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Full-Text Articles in Education

Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell Dec 2018

Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell

Dissertations

There has been a decline in public good will toward institutions of higher education for nearly four decades. Resultantly, the public, media, and politicians call for greater transparency. It would be beneficial for institutions of higher education to utilize strategic means to communicate their stories, successes and brand directly to various publics. A critical, albeit often an overlooked public, are the employees of the university. They can serve as ambassadors for the university interacting with outside publics. In this capacity, not only do employees need to know information about their organization to function well at their positions, they also need ...


Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle Dec 2018

Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle

Dissertations

Student persistence and retention continues to be a major issue facing most institutions of higher education. With ever more diverse student populations, researchers studied a multitude of groups and sub-groups of students based on ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, or age. These studies looked at how these various student groups can be supported and retained. Students who returned to school after having been academically dismissed are one group which has been consistently underreported. Reentry practices remained largely unchanged and still require the student to initiate the process. This phenomenological study examined the experiences of students accepted into the Reclaim the W ...


The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen Jun 2018

The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen

Dissertations

This qualitative study explores the experiences of new student affairs professionals who have begun their careers at community colleges. Research in the field of higher education has examined the preparation and socialization of new professionals within the field of higher education student affairs. However, this body of research has primarily focused on the experiences of those who go on to work in four-year colleges and universities. Little has been examined regarding those who graduate from these programs and whose first professional role is in a community college setting.

Through this phenomenological inquiry, the participants share rich details about their socialization ...


Examining The Impact Of A Criminal Background In Social Work Education, Amy S. Vliek Apr 2018

Examining The Impact Of A Criminal Background In Social Work Education, Amy S. Vliek

Dissertations

Many returning citizens want to access higher educational institutions (HEIs) to access desired professions and increase employability. However, many HEIs and profession education programs have restrictions in place for returning citizens. An MSW is the most sought-after degree for returning citizens. However, social work education has restrictions in place for returning citizens. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the lived experiences of MSW returning citizen students considering these restrictions. The dissertation attempts to answer the following research questions: How did applicants who disclosed a criminal background at the time of application experience the MSW application process? Did the ...


The Lived Experiences Of Veteran And Military Students In The Context Of A “Military Friendly” Institution: A Phenomenological Case Study, Gail Y. Rouscher Apr 2018

The Lived Experiences Of Veteran And Military Students In The Context Of A “Military Friendly” Institution: A Phenomenological Case Study, Gail Y. Rouscher

Dissertations

There have been many studies of military and veteran students attending a higher education institution after a period of time on active duty. The studies on this population can be divided into four categories: (a) stopping out (Belch, 2004; Cavote & Kopera-Frye, 2007; DiRamio & Spires, 2009; Schnoebelen, 2013), (b) financial (Winston, 2010), (c) enrollment, (Hassan, Jackson, Lindsay, McCabe, & Sanders, 2010) and (d) programming (APSCU, 2013; Burnett & Segoria, 2009; DiRamio, Ackerman, & Mitchell, 2008; Lokken, Pfeffer, McAuley & Strong, 2009; Mangan, 2009). There is limited research on completion rates for veteran and military students who have the opportunity to use specific veteran and military services and attend a “‘Top 100’ Military Friendly” institution. What has yet to be explored or revealed ...


A Model For Propagating Educational Innovations In Higher Stem Education: A Grounded Theory Study Of Successfully Propagated Innovations, Raina Khatri Apr 2018

A Model For Propagating Educational Innovations In Higher Stem Education: A Grounded Theory Study Of Successfully Propagated Innovations, Raina Khatri

Dissertations

A critical problem in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is the slow uptake of innovative teaching strategies and materials. Developments from the STEM education research community can be shown to improve learning and retention outcomes, but the majority of new teaching strategies go unused by instructors. This problem is increasingly acknowledged by funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation, which now calls for “transferability and propagation” to be addressed throughout a project’s lifetime in the request for proposals. However, few publications synthesize what is known about propagating innovations into usable, actionable recommendations for developers in ...


