 2019

The Role Of Band For Former Military-Connected Students When Transitioning Schools: A Phenomenological Study, Beverly Purifoy Goehring

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to understand the role of wind band for former military-connected (MC) students that graduated Carn Schools (pseudonym) in the past five years who experienced a transition to a new school. The theories guiding this study were Gates’ music participation theory as it describes reasons and explanations of why people actively participate in music and Vygotsky’s social constructivist theory as it relates to learning in a social context. The central research question for this study was as follows: How do former MC children describe their experiences in wind band during a transition ...


Teacher Attitudes Toward Technology Integration In A One-To-One Mobile Device Middle-School Classroom, Gary L. Mosley Aug 2019

Teacher Attitudes Toward Technology Integration In A One-To-One Mobile Device Middle-School Classroom, Gary L. Mosley

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

As the classroom climate transforms into a more technology-enhanced environment with increased device availability, there is a growing need to understand how attitudes among teachers may be influenced by the use of these devices in the classroom. Because of current technology trends, device integration is essential to meet education goals (Keengwe, Schnellert, & Mills, 2012). Research suggests that the use of mobile devices in the classroom along with the expectations for teachers to integrate these devices into their curriculum can have significant effects on attitudes and behaviors among teachers and therefore, should be studied (Sahin et al., 2017; Moore, 2016; Beeland, 2002; Christensen, 2002). This study attempted to examine the difference in teacher attitudes toward technology integration based on their use of either Chromebooks or iPads as mobile devices in a one-to-one integrated middle-school classroom. Using a quantitative, causal comparative design, participants were selected from a ...


The Differences In Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scores Between Military Dependent Students And General Population Students, Jeffrey Thomas Harris Aug 2019

The Differences In Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scores Between Military Dependent Students And General Population Students, Jeffrey Thomas Harris

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The United States has now been engaged in war for fourteen years, the longest war in American history. A war like this has created an atmosphere of extended deployments for members of the military resulting in separation from their family. Deployments can affect many areas of family life, and the child’s academics is one such area. A student’s success often depends on his/her confidence, or “self-efficacy”, in academics. This can be affected by the inconsistencies of military life, such as constantly moving and transferring schools, which can shake that confidence causing him or her to struggle academically ...


A Case Study Of Home Visits Conducted By Kindergarten Teachers In A Low-Income Elementary School, Sheena Brannock Green Aug 2019

A Case Study Of Home Visits Conducted By Kindergarten Teachers In A Low-Income Elementary School, Sheena Brannock Green

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this single case study was to develop an in-depth description of the practice of home visits conducted by kindergarten teachers with students at the beginning of the school year in a suburban, low-income elementary school in North Carolina. The theory guiding this study was Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory of human development, as it states that important child development occurs in all environments where children interact. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, mock letters of advice, and a focus group. The purposive sample included kindergarten teachers who conducted home visits, parents of kindergarteners who had a ...


The Powers That Be: A Phenomenological Study Of College Students' Impressions Of The Bias In Religious Narratives In History Textbooks, Sarah Irene Herrero Aug 2019

The Powers That Be: A Phenomenological Study Of College Students' Impressions Of The Bias In Religious Narratives In History Textbooks, Sarah Irene Herrero

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the perception of bias of college students at a local college regarding the religious narratives in history textbooks. The theory that guided this study was reader response theory, as it identified the tendency of readers to bring their experiences and backgrounds to the literature they read. The study accomplished this by answering (a) how do college students who claim to perceive bias describe their experience of that perception of bias in religious narratives in history textbooks; (b) how do college students describe bias; (c) how do college students construct perceptions of ...


A Transcendental Phenomenology Of The Lived Experiences Of Non-Custodial Grandparents Who Contribute Resources Toward The Grandchild's Christian School Education, Michele Sutton Worley Aug 2019

A Transcendental Phenomenology Of The Lived Experiences Of Non-Custodial Grandparents Who Contribute Resources Toward The Grandchild's Christian School Education, Michele Sutton Worley

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenology was to discover the lived experiences of non-custodial grandparents who contribute resources toward their grandchild’s Christian school education. The guiding theory for this study was Erikson’s (1950) theory of psychosocial development and the specific psychological stage of pursuing Generativity action versus Stagnation. This transcendental phenomenology included 15 non-custodial grandparents who had a grandchild who attended a K-12 Christian school and who had contributed resources operationally defined as financial, physical, emotional, intellectual, and/or spiritual for the grandchild’s Christian school education within the United States. The data was collected through grandparent interviews ...


The Correlation Between Trait Emotional Intelligence And Feelings Of Social Isolation In Alaskan Homeschool Students, Doniel Shawn Wolfe Aug 2019

The Correlation Between Trait Emotional Intelligence And Feelings Of Social Isolation In Alaskan Homeschool Students, Doniel Shawn Wolfe

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and feelings of social isolation in children that homeschool in rural and remote areas of Alaska. The topic of social isolation has continued to be prominent in the homeschool research. Tenuous claims resulting from studies that lack methodological rigor and representative sample sizes have perpetuated the debate by producing disparate conclusions with inherent limitations. This study acknowledged, that given a particular set of circumstances, the likelihood that an individual will experience feelings of social isolation increases. The compounding of conditions such as geographic isolation, time spent without access to a ...


