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Western Michigan University

2016

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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Phenomenological Study Of Practicing Educators’ Personal And Collaborative Experiences Within A Climate Of High Stakes Individual Accountability, Kathy L. Stewart Dec 2016

A Phenomenological Study Of Practicing Educators’ Personal And Collaborative Experiences Within A Climate Of High Stakes Individual Accountability, Kathy L. Stewart

Dissertations

With the national focus in education turning to increasing student achievement and closing achievement gaps between demographic groups, federal and state policy has extended responsibility and high stakes accountability for student growth and achievement. Overall, student achievement status and elimination of achievement gaps between demographically defined sub-groups of students remain cornerstones of accountability under ESEA and now ESSA. Under the Obama Administration, however, accountability for academic growth was extended to individual classroom teachers and school and district-level administrators through federal policy provisions tying student growth to performance evaluation. As a result, many states, including Michigan, enacted legislation to mandate high ...


Advancing Evaluation In Community Colleges: A Mixed Methods Case Study Of Outcomes-Based Assessment Training In Student Affairs, Tammy L. Russell Dec 2016

Advancing Evaluation In Community Colleges: A Mixed Methods Case Study Of Outcomes-Based Assessment Training In Student Affairs, Tammy L. Russell

Dissertations

Many student affairs departments struggle to contribute to an institution’s evidence base of student learning. In part, this results from student affairs personnel not having adequate training in how to assess learning outside the classroom. This is a particular challenge for small community colleges, in which individual units (e.g., admissions or financial aid) may have only one or two employees. Failure to assess co-curricular learning poses challenges to institutions in meeting accreditation standards, placing them at risk for increased scrutiny and loss of state funding under a performance-based system. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to ...


The Impact Of Procedural Compliance To The Individualized Education Program Document On Student Achievement And Academic Benchmarks, Christine Robertson Dec 2016

The Impact Of Procedural Compliance To The Individualized Education Program Document On Student Achievement And Academic Benchmarks, Christine Robertson

Dissertations

Currently, the practice of special education service delivery is undergoing a transformation. This transformation is largely due to the United State Department of Education Office of Special Education’s current framework of “results driven accountability” for the determination of program effectiveness (USDOE, 2011). Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) more than 40 years ago, students with disabilities have been provided increasing access to general educational programs and curriculum. Academic outcomes for those same students, however, have not improved, and the achievement gap between students with and without disabilities continues to widen when measured on national ...


The Impact Of Denominational Affiliation On Organizational Sense Of Belonging And Commitment Of Adjunct Faculty At Bible Colleges And Universities, Kimberly M. Pilieci Dec 2016

The Impact Of Denominational Affiliation On Organizational Sense Of Belonging And Commitment Of Adjunct Faculty At Bible Colleges And Universities, Kimberly M. Pilieci

Dissertations

The majority of faculty in higher education, including secular and biblical institutions, are adjunct faculty. The literature suggests that adjunct faculty are less effective and satisfied, and have weaker organizational sense of belonging (OSB) and affective organizational commitment (AOC). Denominational affiliation (DA) and religious commitment (RC) might mitigate the adjunct faculty’s feelings regarding OSB and AOC, but no research has pursued this set of questions. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of denominational affiliation and religious commitment on organizational sense of belonging and affective organizational commitment among the sample population, adjunct faculty at colleges ...


It’S On Us: A Case Study Of Academic Integrity In A Mid-Western Community College, Ceceilia Parnther Dec 2016

It’S On Us: A Case Study Of Academic Integrity In A Mid-Western Community College, Ceceilia Parnther

Dissertations

Academic ethics and integrity are necessary elements of a quality education. The need for academic integrity education on campuses has been well documented (Bertram Gallant, 2008, 2016; Bertram Gallant & Drinan, 2006; Liebler, 2009; McCabe, Butterfield, & Trevino, 2004). Academic integrity is a cornerstone of the learning process (Bretag et al., 2014; Harp & Taietz, 1966). Higher education institutions have the opportunity to promote academic integrity and prevent academic misconduct on campus by providing clear guidelines, equitable resolutions, and student and faculty engagement. While researchers have examined four-year institutions approaches to academic integrity education, differences exist that are unique to the community college. Specifically, increased diversity, more part-time populations of faculty and staff, higher numbers of students enrolled in online ...


