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Full-Text Articles in Education

An Investigation Of Fit Criteria Within Mg-Cfa For Examining Non-Negligible Measurement Invariance, Abdolvahab Khademi Dec 2020

An Investigation Of Fit Criteria Within Mg-Cfa For Examining Non-Negligible Measurement Invariance, Abdolvahab Khademi

Doctoral Dissertations

One desirable property of a measurement process or instrument is the maximum invariance of the results across subpopulations with similar distribution of the traits. Determining measurement invariance (MI) is a statistical procedure in which different methods are used given different factors, such as the nature of the data (e.g. continuous, or discrete, completeness), sample size, measurement framework (e.g. observed scores, latent variable modeling), and other context-specific factors. To evaluate the statistical results, numerical criteria are often used, derived from theory, simulation, or practice. One statistical method to evaluate MI is multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) in which the ...


It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham Dec 2020

It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham

Doctoral Dissertations

Postpartum depression presents a complication for mothers which can, in some cases, be severe and even life-threatening. Instruments commonly used to screen for this psychological condition have been challenged by an extensive body of literature, with many mothers being unidentified and even untreated for their symptoms. The presented research introduces a newly developed screening instrument for detecting probable postpartum depression using text-free scenario-based animations, based on the lived experience of the condition as qualified by empirical research and the existing body of literature. Developed items were controlled for quality via Think Aloud Protocol and alignment studies with subject matter experts ...


The Institutional Pillars Of China's National College Entrance Exam: A Case Study Of Gaozhong High School And Ncee Reforms, Mei Lan Frame Jul 2020

The Institutional Pillars Of China's National College Entrance Exam: A Case Study Of Gaozhong High School And Ncee Reforms, Mei Lan Frame

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation is based on a case study of a Beijing high school (referred to as “Gaozhong”) during the initial wave of reforms to the National College Entrance Exam (NCEE). Using the conceptual framework of Richard Scott’s “three pillars” of institutions (2008) to analyze stake holder perception toward the NCEE (administrators, teachers, parents, and students), this study identifies and examines the regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive elements that comprise the NCEE. Congruent with Scott’s theory that these the combined strength and interdependency between institutional elements prevent institutional change, this study also analyzes the three pillars as barriers to the ...


What's In A Label? Unpacking The Meaning Of Achievement Labels From Tests, Francis O'Donnell Mar 2020

What's In A Label? Unpacking The Meaning Of Achievement Labels From Tests, Francis O'Donnell

Doctoral Dissertations

As a result of federal accountability policies, achievement level labels from statewide assessments are ascribed to public school students 17 times between grades 3 and 12. Depending on students’ performance and state of residence, they may be labeled inadequate or in need of support, below proficient or approaching expectations, level 3 or on track—to name a few examples. These labels are delivered through individual reports for students and parents as well as group reports for teachers. In spite of their widespread use, research on how achievement level labels are interpreted is minimal. The aim of this study was to ...


Are Some Horizons Broader Than Others? Study Abroad, Inequality, And The Influence On Careers And Education., Suzan Kommers Mar 2020

Are Some Horizons Broader Than Others? Study Abroad, Inequality, And The Influence On Careers And Education., Suzan Kommers

Doctoral Dissertations

Study abroad is one of the main ways in which higher education institutions provide students with the opportunity to gain international experiences. While study abroad is mostly discussed in terms of the beneficial effects on students’ learning and development, the results in this dissertation indicate that study abroad works for some but disadvantages other students. Based on nationally representative U.S. data, I examined 1) disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad as well as the effect of study abroad on the socioeconomic outcomes 2) early career income and 3) graduate school enrollment. The combined studies in this dissertation provided ...


A Top-Down Approach For Optimally Designing Multistage-Adaptive Tests, Hwanggyu Lim Jul 2019

A Top-Down Approach For Optimally Designing Multistage-Adaptive Tests, Hwanggyu Lim

Doctoral Dissertations

In multistage-adaptive testing (MST), there are many interrelated design variables that impact the nature and quality of ability estimation. Previous research has identified general principles for the effective design of MSTs in terms of measurement performance. However, those principles are unlikely to apply uniformly to every testing context.

