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Western Michigan University

2012

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Full-Text Articles in Education

"Sí Se Puede" Latino Students Can Succeed In School: A Success Case Method Study, Manuel J. Brenes Dec 2012

"Sí Se Puede" Latino Students Can Succeed In School: A Success Case Method Study, Manuel J. Brenes

Dissertations

In public schools about one fourth of the students identify themselves as Latinos or of Hispanic origin. Unfortunately of those Latino children who began at the elementary level, only 40% of them will graduate from high school and about 11% of high school graduates will go on to postsecondary school. In order to improve these numbers, educators and policymakers cannot ignore the needs of this marginalized population.

This study focused on protective and risk factors that influence Latino student’s academic success and continuation into postsecondary school. This study furthermore explored how the Success Case Method (SCM), an evaluation technique ...


Identifying In-School Predictors Of Postsecondary Success For Students With Hearing Impairments, Jennifer Lynn Coyle Dec 2012

Identifying In-School Predictors Of Postsecondary Success For Students With Hearing Impairments, Jennifer Lynn Coyle

Dissertations

Students with hearing impairments are historically a low incidence disability group. Gaps in knowledge of evidence-based practices for implementing transition education and services for this population is limited, primarily as a function of the size of the population; they have not received much attention from the educational research community. Students with hearing impairments often experience more successful outcomes in postsecondary education and employment than other disability groups, but less than those without a disability; however, we know little of the specific educational experiences associated with such success. In contrast, a body of work on predictors of post-school success for students ...


Using Teachliveᵀᴹ To Improve Pre-Service Special Education Teacher Practices, April N. Enicks Dec 2012

Using Teachliveᵀᴹ To Improve Pre-Service Special Education Teacher Practices, April N. Enicks

Dissertations

Currently, there is a body of research available that clearly specifies effective teaching behaviors and quality indicators of a given behavior (Rosenshine, 2012; Danielson, 2007; Stronge, 2007; Rosenshine, 1983; Brophy, 1979). Research is lacking in defining practices that develop effective teaching behaviors in pre-service teachers. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of various forms of instructional modes, settings, and experiences on students’ ability to demonstrate desired effective teaching behaviors. The secondary objective of this study was to determine if on-going self-reflection coupled with various forms of feedback supported students in becoming more effective reflective practitioners ...


Female Head Athletic Trainers In Ncaa Division I (Ia Football) Athletics: How They Made It To The Top, Joanne Gorant Dec 2012

Female Head Athletic Trainers In Ncaa Division I (Ia Football) Athletics: How They Made It To The Top, Joanne Gorant

Dissertations

The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not carry over into positions of high rank. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of female head athletic trainers in NCAA Division I (IA football) institutions to focus on the issues of barriers to advancement and their ability to overcome them.

Using Hakim’s “preference theory” as a lens, this interpretive qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured, open-ended interviews to learn how participants advanced in the field of ...


Characteristics Of Public Alternative High Schools Specifically For Students Placed At-Risk: A National Study Using The 2003-04 And 2007-08 Schools And Staffing Survey, Masashi Izumi Dec 2012

Characteristics Of Public Alternative High Schools Specifically For Students Placed At-Risk: A National Study Using The 2003-04 And 2007-08 Schools And Staffing Survey, Masashi Izumi

Dissertations

In this study I investigated determinants of the average daily attendance (ADA) and graduation rate of public alternative high schools specifically for students placed at-risk by analyzing the nationally representative data from Schools and Staffing Surveys of 2003-04 and 2007-08. I built three models via successive block entry, predicting the ADA and graduation rate by (a) student demographics, (b) staffing characteristics, and (c) school processes. Through multiple regression analyses on ADA, I found (a) a positive relationship between career technical education and ADA; and (b) a negative relationship between teacher-student ratio and ADA. Through the set of multiple regression analyses ...


From Crisis To Stability: A Case Study Of Presidential Leadership At A Christian College, Jeffrey Gill Dec 2012

From Crisis To Stability: A Case Study Of Presidential Leadership At A Christian College, Jeffrey Gill

Dissertations

Despite healthy growth in past decades, in a time of national and global economic instability small, private Christian colleges now find themselves in a precarious position. Leading effectively in such colleges and universities in a time of external and/or internal crisis is a great challenge.