An Analysis Of Campus Violence Threat Assessment Policy Implementation At Michigan Community Colleges, Russell T. Panico Jr. Dec 2016

An Analysis Of Campus Violence Threat Assessment Policy Implementation At Michigan Community Colleges, Russell T. Panico Jr.

Dissertations

This dissertation evaluated campus violence threat assessment policy and procedure implementation at the community college level of higher education. The importance of this topic was to provide a manageable and collaborative initiative for leadership at institutions of higher learning to identify, develop, implement, and evaluate a policy that can effectively prevent acts of campus-related violence. A mixed-methods study approach using a Likert-scale survey with supporting open-ended questions was used to guide the exploration. Bardach’s (2016) Eightfold Path for Policy Analysis was the framework used by Michigan community colleges to apply to their own unique situations. This method determined the ...


Three Empirical Investigations Into The Logic Of Evaluation And Valuing Practices, Satoshi Ozeki Dec 2016

Three Empirical Investigations Into The Logic Of Evaluation And Valuing Practices, Satoshi Ozeki

Dissertations

This three-paper dissertation investigates the logic of evaluation proposed by Michael Scriven using two different methods of inquiry: content analysis and a survey method. Scriven’s logic of evaluation is one of the central concepts in evaluation, but has not been empirically investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this three-paper dissertation is to accumulate empirical knowledge on Scriven’s logic of evaluation to investigate the extent to which evaluators follow his logic and their perceptions of and familiarity with his logic. Furthermore, this dissertation aims to explore valuing practices in terms of Scriven’s logic of evaluation. Scriven’s logic of ...


The Relationships Between Clergy Attachment Style, Leadership Style, And Clergy Professional Longevity, Marc Nelesen Dec 2016

The Relationships Between Clergy Attachment Style, Leadership Style, And Clergy Professional Longevity, Marc Nelesen

Dissertations

This study investigates a relatively new area of research, namely, the relationship between attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1988) and leadership theory. Attachment theory posits that human beings unconsciously established mental models of how relationships work. Depending on the kind and quality of early relational experiences, humans can associate feelings of security, anxiety, or avoidance with relationships. According to attachment theory, these associations are transferable and inform future relationships. Much of leadership theory suggests that relationships are a key component of effective leadership and may very well be the most important factor (Gardner et al., 2005). Recent quantitative studies ...


Shaping Leadership: Leadership Standards In The Organizational Language Of University Programs, R. Ben Meador Iv Dec 2016

Shaping Leadership: Leadership Standards In The Organizational Language Of University Programs, R. Ben Meador Iv

Dissertations

According to institutional theory, organizations in complex fields like education seek legitimacy by aligning formal descriptions of their activities to institutional rules supported by regulators, professional groups and exemplar organizations. This study presents a new technique for measuring isomorphism and the strength of institutional forces within fields using quantitative content analysis of organizational language. This method is deployed to measure alignment between the formal descriptions of 321 university-based programs for educational leaders and themes from the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (i.e., technology, finance, research, and learning) and the influence of state licensure policy and professional affiliation in the ...


Pedagogical Moves As Characteristics Of One Instructor’S Instrumental Orchestrations With Tinkerplots And The Ti-73 Explorer: A Case Study, James L. Kratky Dec 2016

Pedagogical Moves As Characteristics Of One Instructor’S Instrumental Orchestrations With Tinkerplots And The Ti-73 Explorer: A Case Study, James L. Kratky

Dissertations

Those supporting contemporary reform efforts for mathematics education in the United States have called for increased use of technologies to support student-centered learning of mathematical concepts and skills. There is a need for more research and professional development to support teachers in transitioning their instruction to better meet the goals of such reform efforts.