The purpose of this dissertation is to propose a process of finding an MST design that has optimal measurement properties, given a specific set of test circumstances. To achieve this goal, an efficient strategy was introduced at each of three phases to discover the optimal design of the MST; constructing MSTs, systematically ...


Bringing Learning Back In: Examining Three Psychometric Models For Evaluating Learning Progression Theories, Duy Pham Mar 2019

Bringing Learning Back In: Examining Three Psychometric Models For Evaluating Learning Progression Theories, Duy Pham

Doctoral Dissertations

Learning progressions provide potentially valuable information to teachers about how to develop a scope and sequence for a group of learning objectives. However, for the learning progressions to be valuable, the progressions must be supported. Although there are several approaches and models that can be used to evaluate the validity of a learning progression, there is a dearth of research examining the advantages and limitations of each approach. The purpose of this study was to examine a multi-dimensional item response theory model and two cognitive diagnostic models (DINA and HO-DINA) for evaluating two learning progressions via a simulation study. In ...


Using Strategic Discourse For Building Understanding In Elementary Mathematics: What Do Teachers And Students Think?, Mary Coakley Oct 2018

Using Strategic Discourse For Building Understanding In Elementary Mathematics: What Do Teachers And Students Think?, Mary Coakley

Doctoral Dissertations

The mathematics reform movement has not had a significant or lasting impact on the practice of teachers and learning of students throughout the country (Boylan, 2010, Kazemi & Stipek, 2001). Students are not developing the types of skills critical thinking skills needed to solve problems in mathematics. Research suggests a need for structural changes that include providing opportunities for students to develop more autonomy and authority in the mathematics classroom (Cuban, 2013). To meet these challenges, teachers and students must make significant changes to implement instruction that fulfills this demand. This expectation has left teachers struggling to determine essential changes and ...


Examining The Effects Of Changes In Automated Rater Bias And Variability On Test Equating Solutions, Michelle Boyer Oct 2018

Examining The Effects Of Changes In Automated Rater Bias And Variability On Test Equating Solutions, Michelle Boyer

Doctoral Dissertations

Many studies have examined the quality of automated raters, but none have focused on the potential effects of systematic rater error on the psychometric properties of test scores. This simulation study examines the comparability of test scores under multiple rater bias and variability conditions, and addresses questions of their effects on test equating solutions. Effects are characterized by a comparison of equated and observed raw scores and estimates of examinee ability across the bias and variability scenarios. Findings suggest that the presence of, and changes in, rater bias and variability affect the equivalence of total raw scores, particularly at higher ...


Teacher Education And Professional Development On Classroom Assessment In Bangladesh: Exploring Policy And Practice Through A Vertical Case Study, Sumera Ahsan Oct 2018

Teacher Education And Professional Development On Classroom Assessment In Bangladesh: Exploring Policy And Practice Through A Vertical Case Study, Sumera Ahsan

Doctoral Dissertations

Formative Classroom Assessment (FCA) can be the single most powerful activity to promote students’ learning (Hattie, 2009). In Bangladesh FCA is not in practice (Ahsan, 2009). Policies and teacher preparation on FCA are the two factors that influence the practice of formative assessment in classrooms (Stiggins, 1999; Plake, 1993). In my research I aimed to learn how different actors, discourses, and materials come together to produce policies on FCA in policy network and translate the policies in a Teachers’ Training College (TTC), and in classrooms in an urban school.

I used ‘critical socio-cultural approach to policy as practice’ (Levinson, Sutton ...