Experiences Of Underrepresented Minority Students In Health Professions Programs, And Their Journeys To The Programs, Alisha L. Davis Apr 2018

Experiences Of Underrepresented Minority Students In Health Professions Programs, And Their Journeys To The Programs, Alisha L. Davis

Dissertations

Classified as a public health concern, the lack of underrepresented minorities (URMs) in the U.S. health care workforce is still prominent today, even with the increase of URM groups having reached historic numbers of representation within the United States. It is projected that by 2050, URM groups will replace Whites as the majority, yet Whites currently make up the majority of the health care workforce. URM health professionals are more likely to provide accessible and culturally competent health services, and practice in racially and ethnically diverse communities. This helps to eliminate health care disparities, and reduces inequities found in ...


A Qualitative Investigation Of The Interpersonal Changes White Psychology Trainees Experience During Their Race-Based Learning And Development, Molly K. Beagle Dec 2017

A Qualitative Investigation Of The Interpersonal Changes White Psychology Trainees Experience During Their Race-Based Learning And Development, Molly K. Beagle

Dissertations

The current study expands upon prior research that has explored how white psychology and counseling graduate trainees are impacted by their learning about racism. Prior to this study being conducted, research primarily addressed the psychological impact of learning about racism for white trainees. There was minimal acknowledgment and exploration of how learning about racism impacted the interpersonal aspects of trainees’ lives, such as their relationships and larger social networks. The current study addresses this gap within previous research, with it being the first to have an intentional, exclusive focus on the interpersonal impact of learning about racism. The primary purpose ...


A Phenomenology Of Calling Among Undergraduates At A Public University: Reliance On Faith During An Intentional Career Decision-Making Process, Justin Arnold Dec 2017

A Phenomenology Of Calling Among Undergraduates At A Public University: Reliance On Faith During An Intentional Career Decision-Making Process, Justin Arnold

Dissertations

Recent studies in vocational psychology and student development have discussed the fact that many college students value spirituality, and that a spiritual calling is positively associated with desirable work traits (Astin, Astin, & Lindholm, 2011; Chickering, 2006; Dik & Duffy, 2012; Duffy & Dik, 2013; Hunter, Dik, & Banning, 2010). What has yet to be deeply explored is how undergraduates at a public university who believe they are called explore careers and make vocational decisions.

The purpose of this phenomenology was to describe and interpret the lived experiences of emerging adults at a public university who believe they are called by a Higher Power, who have explored careers, and who have tried to find a fit between a calling and a career. My research questions were designed to capture the lived experiences of spiritual emerging adults who were exploring careers as undergraduates and who were preparing to enter the workforce as adults.

Participants were recruited using purposeful sampling at a small Midwestern public university. Data were primarily gathered using open-ended questions during face-to-face interviews. I interviewed 12 participants who were between the ages of 20–23, who were currently attending the university or who had graduated within the past six months, who believed they were called by a Higher Power, who had explored careers, and who had tried to find a fit between what they believed about calling and what they had learned from exploring careers.

The major findings of my study showed that emerging adults who believe they are called experience a calling as originating from a source external to the self (i.e., a Higher Power), that they respond to this external source with faith, and that faith initiates and sustains an intentional career decision-making process. The participants relied on faith to identify and work toward subjective goals through a career decision-making process that explored issues related to altruism, self-interest, psychology, and community. These findings suggest that career services providers who guide spiritual emerging adults should use a narrative lens, be familiar with calling themes and decision-making, and recognize an individual’s need for authenticity.

My study affirms and adds to the student and career development literature on emerging adulthood (Arnett, 2014), the exploratory career phase (Super, 1957), meaning and career (Super, 1976), career construction (Savickas, 2005), student development and authenticity (Chickering, 2006), calling (Dik & Duffy, 2012), protean career orientation (Hall, 2004), student development and spirituality (Astin et al., 2011; Small, 2015), and vocational decision-making (Parsons, 1909). Areas for further research include longitudinal studies, studies with diverse groups, an examination of bias toward spirituality in public higher education, job readiness of and market demand for spiritual graduates, and calling among emerging adults who do not have access to universities.