Instrumental approaches to conceptualizing technology use in mathematics education, arising out of the theoretical and empirical work in France and other European nations, show promise for use to frame studies on school mathematics in the United States. Instrumental genesis is used to describe the bidirectional and ...


Exploration Of Peer Learning In A Formal Cohort Healthcare Leadership Development Program, Melinda Marie Gruber Dec 2016

Exploration Of Peer Learning In A Formal Cohort Healthcare Leadership Development Program, Melinda Marie Gruber

Dissertations

Many new and emerging leaders will move into leadership positions in healthcare as experienced leaders retire or move to other positions. These individuals need leadership development that supports them in becoming transformational change leaders. This study explored the topic of peer learning as a leadership development approach in a healthcare setting. The purpose was to better understand the role of peer learning in creating transformational leadership and healthcare change leaders.

This study utilized a qualitative case study approach to explore and understand how peer learning supports leadership development. The study focused on the key learning elements of an 18-month cohort-based ...


The Empowerment Of Academic Women Leaders At Saudi Universities And Its Relationship To Their Administrative Creativity, Azala M. Al Ghamdi Dec 2016

The Empowerment Of Academic Women Leaders At Saudi Universities And Its Relationship To Their Administrative Creativity, Azala M. Al Ghamdi

Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the influence of leaders’ sense of psychological empowerment for women leaders on those leaders’ administrative creativity in both established and emerging universities in Saudi Arabia. The five guiding research questions were used at both established and emerging Saudi universities: (1) what are both male and female leaders’ perceptions of women leaders’ psychological empowerment? (2) What are their perceptions of the administrative creativity among women leaders? (3) How do perceptions of both psychological empowerment and administrative creativity differ between male and female leaders and between established and emerging universities? (4) What other ...


Transitioning Children With Autism From One-On-One Discrete-Trial Settings To Special Education Classrooms, Jennifer L. Freeman Dec 2016

Transitioning Children With Autism From One-On-One Discrete-Trial Settings To Special Education Classrooms, Jennifer L. Freeman

Dissertations

The goal of an early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) program is to teach each child the skills necessary to make meaningful progress in less-restrictive environments (Fox, Dunlap & Crushing, 2002). However, few studies have detailed the steps necessary for a “successful” transition into these educational settings. We transitioned two children, who received 20 hours a week of one-on-one discrete-trial therapy and attended a half-day special education pre-school classroom, to a full-time educational setting. With the goal of aiding each during his/her transition, this study used the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) (Sundberg, 2008), particularly the barriers and ...


From Novice To Independent Researcher: A Content Analysis Of Phd Student Blogs, Sarah J. Cox Dec 2016

From Novice To Independent Researcher: A Content Analysis Of Phd Student Blogs, Sarah J. Cox

Dissertations

The work of completing a PhD is complex, requiring a student to make sense of many uncertain processes in multiple contexts as they move toward independent scholarship. A setting that provides support in learning the tasks of PhD-related work is the informal learning environment of the Internet. Social media sites, such as blogs and wikis, supply a vast number of resources related to PhD work. Of particular interest to this study, are blog sites maintained by students who are sharing practices related to PhD work. It is possible to use a qualitative method to explore what blogs show us about ...


A Formative Evaluation Of A Program Providing Support To College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kourtney Kay Bakalyar Dec 2016

A Formative Evaluation Of A Program Providing Support To College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kourtney Kay Bakalyar

Dissertations

Young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are attending institutions of higher education more than ever before (Smith, 2007). All college students with disabilities have the right to accommodations under the American with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA; P.L. 110-325); however, these accommodations frequently do not address barriers that prevent students with ASD from successfully completing their academic programs. The Autism Services Center at a public, four-year university provides services to its college students with ASD to address difficulties with communication and social skills, unique emotional and behavior characteristics, insufficient executive function, and difficulties with independent living ...