Investigation Repeater Effects On Small-Sample Equating: Include Or Exclude?, Hongyu Diao Jul 2018

Investigation Repeater Effects On Small-Sample Equating: Include Or Exclude?, Hongyu Diao

Doctoral Dissertations

In licensure testing programs, some examinees might attempt the test multiple times till they are satisfied with their final score, those who take the same test repeatedly are referred to as repeaters. Previous studies suggested that repeaters should be removed from the total sample before implementing equating procedures for two reasons: 1) repeater group is distinguishable from the non-repeater group and the total group, 2) repeaters may memorize anchor items and cause an item drift in common items in the non-equivalent anchor test (NEAT) design. However, removing repeaters might not be the best solution if the testing program only has ...


Perceptions Of African American College Students In San Francisco Bay Area Community Colleges On Their Developmental Training To Participate In Civic Engagement During High School, Melvin Davis May 2018

Perceptions Of African American College Students In San Francisco Bay Area Community Colleges On Their Developmental Training To Participate In Civic Engagement During High School, Melvin Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

The democratic practice of representative government in the United States is supposed to represent and protect its citizens. Since the United States abolished legalized slavery with the 13th Amendment in 1865, individual states have made many attempts to impede the civil rights and voting rights of African American citizens. Several pieces of legislation were designed to protect citizens, such as the Civil Rights act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition to overt legislated actions to thwart voting rights, the 26th Amendment of 1971 afforded citizens at least 18-years old the right to vote. Studies, however ...


Unlocking Creative Potential: Catholic Elementary School Principal Perceptions Of Creativity, Kellie Scherer May 2018

Unlocking Creative Potential: Catholic Elementary School Principal Perceptions Of Creativity, Kellie Scherer

Doctoral Dissertations

Church documents and scholars affirm that traditional pedagogies are ineffective in preparing students for the demands of the 21st century (CCE, 2014, p. 13, Darling-Hammond, 2010; Hartley, 2003; Kampylis, 2010; Skiba, Tan, Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2010). A review of the literature revealed that a gap in research on the Catholic elementary school principal’s understanding of and commitment to creativity exists. Even teachers who value creativity cannot fully support its development in the classroom without proper training. Continuing education coordinated by principals is one of the few opportunities for teachers to identify and confront their creativity misconceptions. The purpose of this ...


Measuring Cogency In Argument In The Seventh-Grade English Classroom, Millie Gonzalez-Balsam May 2018

Measuring Cogency In Argument In The Seventh-Grade English Classroom, Millie Gonzalez-Balsam

Doctoral Dissertations

Constructing a cogent argument that addresses real-world problems aids students in the development of critical thinking and requires students to present multiple perspectives in a credible manner. Yet, rubrics do not always measure students’ reasoning. The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure cogency in argument. I created a Teacher Designed Rubric Measuring Cogency (TDRMC) based on Toulmin’s model of argument for its emphasis on context-specific warrants, and I used Wilson’s framework for assessment to operationalize the construct of cogency. I compared the TDRMC to the current standardized assessment rubric for ...


Investigating The Impact Of Student Opt Out On Value-Added Measures Of Teacher Quality, Joshua Marland Nov 2017

Investigating The Impact Of Student Opt Out On Value-Added Measures Of Teacher Quality, Joshua Marland

Doctoral Dissertations

Student assessment nonparticipation (or opt out) has increased substantially in K-12 schools in states across the country. This increase in opt out has the potential to impact achievement and growth measures used for educator and institutional accountability. This simulation study investigates the extent to which value-added measures of teacher quality are impacted as a result of varying degrees of opt out, as well as various types of nonrandom opt out. Results show that the magnitude of opt out has a greater impact on stability of value-added estimates than the type of nonrandom opt out patterns simulated in this study, with ...


Using Exemplar Items To Define Performance Categories: A Comparison Of Item Mapping Methods, Ana Karantonis Nov 2017

Using Exemplar Items To Define Performance Categories: A Comparison Of Item Mapping Methods, Ana Karantonis

Doctoral Dissertations

Score reporting is an extremely important and yet often neglected component of large-scale assessment programs. One element of score reporting that frequently leads to misunderstanding is the interpretation of performance levels. One way to help define performance levels is through the use of "exemplars." Exemplars are test items that are supposed to best characterize each performance level. In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to examine the performance of two item-mapping methods and different criteria for identifying exemplars under several simulated conditions.