The Effectiveness Of Using Leadership Practice Lnventory (Lpl 360) Feedback On Leaders' Lnsight Into Their Leadership Behaviors In Higher Education, Abdulrahman S. Alajlan Dec 2017

The Effectiveness Of Using Leadership Practice Lnventory (Lpl 360) Feedback On Leaders' Lnsight Into Their Leadership Behaviors In Higher Education, Abdulrahman S. Alajlan

Dissertations

One of the most popular 360-feedback processes for leadership development is the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI 360). According to the Leadership Challenge website the LPI tool has been translated into six languages. In addition, it has been implemented in a variety of organizations around the world and there are about 500 studies that have been built around it. However, the popularity of the LPI 360-feedback is not enough reason for it to be adopted for higher education without assurance that it aligns with a higher education organization’s specific vision and goals. After reviewing approximately 153 LPI studies across 766 ...


Ldentifying And Characterizing Cognitive Factors Significant To Practicing And Learning Meteorology, Peggy M. Mcneal Dec 2017

Ldentifying And Characterizing Cognitive Factors Significant To Practicing And Learning Meteorology, Peggy M. Mcneal

Dissertations

To see the world as a meteorologist, one must understand and interpret atmospheric processes through representations depicted on two-dimensional weather charts and maps that encode large amounts of spatial and numerical data. This is a cognitively demanding and spatially challenging task, especially for students with burgeoning levels of meteorology knowledge, who lack the expertise of practiced meteorologists that read such charts and maps with ease. With little prior work informing meteorology and meteorology education through a cognitive science lens, this study surveys the literature and follows models of discipline-based education and cognitive science research to identify the discrete intelligence factors ...


The Impact Of Denominational Affiliation On Organizational Sense Of Belonging And Commitment Of Adjunct Faculty At Bible Colleges And Universities, Kimberly M. Pilieci Dec 2016

The Impact Of Denominational Affiliation On Organizational Sense Of Belonging And Commitment Of Adjunct Faculty At Bible Colleges And Universities, Kimberly M. Pilieci

Dissertations

The majority of faculty in higher education, including secular and biblical institutions, are adjunct faculty. The literature suggests that adjunct faculty are less effective and satisfied, and have weaker organizational sense of belonging (OSB) and affective organizational commitment (AOC). Denominational affiliation (DA) and religious commitment (RC) might mitigate the adjunct faculty’s feelings regarding OSB and AOC, but no research has pursued this set of questions. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of denominational affiliation and religious commitment on organizational sense of belonging and affective organizational commitment among the sample population, adjunct faculty at colleges ...


The Empowerment Of Academic Women Leaders At Saudi Universities And Its Relationship To Their Administrative Creativity, Azala M. Al Ghamdi Dec 2016

The Empowerment Of Academic Women Leaders At Saudi Universities And Its Relationship To Their Administrative Creativity, Azala M. Al Ghamdi

Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the influence of leaders’ sense of psychological empowerment for women leaders on those leaders’ administrative creativity in both established and emerging universities in Saudi Arabia. The five guiding research questions were used at both established and emerging Saudi universities: (1) what are both male and female leaders’ perceptions of women leaders’ psychological empowerment? (2) What are their perceptions of the administrative creativity among women leaders? (3) How do perceptions of both psychological empowerment and administrative creativity differ between male and female leaders and between established and emerging universities? (4) What other ...


From Novice To Independent Researcher: A Content Analysis Of Phd Student Blogs, Sarah J. Cox Dec 2016

From Novice To Independent Researcher: A Content Analysis Of Phd Student Blogs, Sarah J. Cox

Dissertations

The work of completing a PhD is complex, requiring a student to make sense of many uncertain processes in multiple contexts as they move toward independent scholarship. A setting that provides support in learning the tasks of PhD-related work is the informal learning environment of the Internet. Social media sites, such as blogs and wikis, supply a vast number of resources related to PhD work. Of particular interest to this study, are blog sites maintained by students who are sharing practices related to PhD work. It is possible to use a qualitative method to explore what blogs show us about ...