The Lived Experiences Of Conditionally Admitted College Students, Ashley J. Wildman Aug 2016

The Lived Experiences Of Conditionally Admitted College Students, Ashley J. Wildman

Dissertations

College students vary in their preparedness for higher education. While low high school grades and standardized test scores are associated with poor college performance, many colleges and universities admit at least a few academically underprepared students in order to maintain a certain student body size, meet goals for ethnic or socioeconomic diversity, or recruit students with certain artistic or athletic skills (Hossler & Kalsbeek, 2009; Mapes, 2011; Parisi 2012; Zwick, 2007). In order to help academically underprepared students such as these, some institutions admit students who do not meet regular admissions standards “conditionally” and offer them specialized programs to provide additional support (Adebayo ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Whether Elementary Teachers’ Science Kit Usage And Beliefs Can Predict State Science Assessment Scores, Tony E. Rice Aug 2016

A Quantitative Analysis Of Whether Elementary Teachers’ Science Kit Usage And Beliefs Can Predict State Science Assessment Scores, Tony E. Rice

Dissertations

The purpose of this survey was to describe and analyze the perceptions of elementary school teachers’ in a Midwestern state concerning their use of a science kit program, including to what extent a school’s state science assessment scores can be predicated from the level of science kit usage.

Prior research indicates that elementary school teachers lack the confidence in teaching science primarily because of their weak undergraduate training in inquiry-based instruction and the lack of a strong science background. Authors such as Dickerson et al. (2006) and Riggs and Enochs (2006) argued that science kits and the materials included ...


Correlates And Effects Of Data-Informed Decision-Making: An Empirical Examination Of The Loose Coupling Theory Using A National Data Set, Xingyuan Gao Aug 2016

Correlates And Effects Of Data-Informed Decision-Making: An Empirical Examination Of The Loose Coupling Theory Using A National Data Set, Xingyuan Gao

Dissertations

The notion of schools as “loosely-coupled” organizations has been widely discussed in the research literature. Many argue that the loose coupling is either a protective mechanism for schools to buffer external pressure or a barrier to implementing new reforms. Against the backdrop of standards-based reform and accountability policies in the last 15 years, which focus on tightening the system as the way to improve K-12 schools, I conducted three related studies to empirically test the loose coupling theory by applying two-level hierarchical linear models to nationally representative data in the US.

In the first study I evaluated the loose coupling ...


Culturally Relevant Education For Rural Schools: Creating Relevancy In Rural America, Joshua J. Anderson Aug 2016

Culturally Relevant Education For Rural Schools: Creating Relevancy In Rural America, Joshua J. Anderson

Dissertations

In this dissertation, I investigate the ways in which culturally relevant pedagogy is conceptualized and implemented by two secondary English Language Arts educators in one school district with a strong sense of rural identity. Culturally relevant pedagogy is considered by many professionals in the field of education to be an effective philosophy to inform instructional practices for narrowing the achievement gap of historically marginalized groups (Cummins, 1990; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994, 2000). A careful review of the literature on culturally relevant pedagogy reveals the discourse surrounding culturally relevant pedagogy has largely been dominated by urban voices (Cochran-Smith, 2003; Esposito & Swain, 2009; Gay ...


Building An Evaluation Model Of Academic Advising’S Impact On Progression, Persistence, And Retention Within University Settings, Abhik Roy Jun 2016

Building An Evaluation Model Of Academic Advising’S Impact On Progression, Persistence, And Retention Within University Settings, Abhik Roy

Dissertations

Academic advising is at a point in its maturation as a field of study where anecdotal evidence is no longer sufficient to inform the measure of effectiveness. As the area becomes more research-based, advising’s measurable impact should be based on an evaluative framework; no such structure currently exists. In this study, three methods were used to investigate this problem and ultimately to create a model and checklist. Firstly, a descriptive study was used to examine if there is an understanding of what evaluation is within the advising community, one where assessment has been the dominant practice. Secondly, a quasi-experimental ...