This research is about a small, Christian college with documented evidence of having survived two significant enrollment and financial crises (early 1990s and 2008-09), and is now stable, all under the leadership of a president who served during the 19 year time period of crisis and stability. The purpose of this study is to ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Charter Schools On Achievement, Attendance And Selected Mitigating Factors In A Midwestern State’S Small Urban School Districts, Frederick C. Clarke Dec 2012

A Study Of The Effects Of Charter Schools On Achievement, Attendance And Selected Mitigating Factors In A Midwestern State’S Small Urban School Districts, Frederick C. Clarke

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students attending urban charter schools did better, or worse, than students attending traditional public schools, over a five-year time period, in a Midwestern state. Thirty-one urban school districts affiliated with a Midwestern Urban Education Association, and corresponding charter schools, located within these Midwestern school districts, were selected to participate in this study.

This study utilized a quasi-experimental research design and was supported by the earlier research of Dr. Gary Miron and Dr. Jerry Horn from Western Michigan University (Miron & Horn, 2000; Miron & Horn, 2002; Miron, 2005) and Dr. Scott Imberman from the University of Houston ...


Experiences Of Suburban And Rural High School Principals Who Have Attained Longevity In The Position: A Qualitative Study, Peggy A. Mathis Dec 2012

Experiences Of Suburban And Rural High School Principals Who Have Attained Longevity In The Position: A Qualitative Study, Peggy A. Mathis

Dissertations

Today’s school leaders face many challenges. There is a renewed need to look at principal’s job satisfaction and longevity given recent trends in burnout, increased accountability, and a shortage of qualified candidates. There are conflicting demands on high school principals’ time and capacity. These leaders still have the traditional responsibilities of ensuring a safe environment, managing a budget, and maintaining discipline. Higher expectations for student success have brought with them an increase in school program expectations (DiPaola & Tschannen-Moran, 2003).

The job of the principal has changed throughout the years (DiPaola & Tschannen-Moran, 2003; White-Smith & White, 2009). The shift from manager to instructional leader, along with an increase in responsibilities has made the job more ...


School Counselors' Activities In Predominantly African American Urban Schools, Lacretia T. Dye Aug 2012

School Counselors' Activities In Predominantly African American Urban Schools, Lacretia T. Dye

Dissertations

Urban school reform has begun to penetrate the school counseling profession in both theory and practice. The American School Counseling Association’s National Model (ASCA, 2005), as well as the Transforming School Counseling Initiatives component of the Education Trust (2007) are initiatives within the school profession promoted, in part, as responses to urban school reform. In particular, the ASCA National model is a “call to action” for school counselors to promote student success by closing the existing achievement gap whenever found between students of color, poor students, or underachieving students and their more advantaged peers (ASCA, 2005). However, little information ...


Characterizing And Supporting Change In Algebra Students' Representational Fluency In A Cas/Paper-And-Pencil Environment, Nicole L. Fonger Aug 2012

Characterizing And Supporting Change In Algebra Students' Representational Fluency In A Cas/Paper-And-Pencil Environment, Nicole L. Fonger

Dissertations

Representational fluency (RF) includes an ability to interpret, create, move within and among, and connect tool-based representations of mathematical objects. Taken as an indicator of conceptual understanding, there is a need to better support school algebra students’ RF in learning environments that utilize both computer algebra systems (CAS) and paper-and-pencil. The purpose of this research was to: (a) characterize change in ninth-grade algebra students’ RF in solving problems involving linear equations, and (b) determine conditions of a CAS and paper-and-pencil learning environment in which those students changed their RF.

Change in RF was measured by comparing results from initial to ...


Traveling With A Purpose: Stories Of Contradiction And Transformation In International Service-Learning, Rebecca A. Mcnamara Aug 2012

Traveling With A Purpose: Stories Of Contradiction And Transformation In International Service-Learning, Rebecca A. Mcnamara

Dissertations

Different conceptualizations of service‐learning are found in higher education, ranging from charity to social justice focused. Little is known about the lasting impact of social justice focused service-learning on undergraduate participants, especially in a global education setting. This study examined the experience and meaning making of participants of critical international service-learning (ISL) over time. Nineteen alumni of five ISL courses at three different higher education institutions were interviewed in this phenomenological study. Participants described contrasting experiences of being both stretched and destabilized, friend and foreigner, and finding the service‐learning both enjoyable and unsettling. The long term impact of ...