The Lived Experiences Of Conditionally Admitted College Students, Ashley J. Wildman Aug 2016

The Lived Experiences Of Conditionally Admitted College Students, Ashley J. Wildman

Dissertations

College students vary in their preparedness for higher education. While low high school grades and standardized test scores are associated with poor college performance, many colleges and universities admit at least a few academically underprepared students in order to maintain a certain student body size, meet goals for ethnic or socioeconomic diversity, or recruit students with certain artistic or athletic skills (Hossler & Kalsbeek, 2009; Mapes, 2011; Parisi 2012; Zwick, 2007). In order to help academically underprepared students such as these, some institutions admit students who do not meet regular admissions standards “conditionally” and offer them specialized programs to provide additional support (Adebayo ...


Females In Automotive Careers: Career Decision-Making Influences And Experiences During University Preparation And Beyond, Russell A. Leonard Jr. Jun 2016

Females In Automotive Careers: Career Decision-Making Influences And Experiences During University Preparation And Beyond, Russell A. Leonard Jr.

Dissertations

Today, women fill nearly 50% of the jobs in the U.S. economy (U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2014). While women are making progress in many careers once considered male only, they are still underrepresented in the male-dominated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) careers, filling only 25% of available STEM jobs (Beede et al., 2011). The problem is not a lack of interest in STEM subjects, but a “leaky pipeline” that develops early in adolescence. By the eighth grade, half as many girls are interested in STEM careers as boys (National Science Foundation [NSF], 2007). Even after graduation from ...


Exploration Of Experiences And Perceptions Of Saudi Arabian Students Within A Team Project Setting At An U.S. University, Ronald A. Mckean Apr 2016

Exploration Of Experiences And Perceptions Of Saudi Arabian Students Within A Team Project Setting At An U.S. University, Ronald A. Mckean

Dissertations

Cultural differences between Saudi and American students produce immense challenges to a successful integrative acculturation. Positive experiences can not only enhance the education of international students, but also effect understandings and attitudes of local students, administrators, faculty, and staff. A greater implication of these experiences may be their influence on long term international relationships. Few qualitative studies have been conducted that examine the dynamics of the cultural integration of Saudi students with American students during the acculturation process.

The purpose of this qualitative research, therefore, is to describe and interpret the experiences and perceptions of Saudi Arabian students as they ...


A Partnership Between A Midwest Community College And The Highly Regulated Power Production Industry: A Case Study Regarding The Development Of An Energy Production Technology Program, Kenneth W. Flowers Dec 2015

A Partnership Between A Midwest Community College And The Highly Regulated Power Production Industry: A Case Study Regarding The Development Of An Energy Production Technology Program, Kenneth W. Flowers

Dissertations

With nearly every industry predicting severe employee shortages, the available worker pipeline, including the employed, may need to upgrade their skills. In addition, the number of jobs available will soon exceed the number of available workers, even if all the workers were skilled. This study investigated the perceptions held by key individuals within the energy industry regarding an Energy Production Technology degree program developed at one Midwest community college to help address worker pipeline issues in the energy industry.

This study discovered a void within present literature discussing the interaction between community colleges and the nuclear energy industry concerning the ...


Retention Of Community College Students In Online Courses, Sarah Krajewski Dec 2015

Retention Of Community College Students In Online Courses, Sarah Krajewski

Dissertations

The issue of attrition in online courses at higher learning institutions remains a high priority in the United States. A recent rapid growth of online courses at community colleges has been instigated by student demand, as they meet the time constraints many nontraditional community college students have as a result of the need to work and care for dependents. Failure in an online course can cause students to become frustrated with the college experience, financially burdened, or to even give up and leave college. Attrition could be avoided by proper guidance of who is best suited for online courses. This ...