Preservice Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge For Nature Of Science And Nature Of Scientific Inquiry: A Successful Case Study, Gunkut Mesci Jun 2016

Preservice Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge For Nature Of Science And Nature Of Scientific Inquiry: A Successful Case Study, Gunkut Mesci

Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation project is to explore preservice science teachers’ development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for targeted aspects of nature of science (NOS) and nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI). Through multiple data sources, it is examined how preservice science teachers’ understanding of NOS and NOSI have changed over the program, and manifests itself in their classroom practice. This is an exploratory multiple case study of participants’ experiences and developments during a teacher development program. Data is collected in the form of open-ended surveys, interviews, observations, lesson plans, video materials, and teaching documents. After all data is collected ...


Females In Automotive Careers: Career Decision-Making Influences And Experiences During University Preparation And Beyond, Russell A. Leonard Jr. Jun 2016

Females In Automotive Careers: Career Decision-Making Influences And Experiences During University Preparation And Beyond, Russell A. Leonard Jr.

Dissertations

Today, women fill nearly 50% of the jobs in the U.S. economy (U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2014). While women are making progress in many careers once considered male only, they are still underrepresented in the male-dominated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) careers, filling only 25% of available STEM jobs (Beede et al., 2011). The problem is not a lack of interest in STEM subjects, but a “leaky pipeline” that develops early in adolescence. By the eighth grade, half as many girls are interested in STEM careers as boys (National Science Foundation [NSF], 2007). Even after graduation from ...


The Influence Of Racial Socialization On The Academic Achievement Of Black College Students, Vanessa R. Laurent Jun 2016

The Influence Of Racial Socialization On The Academic Achievement Of Black College Students, Vanessa R. Laurent

Dissertations

Black college students continue to have difficulties reaching academic success in various domains; however, understanding the nature of how academic success is cultivated by Black college students is vital for counselors, educators, and university administrators. The objective of the study was to understand how racial socialization influenced academic success. Research suggests that racial socialization contributes to positive long-term outcomes among African Americans and may be connected to academic achievement (Bowman & Howard, 1985; Boykin & Tom, 1985; Davis & Stevenson, 2006; Neblett, Terzian, & Harriott, 2010; Stevenson, 1994, 1995). Participants were 349 Black college students from a predominately White institution in the Midwest. They were administered a survey packet, which contained a ...


Guided Educational Tourism As Informal Science Education: An Empirical Study, Joseph Martin Lane Jun 2016

Guided Educational Tourism As Informal Science Education: An Empirical Study, Joseph Martin Lane

Dissertations

The scientific research and education communities have long had the goal of advancing the publics’ understanding of science. Informal science education is a powerful mechanism for shaping human conduct, enhancing quality of life, and advancing the publics’ understandings and values regarding science. Guided educational tours (that present science content) provide visitors with unique opportunities to observe and discuss scientific phenomena in the field. Available empirical research related to learning science from guided educational tours is, at best, limited. Research leading to the development of effective guided educational tours that present and interpret scientific information is of interest to both non-profit ...


Students Engaged In A Learn And Earn Program: Exploring Characteristics That Identify Those Interested In A Career In Manufacturing, Amy M. Koning Jun 2016

Students Engaged In A Learn And Earn Program: Exploring Characteristics That Identify Those Interested In A Career In Manufacturing, Amy M. Koning

Dissertations

The 2008 recession proved to be difficult for the manufacturing industry. As a result, strategies for succession and talent attraction are now important for the resurgence of the industry. The purpose of this study was to describe and interpret how community college students, preparing for entry-level technician positions in manufacturing, experience a “learn and earn” industry and education partnership. For this study, “learn and earn” can be defined as students enrolled full-time in an associate degree program while working at a company that is sponsoring a full ride scholarship for their education.