Social Justice, White Racial Identity, And Multicultural Competency Among White Master Level Trainees In Counselor Education And Counseling Psychology, Sara Rebecca Streufert Aug 2012

Social Justice, White Racial Identity, And Multicultural Competency Among White Master Level Trainees In Counselor Education And Counseling Psychology, Sara Rebecca Streufert

Dissertations

In recent years, scholars have become more vocal regarding counselors and counseling psychologists’ responsibilities to advance efforts for social change (Goodman et al., 2004; Speight & Vera, 2004; Vera & Speight, 2004). As a result, empirical investigations have started to evaluate variables that may contribute to trainees and mental health professionals’ desire to participate in social justice advocacy (Beer, 2008; Caldwell, 2008; Landreman et al., 2007; Nilsson & Schmidt, 2005). However, most of these studies do not focus on trainees and mental health professionals who identify as White. The present study used quantitative analyses to explore nine hypotheses regarding the relationship between social justice, White racial identity, and multicultural competency among White master level trainees.

Trainees who participated in this study were recruited from master level programs in counseling psychology or counselor education at a large Midwestern University. A total of 208 surveys were used in the analyses of this research design. The measures used include the Social Justice Advocacy Scale (SJAS; Dean, 2008), the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Revised (ORAS-R; Vandiver & Leach, 2005), the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS; Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). Statistically significant results were found on six of the nine research questions. Major findings suggest that advanced multicultural training, knowledge about diversity and multicultural issues, and White racial attitude orientation have statistically significant effects on White master level trainees’ interest in social justice advocacy. The results of this study, limitations, and ...


Student Success: An Investigation Of The Role The Pre-Admission Variables Of Academic Preparation, Personal Attributes, And Demographic Characteristics Contribute In Predicting Graduation, Lianne Briggs Aug 2012

Student Success: An Investigation Of The Role The Pre-Admission Variables Of Academic Preparation, Personal Attributes, And Demographic Characteristics Contribute In Predicting Graduation, Lianne Briggs

Dissertations

Despite retention being a significant focus of higher education research, graduation rates remain of concern. Increased numbers of students are advancing to college bringing with them a wider range of abilities, attributes, and characteristics. There is much we know about what predicts success for these students but our knowledge is far from complete. My study therefore explores to what extent pre-admission variables of academic preparation, personal attributes, and demographic characteristics are predictive of graduation with the goal of identifying students who are more or less likely to do well than their high school academic preparation would suggest.

The study examines ...


Describing The Apprenticeship Of Chemists Through The Language Of Faculty Scientists, Brandy Ann Skjold Aug 2012

Describing The Apprenticeship Of Chemists Through The Language Of Faculty Scientists, Brandy Ann Skjold

Dissertations

Attempts to bring authentic science into the K-16 classroom have led to the use of sociocultural theories of learning, particularly apprenticeship, to frame science education research. Science educators have brought apprenticeship to science classrooms and have brought students to research laboratories in order to gauge its benefits. The assumption is that these learning opportunities are representative of the actual apprenticeship of scientists. However, there have been no attempts in the literature to describe the apprenticeship of scientists using apprenticeship theory. Understanding what science apprenticeship looks like is a critical component of translating this experience into the classroom. This study sought ...


Through The Eyes Of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating The Waters Of Legal Issues And Risk Management, Carol L.J. Hustoles Jun 2012

Through The Eyes Of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating The Waters Of Legal Issues And Risk Management, Carol L.J. Hustoles

Dissertations

Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation, stretching limited institutional resources. Yet research studies are scarce on this topic.

This study used an online survey to obtain input from higher education attorneys across the U.S. regarding their perceptions of frequency and time spent on legal assistance for department chairpersons, chairs’ level of difficulty handling legal and risk management issues, matters having highest ...


Patterns Of Interaction And Mathematical Thinking Of High School Students In Classroom Environments That Include Use Of Java-Based, Curriculum-Embedded Software, Karen L. Fonkert Apr 2012

Patterns Of Interaction And Mathematical Thinking Of High School Students In Classroom Environments That Include Use Of Java-Based, Curriculum-Embedded Software, Karen L. Fonkert

Dissertations

This study analyzes the nature of student interaction and discourse in an environment that includes the use of Java-based, curriculum-embedded mathematical software. The software CPMP-Tools was designed as part of the development of the second edition of the Core-Plus Mathematics curriculum. The use of the software on laptop computers in small groups of students, and in whole-class interactive lessons with a single computer at the front of the classroom was explored. Data were collected through observations, interviews, and selected items from the students’ regular assessments. During the observations, classroom discussion was audio-taped and videotaped, and field notes were taken. The ...