Enterprise Risk Management (Erm) At U.S. Colleges And Universities: Administration Processes Regarding The Adoption, Implementation, And Integration Of Erm, Anne E. Lundquist Dec 2015

Enterprise Risk Management (Erm) At U.S. Colleges And Universities: Administration Processes Regarding The Adoption, Implementation, And Integration Of Erm, Anne E. Lundquist

Dissertations

The variety, type and volume of risks affecting higher education are numerous and the consequences for unmanaged risks and missed opportunities are more significant than ever before. In response, many institutions of higher education are adopting an Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) approach. External factors, as well as institutional culture, play a role in the decision to adopt ERM, as well as the path of implementation. Because higher education has unique characteristics that differentiate it from other organizations, particularly a shared governance structure, the adoption and implementation decisions, and resulting ERM frameworks, have aspects that make them unique to the higher ...


Closing The Loop: A Study Of How The National Survey Of Student Engagement (Nsse) Is Used For Decision-Making And Planning In Student Affairs, Jennifer Lee Mccaul Dec 2015

Closing The Loop: A Study Of How The National Survey Of Student Engagement (Nsse) Is Used For Decision-Making And Planning In Student Affairs, Jennifer Lee Mccaul

Dissertations

“Closing the loop” is a commonly used phrase in discussing cyclical processes, such as the area of outcomes assessment in higher education. Increased interest in accountability and a shift in accreditation focus have necessitated that higher education institutions are closing the assessment loop and creating a culture of evidence to demonstrate that programs and services are having the intended impact, and using resources effectively. That culture includes both academic and co-curricular elements of the student experience. This research examined if, and to what extent, student affairs administrators use the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)—one of the most prominent ...


Redefining Significance: Experiences Of Humanities Faculty Engaged In Undergraduate Research, Susan Mendoza Dec 2015

Redefining Significance: Experiences Of Humanities Faculty Engaged In Undergraduate Research, Susan Mendoza

Dissertations

Programs that actively engage students in research and scholarship are the touchstone for integrating undergraduate education with authentic scholarly inquiry. Recent empirical studies demonstrate that undergraduate research experiences (URE) are related to increased student learning and development, increased levels of retention, increased enrollment in graduate school, and increased understanding of research as a vocation and profession. However, these seminal studies focus on URE in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) disciplines. Although there are some studies that explore undergraduate research in the social sciences and humanities, the accepted models and best practices of undergraduate research are entrenched in the ...


An Exploration Of Strategic Planning Perspectives And Processes Within Community Colleges Identified As Being Distinctive In Their Strategic Planning Practices, Lisa J. Augustyniak Dec 2015

An Exploration Of Strategic Planning Perspectives And Processes Within Community Colleges Identified As Being Distinctive In Their Strategic Planning Practices, Lisa J. Augustyniak

Dissertations

Community college leaders face unprecedented change, and some have begun reexamining their institutional strategic planning processes. Yet, studies in higher education strategic planning spend little time examining how community colleges formulate their strategic plans. This mixed-method qualitative study used an expert sampling method to identify three AQIP-accredited community colleges in one Midwestern state that were viewed as leaders in strategic planning. Using their AQIP Systems Portfolios and interviews with their senior leadership, this study examined these colleges’ strategic planning perspectives (i.e., the “point of view” that an organization has chosen to use as a basis for formulating their strategic ...


Predictors Of College Attendance And Persistence Among Blind And Visually Impaired Students, Lydia Schuck Aug 2015

Predictors Of College Attendance And Persistence Among Blind And Visually Impaired Students, Lydia Schuck

Dissertations

Completion of a college degree is a positive outcome for any young adult. The purpose of this three-paper dissertation was to explore the latent constructs and other variables that may be associated with postsecondary education outcomes of youth who are blind or visually impaired. The samples were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of youth with disabilities, the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. The sample of the first study comprised 420 youth (all Ns rounded to nearest 10 to meet data restrictions) who had taken the direct assessment recorded in the dataset. Exploratory factor analysis of 17 variables reported by ...