The results of the study were neither clear nor systematic across all conditions and performance levels ...


Evaluating A Translingual Administration Of The Early Grades Math Assessment (Egma) In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Fernanda Gandara Nov 2017

Evaluating A Translingual Administration Of The Early Grades Math Assessment (Egma) In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Fernanda Gandara

Doctoral Dissertations

Translanguaging is a view around languages that normalizes diglossia without separation: the linguistic resources of the bilinguals are considered one integrated system. Translanguaging is also a language practice of bilinguals, who select features from their entire linguistic repertoire to make sense of the world around them. Translanguaging is widely used by students and teachers in the bilingual classroom, as it allows students to build upon their entire set of resources, enhance learning outcomes, perform identities, and develop their languages even further. However, translanguaging is rarely used in assessments of bilinguals. Assessments of bilinguals, especially large-scale tests, are typically monolingual in ...


Social-Emotional Development Assessment: Scale Development For Kindergarten Through Second Grade Youth Universal Screening, James F.M. Brenchley Nov 2017

Social-Emotional Development Assessment: Scale Development For Kindergarten Through Second Grade Youth Universal Screening, James F.M. Brenchley

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this project was to address a significant gap in the research literature with regard to available screening tools that allow young children to self-identify needs related to their social-emotional development. A review of current evidence-based social-emotional tools led to the identification of seven domains most frequently utilized: self-regulation, emotional regulation, social skills, self-concept, school connectedness, social responsibility, and optimism/positivity. To accomplish this endeavor, two studies were conducted to develop a screening measure that demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, but also minimized cost related to time for implementation. The first study was a review of 105 pilot scale ...


Concurrent And Predictive Validity Of The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test – Group Ability Test, Brooke Lauren Browarnik Aug 2017

Concurrent And Predictive Validity Of The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test – Group Ability Test, Brooke Lauren Browarnik

Doctoral Dissertations

Within the framework of a pretest/posttest design, relations among the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test – Group Ability Test (UNIT-GAT) and two measures of reading achievement: the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, Second Edition (TOSWRF-2) and the Test of Silent Word Reading Comprehension, Second Edition (TOSCRF-2) were examined for 140 children between the ages of six and fifteen, enrolled in one of three Boys & Girls Clubs in the eastern United States. Based on a counterbalanced administration at pretest, UNIT-GAT Analogical Reasoning (AR) scores moderately correlated with TOSWRF-2 Form A scores (r = .45, p < 01), TOSWRF-2 Form B scores (r = .41, p < .01), TOSCRF-2 Form A scores (r = .45, p < .01), and TOSCRF-2 Form B scores (r = .49, p < .01). Further, among students who attended at least fifteen tutoring sessions, only one of four correlation coefficients between UNIT-GAT AR scores and the posttest reading change scores was significant, UNIT-GAT AR and TOSWRF-2 Form B; ( p < 01), but this value is essentially meaningless, as it was obtained from only 2 participants. Even though the concurrent validity between the UNIT-GAT AT and the two reading scores is moderately strong, it does not predict change scores after tutoring under the conditions of this study. Implications are discussed.


Promoting Self-Determination Skills Of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities Participating In The Inclusive Concurrent Enrollment Initiative Programs Throughout Massachusetts, Lyndsey Nunes Jul 2017

Promoting Self-Determination Skills Of Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities Participating In The Inclusive Concurrent Enrollment Initiative Programs Throughout Massachusetts, Lyndsey Nunes

Doctoral Dissertations

There are currently 15 Inclusive Concurrent Enrollment Initiative (ICEI) Programs throughout Massachusetts. Each program is different in its day-to-day planning but all adhere to the mission, full inclusion of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this evaluative research study was to examine and understand the functional components of postsecondary education programs that promote self-determination for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities and to differentiate programs that include or do not include these components. To answer the five research questions data were collected from Students, Educational Coaches, ICEI Program Coordinators, Transition Liaisons, Statewide Coordinator, observations, and record reviews ...