The Family Educational Rights And Privacy Act And Permissive Disclosure: What Information Are Post-Secondary Institutions Disclosing And Why?, Christine Glah Greer Apr 2012

The Family Educational Rights And Privacy Act And Permissive Disclosure: What Information Are Post-Secondary Institutions Disclosing And Why?, Christine Glah Greer

Dissertations

This study focuses on the response of universities to the permissive disclosure clauses of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). FERPA has been amended nine times; some of these amendments permit universities to disclose personally identifiable information without the permission of students.

The purpose of this study is to determine how prevalent disclosure is under the permissive disclosure clauses of FERPA and if universities use the concept of risk management to make decisions regarding disclosure. This will inform administrators of trends in disclosure and provide data universities can use when formulating or revising policy.

This is a relational ...


The Perception Of Adult Learners Concerning Their Satisfaction Of Their Educational Experiences In A Midwestern Community College, Constance L. Mccallum Apr 2012

The Perception Of Adult Learners Concerning Their Satisfaction Of Their Educational Experiences In A Midwestern Community College, Constance L. Mccallum

Dissertations

In the United States, over 90 million adult students, aged 25 years or older, are engaging in post-secondary studies (Stokes, 2006). Adult learners are the fastest growing segment in higher education and this trend is expected to continue into the future (Benshoff & Lewis, 1992). This expanding influx of adult learners into colleges and universities has required post-secondary educational institutions to provide for the special needs, desires and expectations of their adult learner populations (Nesbit, 2001). Therefore, this study examined the relationship between adult learners’ educational experiences and their satisfaction levels with their educational experiences by recognizing the differences within the adult learner population.

The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether selected immutable and conditional variables influenced the perception of adult learners concerning the educational experience they received in a Midwestern Community College. The 58 subjects identified for this study were selected from summer semester of 2010. Fifty-eight participants were administered a 17 question survey instrument that was adapted from the Keenesaw State University Adult Learner Programs Needs Assessment Survey (2005). This instrument measured their perception of the education they received across twelve different aspects of teaching.

Nine research questions were generated and tested based on the purposes of this study. Findings in this study indicated that when viewing the adult learner through the characteristics and experiences of selected immutable and conditional variables, significant differences within the adult learner population appeared. It appeared that such immutable variables; age, ethnic origin, and gender, and conditional variables; marital status, number of children in the home, the type of child care used, current GPA and current employment status influenced the perception of adult learners across twelve aspects of teaching. Further, it appeared that the conditional variable, income range, had little or no influence on adult learners’ perception of ...


Teachers' Sense Of Professional Practices As A Result Of Mentoring, Leadriane L. Roby Apr 2012

Teachers' Sense Of Professional Practices As A Result Of Mentoring, Leadriane L. Roby

Dissertations

Formal mentoring programs focus on the probationary period of new teachers. Providing teachers with mentoring support during the initial years of teaching requires significant commitment and investment from school districts, mentors, and new teachers. Numerous studies argue the merits of mentoring programs, yet the research has been less clear about what happens once mentoring support has ended. The purpose of this study was to explore how mentored teachers, those beyond the formal mentoring experience, created sense and meaning of their teaching roles and developed professional practices after participation in a mentoring program.

There is an assumption that there is a ...


Interpreting And Implementing English Language Arts State Standards/Expectations In Secondary Classrooms, Amanda Stearns-Pfeiffer Apr 2012

Interpreting And Implementing English Language Arts State Standards/Expectations In Secondary Classrooms, Amanda Stearns-Pfeiffer

Dissertations

In my dissertation, I investigate the way in which English Language Arts (ELA) state standards are being interpreted and implemented, and how this implementation process affects the curricular decisions teachers make. This project focuses generally on the standards movement in American education, and more specifically on the ways teachers navigate the standards in their own classrooms.

The goal of this study is to problematize and better understand the end-result of current standards as they are conceived of by the final arbiters and interpreters of those standards – classroom English language arts teachers. Much work has been done in creating standards, and ...