The Influence Of Homeschooling On The Lives Of College Graduates: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Jennifer Rose Elliott Aug 2019

The Influence Of Homeschooling On The Lives Of College Graduates: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Jennifer Rose Elliott

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the influence of a K–12 home education on the academic, familial, spiritual, and vocational aspects of the adult lives of select four-year college graduates. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory framed this study, as it purports that learning and development occur in the symbiotic relationship between learner and environment. Central research question: How do select four-year college graduates describe the influence of a K–12 home education on their adult lives? Sub-questions: (a) How do participants describe the impact of a K–12 home education on their experiences in higher education ...


Successfully Implementing Common Core Literacy Standards In The Science Classroom: A Phenomenological Investigation, Summer Lynn Smith Aug 2019

Successfully Implementing Common Core Literacy Standards In The Science Classroom: A Phenomenological Investigation, Summer Lynn Smith

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to understand how veteran sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade science teachers in Northeast Georgia implemented the Literacy Common Core Performance Standards into their discipline. Legislation introduced many standards reforms in the past 15 years, and this newest change directly corresponded with achievement expectations in the content areas. This study looked at experienced teachers who integrated the Common Core Literacy Standards into their science curriculum and explored their experiences in this implementation. A transcendental phenomenological method was used for 12 teacher interviews over a six-month period. In addition, student work samples, science literacy ...


A Comparison Of Eighth Grade General Education Students’ Ela Scores In Co-Teaching And Regular Classrooms, Deborah Cecilia Mitchell Aug 2019

A Comparison Of Eighth Grade General Education Students’ Ela Scores In Co-Teaching And Regular Classrooms, Deborah Cecilia Mitchell

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This causal comparative, ex post facto quantitative study compared the Georgia Milestones English Language Arts (ELA) scores of 8th-grade general education students taught in a co-teaching classroom compared with scores of students taught in a regular classroom. The research focused on a comparison of the academic performance of two groups on statewide standardized assessments in ELA over 2 consecutive years, 2017 and 2018. The study contributes to the limited research regarding student achievement of general education students in co-teaching classrooms. This study was based on Vygotsky’s social development theory. The research questions examined the differences in the academic performance ...


Undergraduate Admissions Decisions Of Selective Institutions: The Impact Of Social Media Information, Ashley Renea Allison Jul 2019

Undergraduate Admissions Decisions Of Selective Institutions: The Impact Of Social Media Information, Ashley Renea Allison

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This causal comparative study examines the impact of decisions made by college admissions personnel at colleges and universities ranked as Highly Competitive, Highly Competitive Plus, Most Competitive, Very Competitive, and Very Competitive Plus by Barron’s Profiles of American Colleges (2018). Admissions representatives were asked to evaluate social media content of hypothetical applicants to their institution then complete a trait inference task based on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false recognition paradigm. A total of 413 institutions were invited to participate in the online activity to establish the effect of online impression formation by admissions personnel and its impact on admissions decisions. The ...


American Expatriates' Experiences Of Stress And Burnout While Teaching In International Schools Within Southeast Asia: A Phenomenological Study, Sandra N. Jackson Jul 2019

American Expatriates' Experiences Of Stress And Burnout While Teaching In International Schools Within Southeast Asia: A Phenomenological Study, Sandra N. Jackson

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe and understand American expatriates’ perceptions of their lived experiences with burnout and stress while teaching in international schools in Southeast Asia. The theories guiding this study were Hans Selye’s (1951) theory of stress, as it explains the physiological stages of stress the body goes through, and Christine Maslach’s (1997) theory of burnout, which explains the factors associated with burnout. The present study was guided by five research questions, including a single central research question, to discover the participants’ lived experiences with stress and burnout. Four additional subquestions explored ...


Parental Perspectives On Twenty-First Century Learning Environments In Private Middle Schools: A Phenomenological Study, Matthew Oswald Ozolnieks Jul 2019

Parental Perspectives On Twenty-First Century Learning Environments In Private Middle Schools: A Phenomenological Study, Matthew Oswald Ozolnieks

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Over the last decade instructional technology has experienced tremendous growth in adoption and implementation throughout K-12 schools; pedagogy has shifted to keep pace. Within this growth of technological and pedagogical adoption and implementation a lag has emerged. While teachers and administrators have worked hard to maintain the pace with regard to changes, a major stakeholder (i.e. the parents), have struggled to keep up. The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to better understand the experiences of parents with middle school students enrolled in private, twenty-first century learning model/technology-rich ACSI schools in South Florida. The theory guiding this ...