Examining The Capacity Of Instructional Support Networks For The Diffusion Of Computer Science For All (Csforall) In An Urban District, Rebecca Mazur Jul 2017

Examining The Capacity Of Instructional Support Networks For The Diffusion Of Computer Science For All (Csforall) In An Urban District, Rebecca Mazur

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand the capacity for diffusion of computer science instruction in an urban school district. Two types of networks, general instructional support and computer science-related support, were described and investigated. Social Network Analysis was used as the primary method to examine the structure of and relationships between the networks. Results suggest that even in schools with dense and distributed instructional support networks, sparse and centralized systems of ties are characteristic of DLCS support networks. Further, an analysis of networks with and without team-supported ties indicates that formal structures for collaborative teaming are critical sources ...


Perceptions Of Student Engagement: Understanding Knowledge And Policy Implications Among K-12 District Leaders, Ann Marie Cisney-Booth May 2017

Perceptions Of Student Engagement: Understanding Knowledge And Policy Implications Among K-12 District Leaders, Ann Marie Cisney-Booth

Doctoral Dissertations

Student engagement is widely documented from the perspectives of students, teachers, and school-level administrators (Bazenas, 2014; Marks, 2000; Rosenquist, 2015; Sutherland, 2010; van Uden, Ritzen, & Pieters, 2013). At this time, understanding student engagement from the perspective of district leaders, including members of the school board, represents an untapped area of research. Engaged students are more likely to learn, find the learning experience rewarding, as well as are more likely to graduate and pursue higher education (Marks, 2000). In this regard, student achievement is contingent upon the development of a sense of efficacy and confidence in their ability to be successful ...


Understanding Implementation Of Developmental Education Delivery Models In A Community College Setting, Sherry Ann Marlow Ormsby May 2017

Understanding Implementation Of Developmental Education Delivery Models In A Community College Setting, Sherry Ann Marlow Ormsby

Doctoral Dissertations

The field of higher education faces many barriers in providing quality education to students, with educating underprepared students as one of the most challenging and complex (Parker, 2007). Although developmental education may have found a permanent home in community colleges exclusively, the greater concern is not the location of remediation education, but rather the impact on student success (Parker, Bustillos & Behringer, 2010).

Until students arrive at higher education institutions academically prepared to be successful in college-level courses, developmental education will continue to be a critical mission of community colleges (CCA, 2012). Too many students are lost in the developmental education ...


The Impact Of A Value-Added Model On Educational Leadership Practices In Northwest Louisiana, Candice D. Webert Apr 2017

The Impact Of A Value-Added Model On Educational Leadership Practices In Northwest Louisiana, Candice D. Webert

Doctoral Dissertations

This study addressed the impact of VAM, concerns with VAM data, uses and interventions educational leaders provided teachers, and components perceived as necessary for VAM effectiveness as an evaluation tool. The demographics used for this study were position, school size, and experience. Due to the documented need for educational accountability from the 1960s to present, the knowledge gained in this study was valuable. While the initiative was implemented as a response to increased accountability, the perceptions and understanding of such new initiatives can impact their effectiveness; in turn, impacting educational leadership. This study focused on the effectiveness of VAM.

In ...


Family Experiences With Standardized Assessments Leading To Participation In The Opt Out Movement, Christy Lee Evans Dec 2016

Family Experiences With Standardized Assessments Leading To Participation In The Opt Out Movement, Christy Lee Evans

Doctoral Dissertations

With the hope of giving voice to individuals who are usually left out of conversations regarding standardized assessments—the families who live with the effects of those tests on their children—this study was designed to answer the following research questions:

1) Who are some of the individuals who are participating in the opt out movement?