Teaching And Understanding The Concept Of Critical Thinking Skills Within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygeine Programs, Kimberly S. Beistle Apr 2012

Teaching And Understanding The Concept Of Critical Thinking Skills Within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygeine Programs, Kimberly S. Beistle

Dissertations

This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. the primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental rational and support for integrating critical thinking into the curriculum, describe teaching strategies used to teach critical thinking skills, and identify challenges by incorporating critical thinking skills into the curriculum. Using the Critical Thinking Model developed by Paul and Elder (2005), along with their research-based teaching strategies promoting critical thinking, a qualitative study approach ...


Accelerated Degree Completion Programs: The Effects Of Core Professors In Nontraditional Higher Education, Dale Frederick Gadd Apr 2012

Accelerated Degree Completion Programs: The Effects Of Core Professors In Nontraditional Higher Education, Dale Frederick Gadd

Dissertations

Nontraditional Accelerated Degree Completion Programs (ADCPs) became popular in the 1980s at many private, higher education institutions, and involved cohort groups facilitated by core or major professors. There has been little research addressing the effectiveness of a core-professor or multiple-professor approach within ADCPs, or research on how students view their learning experiences under this unique concept. This study therefore examines: (1) the effects of using a core-professor concept within nontraditional ADCPs, and (2) students' experiences under the core-professor and multiple-professor concepts.

Two sources of data were used, as obtained from students who had been involved in an ADCP program at ...


Establishment And Maintenance Of Academic Optimism In Michigan Elementary Schools: Academic Emphasis, Faculty Trust Of Students And Parents, Collective Efficacy, Jill Van Hof Apr 2012

Establishment And Maintenance Of Academic Optimism In Michigan Elementary Schools: Academic Emphasis, Faculty Trust Of Students And Parents, Collective Efficacy, Jill Van Hof

Dissertations

In response to heightened standards and calls for accountability, schools have dramatically intensified their work to meet the growing challenges. Schools require strategies for improvement that will transcend demographic factors such as SES. Research has shown the construct of academic optimism as contributing to student achievement despite a school’s socio-economic status (Goddard, LoGerfo, & Hoy, 2004; Goddard, Sweetland, & Hoy, 2000; Hoy, 2002; Hoy & Miskel, 2005; Hoy & Sabo, 1998; Hoy & Tarter, 1997; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991; Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk, 2006; McGuigan & Hoy, 2006; Smith & Hoy, 2001; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 2000).

There exists, at the elementary level, a lack of research that describes conditions contributing to academic optimism. This research helps to fill that void by identifying, describing, and categorizing the norms, behaviors, strategies, and other pertinent characteristics that exist in a low-SES school that has established and is maintaining an academically optimistic environment.

Via two illustrative and critical-instance case studies in Michigan low-SES, and high-achieving elementary schools, this research describes the work and characteristics of an academically optimistic environment. Study results identify, describe, and categorize elementary school level norms, behaviors, strategies, and building characteristics that may have contributed to the development of one or more of the properties of academic optimism: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust.

Analysis of field-notes from observations, interviews, focus groups; and document reviews revealed two sets of deductive and inductive themes: five primary themes and three secondary themes. Primary themes include: expectations/goals, alignment, collaboration, communication, and a needs awareness/care ...


Predictors Of Academic Success For Optometry Students, Robert S. Buckingham Apr 2012

Predictors Of Academic Success For Optometry Students, Robert S. Buckingham

Dissertations

Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA), preadmission cumulative GPA, and standardized entrance tests. However, with the advent of the Optometry Centralized Applications Service (OptomCAS), no research could be found on the predictors of success as it relates to those variables. This study, therefore, evaluates the ability of these variables to predict the GPA and graduation of students in the ...


A Study Of Support Services And Their Relationship With School Effectiveness In American Public Schools: Findings From The School And Staffing Survey (Sass) 2007-2008, Diane J. Gibbs Apr 2012

A Study Of Support Services And Their Relationship With School Effectiveness In American Public Schools: Findings From The School And Staffing Survey (Sass) 2007-2008, Diane J. Gibbs

Dissertations

This study inquires into support services in schools and their relationship to school effectiveness by using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007–2008 School and Staffing Survey (SASS). Students’ ability to learn is impacted by their physical and mental health. It is more difficult to measure the influence of nonacademic factors on academic achievements than traditional academic factors. This study focuses on (a) the extent support services, beyond regular classroom instruction, are provided, (b) how provision is affected by school background, (c) whether and, if so, how providing support services relates to school effectiveness, and (d) whether ...