Past studies have focused on (a) preparing young ...


Work Stress: A Review, Analysis, And Extension Of The Job Demands-Control (-Support) Model, Marcus J. Fila Jun 2016

Work Stress: A Review, Analysis, And Extension Of The Job Demands-Control (-Support) Model, Marcus J. Fila

Dissertations

Occupational stress and health literature is devoted to understanding and predicting the phenomenon of stress in the workplace, given its costly implications to individual and organizational health and well-being. The job demands-control (-support) (JDC(S)) model has been highly influential in occupational stress and health literature for over 37 years, and has been the theoretical foundation of more empirical studies than any other work stress model. To date, over three-hundred published studies have examined relationships between various forms of demands, control over work, and support on numerous physical and psychological strains. However, several issues concerning the model have yet to ...


The Federal School Improvement Grant: Telling The Story Through Quantitative Outcomes, Gregg B. Dionne Jun 2016

The Federal School Improvement Grant: Telling The Story Through Quantitative Outcomes, Gregg B. Dionne

Dissertations

Student success and the mitigation of achievement gaps has been a focus of the federal government since passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) is the latest in federal policy inducements to address this.

To tell the story of SIG implementation in one Midwestern state, data was collected from two groups of SIG-eligible schools, one group which received SIG funding and the other group which did not. Data was collected over multiple years and included mathematics and reading outcomes as well as graduation, dropout, and attendance rates. Data was obtained for ...


Using Postfeedback Delays To Reduce Racing In Online Learning, Anna L. Conard Jun 2016

Using Postfeedback Delays To Reduce Racing In Online Learning, Anna L. Conard

Dissertations

Computer-based instruction (CBI) has become an increasingly popular tool in both business and education throughout the last decade. Despite the various benefits of using CBI, there are several challenges that accompany this mode of instruction, such as computer-based racing. Computer-based racing occurs when learners respond so quickly that frequent mistakes are made. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of postfeedback delays on racing through online lessons conducted in uncontrolled settings. Six different computer-based instructional formats were assessed in terms of learner performance and satisfaction using a between-group pretest-posttest design. Statistically significant differences were observed in ...


Single And Multiple Leadership Roles Of Building Principals: Perceived Differences In Leadership Responsibilities In Selected Midwestern Districts, Michael A. Gaunt Jun 2016

Single And Multiple Leadership Roles Of Building Principals: Perceived Differences In Leadership Responsibilities In Selected Midwestern Districts, Michael A. Gaunt

Dissertations

Principals play a critical role supporting the student’s academic achievement. Their work has become increasingly challenging over past decades due to demands for increased accountability and a decline in fiscal and human resources. Principals, regardless of size and geographical locations, have had to assume additional work responsibilities, including additional administrative roles, in response.

There is a plethora of research documenting the important role principals provide in supporting the academic achievement of students (Chickering and Reisser, 1993; Cotton, 2003; Figlio, 1999; Halinger and Heck, 2011; Leithwood, 1994; and Senge, 2007). Marzano et al’s., (2005) research, as described in his ...


A Metaevaluation Of The Commission On Fire Accreditation International Accreditation Process, Stacy A. French Jun 2016

A Metaevaluation Of The Commission On Fire Accreditation International Accreditation Process, Stacy A. French

Dissertations

Fire and emergency services throughout the country are being required by local governmental authorities to provide efficient and effective services. In 1996, the International City-County Management Association (ICMA) and the International Association of Fire Chief (IAFC) executed a master trust agreement that established the Commission on Fire Accreditation International (CFAI) to award accreditation to those fire and emergency services that demonstrated efficiency and effectiveness in the services provided. As of this study, no documented research had been published that challenged the current CFAI Accreditation process to ensure the highest level of accountability and usefulness for both the public and fire ...