2) How are some individuals making the decision to participate in the opt out movement?

a) What knowledge do these individuals who are participating in the opt out movement have regarding the standardized assessments that their children are being given in public schools?

b ...


Learning To Teach Online: An Investigation Of The Impacts Of Faculty Development Training On Teaching Effectiveness And Attitudes Toward Online Instruction, Karen Elizabeth Brinkley Dec 2016

Learning To Teach Online: An Investigation Of The Impacts Of Faculty Development Training On Teaching Effectiveness And Attitudes Toward Online Instruction, Karen Elizabeth Brinkley

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between one approach to training for online faculty and the ways in which the program influenced the participants’ teaching effectiveness and attitudes toward online instruction. Two research questions guided this study: (1) how did participating in an intensive course redesign intervention influence instructors’ teaching effectiveness in the online environment? and (2) how did participating in the training influence instructors’ beliefs or attitudes about online teaching? The theoretical framework guiding this study was the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model, developed by Mishra and Koehler (2005). Using a concurrent, mixed-methods design ...


Development And Validation Of The Statistics Assessment Of Graduate Students, Dammika Lakmal Walpitage Dec 2016

Development And Validation Of The Statistics Assessment Of Graduate Students, Dammika Lakmal Walpitage

Doctoral Dissertations

This study developed the Statistics Assessment of Graduate Students (SAGS) instrument, and established its preliminary item characteristics, reliability, and validity evidence. Even though there are limited number of assessments available for measuring different aspects of statistical cognition, these previously available assessments have numerous limitations. The SAGS instrument was developed using Rasch modeling approach to create a new measure of statistical research methodology knowledge of graduate students in education and other behavioral and social sciences. Thirty-five multiple-choice questions were written with stems representing applied research situations and response options distinguishing between appropriate use of various statistical tests or procedures. A focus ...


Subscore Reliability And Classification Consistency: A Comparison Of Five Methods, Fen Fan Nov 2016

Subscore Reliability And Classification Consistency: A Comparison Of Five Methods, Fen Fan

Doctoral Dissertations

Previous studies focused on reporting subscores themselves; however, most proficiency tests are criterion-referenced, reporting classification consistency and accuracy of student placement into performance categories within each subdomain are thus more suitable. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the decision consistency (DC) and decision accuracy (DA) of student placement into performance categories within each of the subdomains measured by the test of interest. A second purpose of this study was to compare the performance of five subscoring methods under some realistic conditions in terms of subscore reliability and classification. To do so, a simulation study was designed ...


Detecting Candidate Preknowledge Of Items Using A Predictive Checking Method, Xi Wang Nov 2016

Detecting Candidate Preknowledge Of Items Using A Predictive Checking Method, Xi Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

In on-demand high-stakes testing programs such as GRE and TOEFL, some items are repeatedly used across test administrations to reduce the cost of developing new items constantly. Item exposure provides an opportunity for examinees to have knowledge of particular test items in advance of their administration. It poses a threat to test security and ultimately will result in invalid test scores. Therefore, many testing programs conduct quality control to monitor test compromise at individual and/or group level. A predictive checking method is proposed in this study to detect examinee preknowledge on exposed items. We consider a scenario where a ...


Identifying Examinees Who Possess Distinct And Reliable Subscores When Added Value Is Lacking For The Total Sample, Joseph A. Rios Nov 2016

Identifying Examinees Who Possess Distinct And Reliable Subscores When Added Value Is Lacking For The Total Sample, Joseph A. Rios

Doctoral Dissertations

Research has demonstrated that although subdomain information may provide no added value beyond the total score, in some contexts such information is of utility to particular demographic subgroups (Sinharay & Haberman, 2014). However, it is argued that the utility of reporting subscores for an individual should not be based on one’s manifest characteristics (e.g., gender or ethnicity), but rather on individual needs for diagnostic information, which is driven by multidimensionality in subdomain scores. To improve the validity of diagnostic information, this study proposed the use of Mahalanobis Distance and HT indices to assess whether an individual’s data ...