Impact Of Athletic Identity And Emotional Competence On Athletes’ Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help, Garett V. Weatherhead Aug 2015

Impact Of Athletic Identity And Emotional Competence On Athletes’ Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help, Garett V. Weatherhead

Dissertations

Athletes have been found to have more negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help than non-athletes (Watson, 2005) despite experiencing comparable amounts of mental illness (Markser, 2011). The purpose of the present study was to examine factors that are associated with athletes’ help-seeking attitudes, including athletic identity and emotional competence. A sample of 144 college student-athletes from a small, private Midwestern college in the United States participated in the study. The athletes competed at the NCAA Division III level. Participants were asked to complete the following measures: Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993), Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional ...


Effective Fund Raising Practices In Public Community Colleges, Mark A. Bergstrom Jun 2015

Effective Fund Raising Practices In Public Community Colleges, Mark A. Bergstrom

Dissertations

This quantitative survey research gathered perceptions of Chief Development Officers (CDO’s) at public community colleges across the U.S., with 129 respondents.

Of the items rated most highly, CDO’s perceived that their presidents effectively communicates their institution’s mission to internal and external constituents; their college has made unique contributions to their community; their college fund raising program has effectively defined a niche in their service area; their investment/stewardship program has advisors successfully guiding investment; they have successful oversight over investments; and they have a successful process for selecting their investment advisors.

Multiple regression analysis examined the ...


Lnfluences Lmpacting The Development Of Entry-Level Master's Athletic Training Programs, Jennifer E. Deranek Jun 2015

Lnfluences Lmpacting The Development Of Entry-Level Master's Athletic Training Programs, Jennifer E. Deranek

Dissertations

Athletic training is an allied health profession in which individuals receive education in prevention, emergency care, clinical diagnoses, therapeutic intervention and rehabilitation for injuries and medical conditions. Currently, the route for an individual to become a certified athletic trainer is to graduate from an institution accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE). Most commonly, entry-level education for athletic trainers is gained at the 331 institutions that host a bachelor’s level professional program. However, there is a recent desire to change the educational requirements and to require a professional master’s degree. If the degree change ...


Alignment Of Mission Statements With Hiring And Evaluation Processes Of Faculty At Higher Education Institutions Approved By The Academic Quality Improvement Program (Aqip), Nancy M. Foster Jun 2015

Alignment Of Mission Statements With Hiring And Evaluation Processes Of Faculty At Higher Education Institutions Approved By The Academic Quality Improvement Program (Aqip), Nancy M. Foster

Dissertations

In 1999 when the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association created the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP) path for accreditation, they instituted a new format for the documentation of evidence of meeting accreditation criterion called a Systems Portfolio. This study involved the analysis of the Systems Portfolios from 36 institutions to check for alignment of their mission statements, and stated faculty hiring and evaluation processes. Each Systems Portfolio was analyzed for themes found in previous research on mission statements and documentation of the processes for hiring and evaluation of faculty. Additionally, institutions from three Carnegie Classifications were compared ...


Experiences Of African American Female First Generation College Students, Ashley Green May 2015

Experiences Of African American Female First Generation College Students, Ashley Green

Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenology study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of African American, female, first generation college students attending a large, predominantly White research university and to understand what motivates them. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African American, female, first generation college students (in good academic standing) describe their college experience? The researcher asked the participants to discuss their challenges, how they responded to challenges, sources of motivation, and factors that contributed to their success in college.

Through individual, face to face, interviews with 10 African American, female, FGC ...


Formation Of Successful Partnerships Between Rural Community College Workforce Development Offices And Businesses: Motivation, Social Capitaland Communication, Ryan Nausieda Dec 2014

Formation Of Successful Partnerships Between Rural Community College Workforce Development Offices And Businesses: Motivation, Social Capitaland Communication, Ryan Nausieda

Dissertations

The financial resources in rural areas are not plentiful, which has impacted the workforce development offices’ ability to provide training on their own. These workforce development offices rely on partnerships to provide training to the community. There are multiple motivations that align between workforce development office and community organizations. The social capital in a partnership is utilized in these rural areas to accomplish mutual goals between multiple organizations that one could not complete on alone. Social capital in a partnership includes trust, centrality, information, and density. Communication helps to support the motivation, social capital and hence the sustainability of a ...